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tected the disguise, and caused her to be pursued and tormented by a gad-fly (asilo). -165. The final syllable of pecori is retained here in the scanning.

157–178. All the calves must be branded immediately (continuo) with the initials of the owner's name—that is, with tho Dame-marks of the herd (notas et nomina gentis); the marks must also distinguish those that are to be set apart for special service; and such as are destined to be working cattle must begin their training at an early day; all must be properly fed.

158. When cattle are herded in unfenced pastures, as in ancient Italy and on our own Western plains, and thus are liable to go astray and to be mingled with strange herds, it becomes necessary that they should be branded with the initials of the owners' names, or with some other mark by which they can be recognized. Vergil probably means that all must be thus branded, because even those that are set apart for special uses must sometimes run with the herd; but that these latter must also have some special mark. Notas et nomina is probably to be taken by hendiadys in the sense of marks (or initial letters) of names, and gentis, in the sense of stock or herd; as in Ae. I, 431, it is used for “ swarm. Therefore we may translate the name-marks of the herd-that is, the initials of the names of owners of herds; for the herd usually goes by the family-name of its owner.

Gens has been commonly understood here in the sense of genus, blood, or particular breed, implying that the ancient Italians had distinctive varieties or breeds of cattle in their individual herds. But even if this were known to be the fact, it would be as absurd to suppose that they were obliged to indicate the breed by a special mark, as that our farmers should not be able to distinguish between their Durbams, Alderneys, etc., without putting labels on them.—159. Et quos malint, etc., and they also indicate which they prefer, etc. The clause depends as a second object upon inurunt, implying signant. The magistri not only mark all the calves, but they also indicate, either by the part of the body to which they apply the common brand, or in some other special manner, the calves which they think most suitable for certain uses. Our farmers, in marking their sheep, sometimes make a distinction by adding some particular mark after the initial letters of their names. Pecori habendo. Comp. Ge. I, 3. Submittere , as in 73.160. Aris , join with sacros.- -160, 161, Scindere, invertere have quos understood as subject accusative. -161. Glaebis ; join with horrentem.-162. Cetera armenta. This includes all that are not reserved for the above-mentioned special uses, and that require no individual care.- -163. Tu. See on 73. Stadium, toil. -164. Iam vitulos hortare, teach them even when calves.

-165. Here, as in 66, brute animals are spoken of in language applicable to human beings.—166. Laxos; not tight and confining at first. The loose collar of woven twigs was worn at first by the young steers singly or unyoked.-167. Dehinc scanned here as a dissyllable. 168. Ipsis o torquibus aptos, bound together by (these) very, or the same collars ; namely, the circles" that they have become accustomed to wearing separately, or before they are joined together. Sometimes they were held together e cornibus, " by the horns," a rougher method of training.–170. Inanes, unloaded. The wheels' either detached from the cart, or bearing the cart empty.-171. Vestigia, here, traces of the wheels; ruts. The steers themselves are said to impress the light or shallow ruts upon the soil. -173. Junctos joined to the axle and so to the tongue. Aerens, bronze-covered or bronze-plated. Comp. Ae. I, 448, and note. ---174. Interea. The abovementioned process of training, beginning when the steer is scarcely, a year old, and not completed until his third year, must not interfere with due attention to the food most favorable to his healthy growth in the first part of this period, and while he is still unbroken (pubi indomita).—176. Frumenta sata, the planted stalks of wheat or grain, as opposed to harvested grain ; that is, grain in the blade, not yet ripened.- - 177. The suckling calf must not be deprived of any portion of the milk of the dam. The faulty "custom of the fathers” is illustrated in E. III, 30.

179-208. Horses designed for racing or for war must early become accustomed to sights and sounds associated with both, must learn to love and obey the master, and be trained to every movement; they must not be richly fed until they have been well broken.

179. Sin magis stadium, etc.; supply est magistro or domino; but if the horse-breeder has rather á love for wars, etc. 180, 181. Thé infinitives depend on studium as gerunds. -180. Pisao. The Elean Pisa was on the Alpheus, near the Altis, or sacred olive-grove of the Olympian Jupiter, within the precincts of 'which (Iovis in luco) was the race-course of the Olympian games.- -182. Labor, task or exercise. — 183. Tracta; ablat. cause of gementem. - 184. Frenos sonantis ; of the noise of the metallic parts of the bridle, sometimes including bells. See cut of bridle-bits, etc., below.

-185. Blandis, caressing.- -186. Plausae, patted. -188. Mollibus; as contrasted with the bard bit.

-189. The last syllable of invalidus is lengthened by the ictus. Etiam, still, as yet ; here of time, as in Ac. VI, 485. Inscius aevij unconscious of his youthful strength, and, therefore, still easily frightened.

-191. Carpere gyrum, to course about the ring; the circular track prepared for such training.- - 192. Compositis, regular. Sinnet, etc. See on 117. Alterna suggests the movement of the legs in trotting.193. Laboranti, making great effort ; striving to move on; struggling against the curb, so that he would seem to be pulling a heavy load.- -194. Provoost.

Many MSS. give tum vocet. Ceu liber habenis ; in conTuba and lituus. trast with laboranti similis.--197. Arida, rainless.

-198. Campi natantes, the watery plains; the sea; like campos liquentis, Ae. VI, 724. -199. Leníbus, gentle; but only as the first breath of the coming gale.—201. Ile : Aquilo.- -202. Hio, this steed; such a courser as this. Several MSS. read hinc. Motas. See illustration at the end of notes, Ge. I, and coin on page 53.- -203. Oruentas; on account of the tight-drawn bits. See cut below.—204. Molli, tamed, sub

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Metallic headstall, bells, lupata, and bit, found at Pompell.

dued. Esseda. The war-chariot of the Belgians, Gauls, and Britons, introduced into Rome in Vergil's time, as a form of private carriage. -205. Farragine ; a mixture of grain and legumes, in which far or spelt was the principal ingredient.- -206. Domitis, being now broken; dative. See H. 384, 4, n. 2; A. 235, 2; B. 244; G. 343, R. 2; M. 241, obs. 3.

We might have instead: corpus iam domitorum. 'Ante domandum. If thus richly fed before breaking, their spirits would be stimulated beyond control. -207. Prensi, when, or if caught or bridled.

209-241. The bulls and stallions, if we would have them full of vigor, must be kept apart from the female herds, either in remote pastures or shut up in the stalls, that the sight of these may not excite their passions and make them forgetful of their food. The bulls of the forest of Sila, pasturing with the fair heifers, are roused by jealousy to furious battles.

210. Caeci, furious. Comp. Ae. II, 357.—211. Sivo, etc. Whether any one takes more interest in the breeding of cattle, or whether in horses.216. Carpit: supply illos as the object. Videndo 1 i. e., by the sight of the female. 216. Nemorum, glades. —217. Illa quidem in apposition with the subject of patitur, for the purpose of emphasis. Comp. Ae. I, 3, and note. Dalcibas inlocebris ; cause of patitur; by (her) sweet enticements. 320. Ili, the bulls, contrasted with iuvencí. -222. Versa in obnizos cornua wrgentur i equivalent to cornua alterius obnici in alterum versa obnicum urgentur. The horns of each combatant are turned and pushed against the other."- -224. Bellantis, when at war; acc. subject of stabulare. 228. Aspectans, looking upon, or back upon, as if with regret and longing.

From an ancient statue in the Vatican. Bzoesait emphatio, “he is gone.”—230. Instrato, unstrewn, on the bare ground, implies that no keeper prepares or spreads his lair.. Instratus, however, is not found as an adjective elsewhere, and some editors, there fore, take it here as the participle of insterno, to be joined with frondibus, the comma after cubili being omittod.-232. Irasci in cornua disait, learns to throw fury into his horns; i. e., he practices, like a warrior with his weapons, so that he may overthrow his adversary with the fierce and deadly thrust of his horns.- -233. Obnixus, butting, or pushing against; as if against his foe. -236. Signa movet. As an army lifts its standards, that have been erected on the camping-ground, and thus breaks up the camp and moves upon the enemy 38. Longius ex altoque, from afar and care crem.

80 be now leaves his secluded retreat and seeks from the midst of the sea. Que connects longius and ex alto:—239, 240. Ipso monto means the whole mass or mountain of rocks against which the waves are cast.

242-283. The mad passion of love (furias ignemque) is common to man and the lower animals; but in the latter it has its particular periods, rendering them more furious and dangerous than at other times (tempore non alio); the youthful lover, like Leander, will risk life itself to reach the object of his passion ; but of all living creatures when under the power of this fiery instinct the mare is the most uncontrollable.

242. The final vowel of que is dropped by synapheia. Comp. Ge. I, 295.

-246. Erravit. See on Ge. I, 49. -249. Comp. Ge. I, 448. Erratur ; impers., “Ill fares the wanderer.” Solis, solitary; as in Ae. XI, 545.251. Notas, etc.; for the direct form: notum odorom attulerunt aurae.254. Correptosque, etc., emphasizes obiecta flumina ;, not only hindering with their waters interposed, but with their waters swollen to torrents, and hurling huge rocks (montis) along their course. - - 265. Ipso Sabellious sus, even the swine of the Sabine woods. Vergil has in mind the tame boar feeding with the rest of the swine in the fields and woods under the charge of swineherds. Even this stupid beast is subject to the same fire as all the rest. Sus in the sense of aper, as some understand it, is unauthorized by usage, and makes ipse less significant. -257. The first atque connects the verbs fricat and durat. He toughens his sides for enduring wounds; not only by rubbing them against the trunks of trees, but by rolling himself to and fro, hino atque illino, on the ground. So Ladewig. Forbiger quotes Pliny, H. N. VIII, 57, 78: Tum inter se dimicant, indurantes attritu arbo. rum costas, lutoque tergorantes. Comp. above, 232, sqq.- -258. Quid lavenis (facit)? i. e., when inspired by love. — 261. Porta tonat; as if the gate of Olympus were thrown open when Jupiter hurls the thunderbolt from his throne.-262. Neo, etc. Neither is he deterred by the thought of his unhappy parents, ignorant of his mad adventure, nor of Hero, destined to die by a cruel death, (falling) upon (his corpse). In this rendering, super is a preposition, as understood by Ladewig. Others make it equivalent to insuper. - 263. Moritura crudeli funere. Comp. Ae. IV, 308.- -264. Lynces. Lynxes, as well as tigers and panthers, were fancied to be used by Bacchus to draw his chariot. -265. Quid, what, indeed. Quao = quanta.--266. Omnis ; sc., animantis ; all animals.- -267. Venus, etc." Venus herself brought upon the mares of Glaucus that madness which led them to tear their master in pieces,

because he withheld them from the stallions at the time of copulation. Pliny says, H. N. XXV, 8, 53, 694, that it was the pasturage of Potniæ that produced this frenzy in the beasts. - 275. Vento gravidae ; according to a prevailing notion of the ancients.

-277. If the mares had thus conceived by the Zephyrus, it was supposed that they then ran to the north, northwest, or south, in order to discharge the flux (hippomanes, virus, secreted by conception. Ladewig.280. Hic, here;

e., one of the three directions above mentioned. Others: hereupon, then. Hippomanes. See Dict. Besides this meaning of the word, it is also applied to the excrescence supposed to appear on the forehead of the new-foaled colt, and to be immediately devoured by the mother. See on Ae. IV, 515.

-281. Virus. The word is chosen with reference to the use of the hippomanes as a charm in the incantations (non innoxia verba) of witches.282, 283. Logero, miscuerunt. See on Ge. I, 49.

284–294. But time is flying away, and I must cease to dwell upon these details ; I must hasten to the other part of my task (curae), and, taking the office of a shepherd in my song, conduct (agitare) the flocks of sheep and goats; and may Pales, goddess of flocks and herds, assist me!

285. Capti amore, carried away by the charm of these things; i. e., of the habits of animals above described.-288. Labor supply vester. -289.

Goatherd and Priestess. Neo sum animi dubius, nor am I uncertain.--289, 290. Verbis ea vincere, etc. To master such humble things (res angustas) in verse; to succeed in making them pleasing in poetic description.- 292. Priorum, of former poets, See note on 1-48 of this book.- -293. Castaliam ; for ad Castaliam. See on Ae. I, 2. Orbita, track, footsteps. No Roman poet before me has visited Parnassus and Castalia' to get inspiration for such a theme as this. Molli, gently sloping.

295-838. In winter, the shepherd must provide warm cotes (stabula) and proper food, not less for the goats than for the sheep; the former so much the more, as they require less care in the season of pasturage in summer, both kinds must be led forth early in the day, sheltered from the noontide heat, and pastured and watered again in the decline of day and in the evening.

296. Incipiens , equivalent to in principio. 296. Dum reducitar. See on E. IX, 23.-300. Post, afterward or then ; following incipiens. Hino; for ab his or ab ovibus ; "then passing from, or leaving the sheep, I advise,'' etc.- -301. Flavios praebere. Comp, 126.- -302, 303. A ventis ad medium conversa diom, turned away from the cold) winds towards the south.-304. Aquarius sets about the middle of February, or at the close of the primitive Roman year (extremo anno) and, with reference to farm-labor in Italy, the beginning of the new year. --305. Hae; the goats. Non cura leviore ; as compared with that bestowed upon the sheep:- -306, 307. The Milesian fleeces dyed with purple may bring a great price, but the profit (usus) from our goats will be quite as great.-308. Hino; for ab his. Goats generally bring forth twin offspring, and afford an abundant supply of milk and cheese, while their hair is valuable for the loom and for other purposes.

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