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hath no less displayed its 'splendor under the gospel. It hath rendered itself sensible and palpable in Jesus Christ, by his means it hath never ceased to do good to men: we have been witnesses of the miracles which were effected by this wisdom, and of the glory with which Jesus Christ was invested, a glory much greater than what appeared in Moses and the Prophets, such as was proper to be the glory of the only begotten Son of God.'.

This is followed by an explication of the fourth and fifth verses of the seventeenth chapter of St. John: An explanation of the thirteenth verfe of the third chapter of St. John: An explanation of a passage in the firft Epistle of St. John: An explication of a passage in the eighth chapter of St. John: An illustration of the first chapter of the Epistle to the Hebrews: An explication of a passage in the Epistle to the Phillippians, who being in the form of God, &c. Of the honour due to Jesus Chrift: Of the knowledge which Jesus Christ attributes to himself when he says, All the churches shall know that I am be who search the reins and hearts, and I will give unta every one according to his works : Of the power which Jesus Christ ascribes to himself when he says to the paralytic, Thy fons be forgiven thee : Of the holy spirit

• The holy spirit, or the spirit of God (says this heterodox, but honest and ingenious Writer) in the primary and natural fense, fignifies only the power of God, or the virtue by which he operates. To be convinced of this, it would be sufficient to attend to the etymology of the word, which in the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin languages, means the breath of God, and which seems to denote rather a quality, than a person distinct from God himself. But various passages of scripture put this beyond a doubt. “ When thou hideft thy face, says the Psalmist, the creatures die ; but if thou sendest thy Spirit they are immediately created." “ The spirit of God made me, says Elihu, and the breath of the Almighty quickened me." says Job, made the heavens by his spirit, that is, by his power and agency, as she sequel shows."--This term hath preserved the same fignification in the New Testament. “ The holy spirit, says the angel to Mary, shall come upon thee from on high, and the power of the Most High fhall overshadow thee.” The holy spirit, and the power of the Most High, as it is here evident, is one and the same thing in the ityle of the angels. “I am going to send you, said Christ to his apostles, what my Father promised me, but do you stay in Jerusalem cill you be endowed with power from on high." This is what our Saviour calls the holy spirit, which was to descend on the apostles upon the day of Pentecost, “ You know, says St. Peter, how God animated Jesus of Nazereth with the Holy Ghoji and with power.

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“ My discourse and my preaching, says St. Paul, consisted not in those persuasive words which human wisdom employs, but in a demonstration of spirit and of power.".

• From all these passages, it is evident, that holy Spirit, power, and agency, are terms of the same import, in the New Testament. And this virtue resides essentially in God, as in its fource and only principle, from whence it hath been diffused, as it were, into several small rivulets in the prophets and apoftles.'

This differtation, of which we have given only an extract, is followed by an explanation of that passage, Go, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: A general idea of the Eucharist: Copy of a letter on the prophecies, written to William Burnet, Esq; Governor of New-York: An explication of the prophecy contained in the eleventh chapter of Daniel by the event. The whole is concluded by an historical discourse on the Apocalypse, drawn up at the requeft of William Burnet, Esq; Governor of NewYork, at the time when several literati in England applied themselves to the study of the Apocalypse.

This last article is a very learned and candid disquisition. The Author's general sentiments are seen in the

argument prefixed to this discourse, viz. The canon of the New Testament formed as it were casually and irregularly by the zeal of individuals. The bad effet of this liberty. A diversity of sentiments concerning several epifles. The-Apocalypse, a proof of the irregularity with which the canon of the New Testament was formed. Some of our Readers, we suppose, will be pleased with the following extract. After having enumerated and characterized all the Fathers and Councils for and against the Apocalypfe, and brought the question down to the eighth century, the Author concludes in this manner :

• Sect. 112. The following century, which is the eighth, does not enlighten us the more; here one only sees John of Damascus, who classes the Apocalypse in the number of sacred books. But though this divine had a great authority among the Greeks, and his example hath not a little contributed to determine their future judgment, it was not however still the fentiments of the Greek church; one may be convinced of it by the Stichometria of Nicephorus, who was at the head of this church about the beginning of the ninth century. This patriarch of Constantinople here distinguishes three forts of books in the Old and New Testament, some which the church receives as canonical, and the Apocalypse is not found here; others wbich are doubtful and contested ; and others, laftly, which are false and apocryphal. The Apocalypse was inserted in the second class; for Anaftafius the librarian, who lived a little while after, and


who translated this piece of Nicephorus, reckons among the contested books the Apocalypse of St. John, the Apocalypse of St. Peter, the Epistle of Barnabas, and the Gospel according to the Hebrews.

• Sect. 113. Afterwards came those times of ignorance, so steril in writers, those iron ages of literature, lo fit to digest all the absurdities which the preceding ages had but just tasted, and in which the grossest imposture walked boldly abroad by favour of a credulity that knew no bounds. One here loses sight of the Apocalypse through default of monuments, and it is impossible to trace it diftinctly : all that one can presume with reason is, that by insensible degrees it got as far as the door, and at last, taking advantage of a very dark night, it entered quietly, and without noise, into the canon of the Greek church, to hold a place there among the facred writings.

• Sect. 114. The triumph of the Apocalypse. Thus it was that the rays of divinity, which were hardly perceptible to the preceding centuries, struck with irresistible splendor the eyes of the whole Christian world, and in ages of the thickest darkness they faw clearer than ever they did before. Ancient doubt was conftrued into ignorance, and the new creed into most certain information. What the Fathers, assembled at Laodicea knew nothing of, and what they had not been able to find in the archives, nor in the tradition of the churches of Asia, which were the depositories of the writings of St. John, came to the knowledge of their pofterity, who were better instructed in these things. It was on these new lights that, at last, at the end of å thousand years, they held the Apocalypse to be abundantly authenticated, to be the work of this apostle, and consequently worthy to be received as a canonical book. Oce cannot mark the precise time, nor the circumstances of this reception : what is certain is, that it was about the tenth century very quietly, and, if I may so express it, quite in the Huguenot way, not by any decree of a Council, nor by any of those modes which, in order to be more oftentatious, are not always the more honourable to truth

. Sect. 115. From that time there does not appear the least contest on this subject, neither among the Greeks, nor among the Latins; for one ought to reckon as nothing a MS. of five hundred years old, which Dr. Burnet had seen, and which contained, with figures, the visions of the Apocalypse, joined to Æsop's Fables; whence it is concluded, that the author of this MS. believed one no more than the other : be it as it may, one might contrast it with the story of the Emperor Otho II. who, out of deyotion, wore an habit, on which he had ordered all the Apocalypse to be embroidered. This certainly is as good


as the picture of that unknown person who was professedly a Jibertine. If ever book was indebted for some lustre to its commentators, most certainly it is not the Apocalypse : I speak of the whole time that preceded the Reformation ; befides their being so inconfiderable in number, they are such pitiful commentators that one dares not attribute them to those whose names they bear. Such are those of St. Ambrose, St. Anselm, St. Thomas, and St. Bernard.

• Sect. 116. But from the time of the great Revolution that happened in the fixteenth century, a new interest of religion hath put the minds of 'men in motion, and greater application than ever hath been employed to investigate all the meaning of the Apocalypse. From this æra, yielded up as a prey to all sorts of commentators, great and small, it hath proved the fubject of disputes and controversies between the Catholics and Lutherans, between the Calvinists and the English.

• Sect. 117. As, in the opinion of every one, this book contains the destiny of the church, every feet in particular has not failed to make an application of it to themselves, and often to the exclusion of others. The English find here the revolutions of Great Britain ; the Lutherans, the troubles of Germany; and the French refugees, what happened to them in France. In fine, each church boasts of finding itself here, according to the rank that it thinks it holds in the plan of providence, and which, you may be sure, is always the firft place. There is only the Catholic church which hath circumscribed it within the limits of the three first centuries, during which it maintains that every thing was accomplished, as if it were afraid lest descending lower it should see Antichrist in the person of its Metropolitan.'

On a review of the last disquisition in these miscellanies, we cannot help taking notice of a very peculiar industry in several of our late critics on the scriptures. Their predecessors seem to have left them nothing to do, in the common way of explaining and illustrating; they have therefore entered the Lord's vineyard with the pruning knife in hand, and cut off many of the most luxuriant branches. Infidels sneer, and say, let the fools alone and they will save us the trouble of destroying their religion: we attempt it altogether ; they actually demolish it by piece-meal.' This should render our divines cautious in the dangerous work they have lately undertaken. It may be safe in the hands of an Abauzit; but not in those of every conceited and forward youth who dubs himself a divine by a purchased diploma from a Scotch univerfity.



Art. IX. Confiderations on the Measures carrying on with Refpet 16

the British Colonies in North America. 8vo. is. 6d. Baldwin. 1774 THE Author of this Pamphlet is one of the most candid

and best informed of any of the late writers on the interests of Great Britain and her Colonies. He is not elegant in his language, and he may not be deemed masterly in the dispossion of his arguments; but he says a great number of excellent things in a very plain, perspicuous, and honest phraseology.

He considers at large (for the Pamphlet consists of 160 pages) the rectitude, practicability, and advantage of the measures entered upon in regard to America, and points out some others which he thinks would be preferable. He then proceeds in the following manner :

• I would willingly try this experiment of transposition t upon a late transaction, wherein some peoples opinions seem to be affected by locality. Certain letters * have been published of an American Governor and Lieutenant Governor, and a third person, together with remarks, and the speech of a learned and ingenious Gentleman. They are offered as an appeal to the Public against the Colony of Massachusett's Bay. These cannot therefore, but be themselves likewise the objects of a public consideration. I have by the touch-stone of locality a mind to examine and question some of this learned Gentleman's reasoning. It is now but between eighty and ninety years, since we of this country banished our King. On what ground did we do it?--It will be answered, that we did not like his actions, for that they tended to deprive us of our best rights and properties. That we did it as Englishmen on the constitution of England—Who was the common judge between us and him?

+ To explain this term, as here applied, it is requisite to observe, that our Author, in order " to convince and satisfy, without the trouble of reason and argument,' recommends that every one when he confiders of this subject, and especially before he uses any hard words, os passes any harm laws, will place himself in America; will imagine himself born, bred, resident, and having all his concerns and fortune there. I don't mean in the light of a governor, or of one who seeks to recommend and advance himfelf here, at the expence of his countrymen in that part of the world; but as one who has no other views, or intereft, except in the common good of his colony or continent. Let then any luch man candidly and fairly ask himself, in his own breast, What he Tould, in that situation, think of being taxed by a man at Westminster? And let no man, on this occasion, throw a ftone, whose heart does not plainly and roundly answer him with its assent.'

• See letters of Governor Hutchinson, &c. Review for February, P. 157


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