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Coins of Angustus. triumphatas, and the two triumphs now anticipated, one over Cleopatra and all her Eastern allies, and the other over the Britons and Cantabri in the remotest West, soon to be conquered. Utroqne ab litorej join with gentis. The poet probably has in mind the shore of the Atlantic on the west, and of the Marc Rubrum or Indian Ocean on the east; though some refer the words to the eastern and western cxtremities of the Mediterranean.- -34, 35. Statues of the greatest of the offspring of Assaracus, descended through Dardanus from Jupiter, such as Tros, Capys, Anchises, Aeneas, Ascanius, and Julius Caesar, shall be placed in the temple, and in some conspicuous place the statue of Apolo. -36. Auctor. Apollo was associated with Neptune in building the walls of Troy. See on Ge. I, 502. -37. Invidia refers to the hostile spirit still smoldering among the surviving adherents of the Pompeian and the old Senatorial party, and occasionally manifesting itself against Augustus. One or more paintings or, perhaps, bas-reliets on the walls of the temple will represent such opponents suffering the tortures of Tartarus. Comp. Ae. VI, 570, sq., and 601, sqq. ; VIII, 668, sqq.38. Anguis. If the reading is correct (some texts give orbis), Vergil must have in mind a story, referred to by no other extant writer, representing Ixion bound to the wheel by serpents instead of cords. -39. Saxum ; an allusion to Sisyphus, a robber of Attica slain by Thescus, and doomed in Tartarus to repeat forever the labor of rolling a huge stone to the top of a hill, from which it immediately descends again. - 41. Intactos. Woodland glades and pastures, with their flocks and herds, have been unsung hitherto by Roman poets., Tussa, command, or task, in apposition with the foregoing

. citement, like “awake, my Muse'!!' etc. So Voss and Ladewig. Some, I think, less correctly, understand the words as a call to Maecenas himself.

-43-45. The poet, roused by his theme, seems to hear the shouting of the herdsmen, and the lowing of the cattle of Cithaeron; Taygetus re-echoing with the noise of hounds, and Argive Epidaurus with the neighing of horses.—46. Mox ; that is, when the present work, requested by Maecenas, shall have been completed. See end of introductory note.

49-71. In raising horses and cattle, the selection of mares and cows (matrum) for breeding is the first thing ; and we must attend to the marks by which the best can be known; and also to the means by which we are to make good the loss of old animals, or to keep up the stock (sufficere prolem).

Cattle. From a wall-painting in Pompeii.

61. Torvae, fierce-looking ; with a rough, shaggy front, something like that of a bull.-52. Plurima, immense. -55. Hirtae; in the predicate.

-56. Maculis et albo; hendiadys for maculis albis.- -67. Inga detrectans, etc. ; indications of spirit. Cows, as well as oxen, are still used in Europe as draught-animals.- -58. Quaeque ardua tota, and which is exceedingly tall;"nothing but tall."'- -60Aetas pati. For the construction, see on Ge. I, 213. The last syllable of pati is retained in the scanning.-62. Cetera; supply aetas.--- -63. Superat, remains ; while the youthful vigor of the beasts (gregibus) still continues ; i. e., before the age of ten.- -64. Solve mares, “ let out" thé bulls ; from the stalls or from the pens in which they are usually kept apart from the herd. Primus; as in Ge. II, 408. --66-71. As it is necessary to slaughter or dispose of the cattle that have ceased to be

profitable, and to exchange them (mutare) by selecting (sortiri) every year young animals (subolem) for maintaining the herd (armento), their brief existence and the poor return they thus receive for hardship and suffering (labor) call forth expressions of sympathy from the poet such as he would use if speaking of human beings. Comp. 525, sqq. --_-66. Quaeque may be freely rendered by semper, and the following prima, also, as an adverb. The dative mortalibus, limiting the sentence, may be rendered as an accusative after fugit.-68. Rapit, hurries away, i. e., from life. So Hor. O. II, 13, 19, sq. : leti vis rapuit rapietque gentes.- -69. Semper erunt, etc. There will always be some in the herd becoming old and unprofitable, and such that you will wish them to be replaced by younger ones.—70. Enim, 80, then. Ne post, etc., lest you should afterward feel the need of those that have been removed (amissa corpora); that is, of those that have been slaughtered.

72-94. The indications in make, form, and spirit, which should guide the horsebreeder in selecting a stallion.

72. The herd of horses, or the rearing of horses, demands (est) the same selection as in the case of cattle.- -73. Tu is expressed to emphasize the injunction. Modo, just ; by all means. Quos. The antecedent is iis understood after impende laborem. Submittere, here, seems to have reference especially to the breeding of stallions. -76. Continuo, at once ;, as soon as the young foal begins to step about in the field. Pecoris, here, breed or blood.Ingreditur lengthens the last syllable by 'ictus. Mollia, pliant, elastic, may be rendered in the predicate, “ with elastic tread." Reponit implies both lifting and putting down again.-77, 78. He shows his superior blood and spirit by taking the lead of the herd on the road or over the untried fords and bridges. -82. Albis. “White" is a bad indication in stallions ; pot in mares. Comp. Ae. XII, 84-85. Ignem, said of the hot or fiery breath.--87. Duplex describes the flesh rising in a ridge on either side of the spine above the hips. See the illustration at the head of the notes on this book; one of the ancient colossal horses on Monte Cavallo at Rome, which well illustrates Vergil's ideal in every respect. -89. Amyclaei. The Dioscuri were sons of Leda, wife of the Spartan king Tyndareus, who once


Chariot and horses of Minerva. From an ancient cutting on silver found at Pompeil. dwelt in Amyclae.-90. Cyllarus. Castor and Pollux received from Neptune the horses named Xanthus and Cyllarus.--91. Ourrus; by metonymy for bigae or team, as in Ae. VII, 168. -92-94. Saturn in his amour with Philyra on Mount Pelion was detected by Ops, his jealous wife, and fled from her in the form of a horse.-93. Pernix; not a general epithet of Saturn, but indicating the rapidity of bis flight at this time.

95–122. The stallion too old for further service must be bumanely cared for, and another must be sought of the right spirit, age, and pedigree (animos, aevum, prolem parentum), showing emulation in the race (the chariot-race invented by Ericthonius), and fit for the equestrian exercises taught by the Pelethronian Lapithae. To such a successor, both young and of fiery spirit (invenemque calidumque animis), the old steed (ille), whatever his past service and good name, and whatever his high descent, must give place at last.

96. Abde domo, shut him up in the grange ; keep him about the farmvilla, away from the herd. Nec. Join the negative part ne with turpi, and que with ignosce ; thus: and spare his not dishonorable old age. Do not treat him roughly, because he is broken down and unprofitable. So Ruaeus. Others give it the contrary sense: do not overlook his degenerate old age ; i. e., so as to allow him still to be the father of the herd.”—97. Laborem ; here of procreation, as in 127.-98. Ingratum, fruitless. Proelia (Veneris); in the same sense as the foregoing laborem. But some take it literally, comparing 120. -99. Sine viribus. The fire in the stubble blazes up brightly, but is soon out (incassum furit) for want of more substantial fuel. 101. Prolem parentum, the lineage or pedigree of his sires, or of his sire and dam.

-103-117. A digression suggested by the foregoing words, which bring before the poet's fancy the exciting races that he has witnessed in the Circus Maximus at Rome. -103. Nonne vides ? i. e., Do you not see in noble horses this love of victory, when, etc. — 103, 104. Nearly repeated in Ae. V, 144, sq.--105. Iuvenum ; here the charioteers. -105, 106. In the similar lines, Ae. V, 137, sq., arrecta cupido is substituted for spes arrectae. 106. Illi refers to iuvenum. Verbere torto, uith the whirling lash; not “ the twisted lash," as some understand it. -108, 109. "The chariots seem now to rush (ferri) along the ground (humiles), now again mounting upward, (elati sublime) to fly (ferri) through the empty air.' Aëra per vacuum is the exact antithesis to humiles; the latter corresponding to x®ôvr in the passage of the Iliad, XXIII, 362, sqq., which suggested this description of the chariot-race to Vergil. -111. Umescunt. sc. equi or quadrigae.-112. Tantus, etc., refers to the emulation both of horses and drivers, and thus illustrates the fact implied in 102, that horses of superior breed feel pride in victory, and shame in defeat.- - 114. Victor ; victorious in the chariot-races which he himself had first instituted. — 116. Gyros; the various circling or wheeling movements in which horses were exercised, chiefly with reference to war. Tacitus, Germ. VI, says that the Germans trained their horses only in one turn in uno flexu) to the right, and not, as the Romans did, to a variety of circles (varios gyros). Comp. Ae. V, 580. Others take gyros in the sense of " circular tracks" or " rings" in which horses were exercised. See on 191.—-116. Sub armis = armatum. Comp. Ae. V, 410, 585. Equitem, The horseman, directing the action of the horse, is said to do what in fact the horse does : insultare, etc.--117. Gressus glomerare superbos, to gather up the proud hoofs, describes the elastic bending or folding up of the joints of the leg in the prancing of spirited horses. 118. Aequus aterque labor. The labor of training, whether for the chariot-race or for equestrian or cavalry manœuvres, is equally great. This interpretation of Voss is as probable as any which has been proposed of these obscure words. Aeque, etc. And with equal regard to both objects, namely, chariot-racing and cavalryservice, the masters or horse-trainers seek out a horse both youthful, etc.

-120. Tle; such a one as is described above in 95.- 122. An allusion to the myth that ascribes the creation of the horse to Neptune. See on Ge. 1, 12, sq. Some, however, refer the words to Arion, the

horse of Adrastus, which was said to be the offspring of Neptune and Ceres.


128–187. Stallions and mares for breeding are not to be treated alike.

123. His; neuter; these indications and qualities. Instant, etc. Tho magistri are vigilant at the approach of the time (sub tempus) of copulation.

-127. Superesse, literally, to be above; that is, here,' to be fully equal.

-129. Ipsa armenta, the herds or the mares themselves'; as opposed to the individual stallions. Volentes (magistri). Under other circumstances the keepers would not willingly treat the beasts in this manner. -133, 134. Oum, etc., at the time when, etc.; that is, in the time of wheat-thrashing, which is also the time of copulation.—134. The chaff is constantly caught up by the wind as the thrashing proceeds. — 135. Nimio luxu ; by excess of food and inaction. Usus; here, passage.- -136. Genitali arvo = genitalis arvi.—137. Rapiat; supply ut suggested by no. The subject is usus.

188-156. Careful treatment of the mares must follow.

139. Exactis mensibus, the months, or period of gestation, being completed ; when, that is, the time of foaling is near at hand.—140. Plaustris ; dative, as remote object of ducere, for genitive after iuga.—141. Passus sit, could suffer or permit ; potential. —-143. Pascunt, they (magistri) pasture (them). Pasco is said of the herdsmen, pascor of the herd. 144. Muscus ; supply est. -145. The subjunctives after the relative ubi denote purpose or destination on the part of those who have the charge of the herds; namely, the subject of pascunt. — 147. Volitans; substantively, a ringed creature ; here insect. Comp. Ge. IV, 16; Ae. VI, 239. Asilo, For the construction, see H. 387, n. 1; A. 231, 6; B. 243, n. ; G. 322; M. 246, obs. 2.

-149, Silvis : local ablative.—163. Inachiae iuvencae. Io, the daughter of Inuchus, and beloved of Jupiter, was transformed by the god into a heifer that she might escape the jealousy of Juno; but the goddess de

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