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oem, rich, fruitful. Editus austro, elevated, or facing toward the south; with a southern aspect.- -189. Invisam aratris, because clogging, or hindering the plow.—190. Hio; sc. campus.191. Fertilis ; with genitive in Vergil only here.—192. Pateris et auro; hendiadys for pateris aureis. - 193. Tyrrhenus. The flute-players employed by the Romans came originally from Etruria or Tuscany. “As they lived on their portion of the victims slain at the altar, and led an easy life, they were proverbially pingues. —-196. Urentis culta, blighting the plantations ; said especially of the vineyards and olive-orchards, to which, according to Varro, 1, 2, 17, 18, 19, and Pliny's Nat. Hist. VIÐ, 76, goats were very injurious. 197. Longinqua | supply loca or arva. -198. Mantua. See E. I, introduction.—200. Deerunt; scanned as a dissyllable.—203. Presso sub vomere ; join with pinguis. The richness of the glebe shows itself when turned up from the deep furrow. -206. Tardis iuvencis, with the slowly-moving oxen, or as the oxen more slowly along; either an ablative of manner or ablative absolute. 207. Aut unde; for aut ex illo aequore unde. So Forbiger. Iratus ; indignant that the ground should lié waste, covered with unproductive woods (nemora ignava).- -209. Cum stirpibus imis. He has not simply cut down

the trees, but “grubbed" them up by the roots, preparatory to plowing. —211. Enituit impulso vomere. See on 203. Some, however, take enituit in the sense of flourish, thrive, under culturer For the perfect, see on G. I, 49.

-213. Rorem; here, rosentary; a shrub four or five feet high.-215, 216. Negant alios, etc.; they boast that no other lands, etc. ; a figurative way of saying that soils of such a kind are more favorable than any others to the breeding of snakes. Dulcem; in its literal sense; they were supposed to feed on sweet, though venomous herbs. See Ae. If, 471.- -217. Quae ; supply terra. -219. Suo; not due to human toil. 221. Ulmos. Sec on E. 11, 70.

-322. Oleo ) a better authorized reading than oleae. 223. Facilem pecori; i. e., easily yielding pasturage.

-225. Vacuis, deserted; but only in a relative sense. Acerrao was much less populous than it would have been but for the frequent overflowing of the Clanius ; this discouraged husbandry, and therefore checked the prosperity of the city, which depended upon the region subject to the inundations of the river. Non aequus, unfriendly.226. Quamquo; supply terram.- -227. In this order: Si rem quires (num) rara sit, eto. -232. Pedibus, etc. ; you will level the earth thrown back into the hole by trampling upon it.—233. Si deorunt , supply arenae, if it shall come short, or be insufficient. Deérunt is scanned as a dissyllable, derunt. Comp. 200.--234. (Se) posse negabunt. Comp. 215. -235. Scrobibus, etc., is an epexeget

ical repetition of the idea. -236, 237. Terga, proscinde. Rosemary. Comp. G. 1 97. -239. Frugibus; in its generalsense.

Comp. G. I, 22. -240. Neo Bacoho, etc. It neither keeps up the quality or kind (genus, nomina) of the grape, nor of the other fruits raised upon it; making them all degenerate. Sua. See H. 449, 2; B. 280, R. 2; G. 295, R.; M. 490, b. -247. Tristia," wry," is proleptic, emphasizing torquebit. Sensa, taste ; join with torquebit ; will distort with the taste of it; literally, by the sensation of it. Conington prefers the reading amaro for amaror, making sensu = sapore. -249. Iaotata = tractata, moved about in the hand or with the fingers. —260. Habendo, in handling;,dum habentur. —851. Umida—alit. A moist soil stimulates the growth of herbage, and, if taken for fruit-trees, will be apt to produce excess of foliage. Ipsa, of itself ; without being enriched or watered. -252. Illa, that land; that which I must use for crops. -253. Praevalidam, too strong ; too stimulating. See on 251. Primis aristis, in the first cars. So Ruaeus; others, surgentibus primis aristis. — 264. Tacitam; i. c., without any manifestation of its quality by means of experiments such as have just been mentioned.—256. Quis cui color (sit); a double interrogative; literally, what color is to what (soil). Frigus į for frigida terra. - 258. Pandunt vestigia. By their very presence they reveal the signs or effects of cold; for they are among the trees and plants that thrive on cold ground.


259-419. Planting and culture of the vine : Preparation of the trenches (scrobibus) and directions for transplanting from the nursery (259–272); difference in intervals between vines on hill-sides and on level ground (278-287); the vine must not be planted 80 deep as the tree on which it is to be trained (288-297); miscellaneous precepts and precautions (298-314); the best season for vine-plauting is the spring; the season of reviving nature, the season with which the world must have begun (815-845); care of the roots (346-358); after-culture (854-370); protection from cattle, especially from goats, so destructive to the vine that they are the favorite

victims for sacrifice to Bacchus (371-396); plowing and hoeing, thinning of the foliage of the supporting trees, summer and autumn pruning, clearing the ground of rubbish, housing the stakes in winter, and the preparation of broom and willow ties, all require attention (397– 419).

259. His animadversis ; having taken note of all these kinds of soil. 260. Excoqueres of thorough preparation of the ground, as in G. 1, 66. Magnos montis, the broad mountain-slopes ; ample for vineyards.

-261. Anto : repeated like post in E. I, 68, 70.- -262. Genus, offspring ; the young plant taken from the nursery: -262, 263. Putri solo ; ablat. of description ; fields of crumbling soil. Optima; predicate after sunt.—263. Id venti curant, this (crumbling or rotten soil) the winds secure. -264. Movens. Comp. G. I, 123.-266, 267. The sense seems to be correctly given by Ruaeus: They choose beforehand two similar spots ; one for the nursery, where the young plants (seges) may be prepared or started(paretur), and one for the vineyard, to which (quo) the nursery-plants may be transferred and planted in rows (digesta) when thus prepared. According to this interpretation, we supply similern locum before quo; the repetition being analogous to alium Galium.-268. Mutatam subito matrem, the sudden change of mothers ; or change from one mother to another; that is, from the soil of the nursery to that of the vineyard.-269. Quin etiam, In addition to this care in regard to similarity of soils. Caeli regionem, the quarter of the sky; or point of the compass to which each side of the young vine in the nursery has been exposed.

-272. Restituant ; supply arbores or vites ; or take as the object of the verb the three foregoing clauses. Consuescere = consuetudo.- -273, 274. Collibus--prius. Ascertain first whether the hilly portions of your farm or the levels afford the best soil for vineyards. 274. Metabere j" lay out"; that is, for a vineyard.- -275. Denso is joined by some editors with ubere, in the sense either of densely-planted ground or of compact and rich soil. 'Others make in denso an adverbial phrase equivalent to the foregoing densa, and qualifying satus understood." In this case, ubere must be joined with non Begnior, not less thriving in richness of product. That is, if the vine be planted on fertile lands ( pinguibus agris), it will not be less productive closely (in denso) planted, than it would be in more open rows on a poorer soil.- -276. Tumulis , ablat. cause of acclive.—277. Indulge ordinibue, open the ranks ; let the rows stand farther apart each way. Nec seting, nor any the less (than when you plant more densely on the plain). It is assumed that the arrangement must be exact and the lines perfectly true in the vineyard closely planted; for otherwise it would be difficult to cultivate the in

tervals with the plow; but the want of this regularity would also be a great disadvantage, even when the trees are planted in wider spaces, as on the hill-side. -277, 278. Omnis, etc. ; in this order : omnis viâ, arboribus secto limite positis, in unguem quadret; let each pathway match perfectly with the rest, your trees being planted (by planting your trees) in line well marked out. This, on the whole, seems to me the simplest interpretation among the many that have been given. Vineyards were so laid out that the vines stood in perfectly straight rows, forming regular alleys (vias) from ten to fifteen feet wide, intersecting each other both in rectangles and diagonally. This can be effected either by arranging the trees in equal squares,

thus :

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Both of these plans are employed in our American orchards. The ancient Italians preferred the order of the quincunx. In unguem, for the more usual form ad unguem ; a term employed by workers in marble, who tested the smoothness of the seams by drawing the nail over the surface; hence, tiyuratively, to perfection, with perfect exactness. —-278. Arboribus, here, secms to mean the vines with their supporting trees. Secto limite, in the line marked out, or in precise or exact line; an ablative of manner; by some, however, joined with via as an abl. of description, and by others taken as an abl. absolute. The poet seems to have in mind two conditions of perfect regularity: 1, the rows must be straight; 2, the distances between the individual trees must be so laid out that each tree may“ range" with all the four rows to which it belongs. Thus, all the alleys are made to agree with perfect accuracy (quadrant in unguem); or, to use a phrase of kindred meaning, coincide to a hair's breadth.- -279-284. The poet here compares the equally measured spaces (paribus numeris dimensa) of the vineyards, and the perfect regularity thus produced in the lanes and rows of trees, to the beautiful order of the Roman legion when drawn out in battle array. The earlier arrangement of the legion by maniples had given way, fifty years before Vergil's time, to the arrangement by cohorts. The two plans are illustrated by the following diagrams:


(Each maniple contained from 100 to 120 men.)



(Each cohort contained about 350 men, except the first on the right of the front line,

which was usually double in number. The line in either form extended about

840 feet.) The men stood in ranks, numbering from ten to twelve from front to rear; the ranks being reparated from each other by intervals or lanes one yard in width, and the files by the same distance, as shown in the following plan, representing one half of the men of a cobort, arranged in rank and file in order of battle :

It has been assumed by most of the editors that, in this comparison, Vergil has in mind the quincunx arrangement of the vineyard, and, therefore, that the similar arrangement of the maniples in their triple line of battle is the principal point of the comparison. But, though this seems at first the most obvious and easy interpretation, there are some serious objections to it. In the first place, Vergil would hardly call up, in this connection, a practice that has ceased to exis and is not familiar to his readers.

there is a kind of awkwardness and questionable taste in making whole masses or companies of men stand in comparison with single trees or vines. Again, while the poet lays so much stress on the lanes and rows of the vineyard (vias, limites), and their equal measurements (numeros, dimensa), and seems to be thinking only of these, the legion, drawn up by maniples, so far from perfectly representing these avenues, makes one of the two most important ones impossible ; for, opposite the openings between the maniples of the front and rear, and filling precisely the whole space which should make the avenue in this direction, is stationed a maniple of the “principes," or middle line, forming, indeed, the central figure or square in each quincunx of maniples. Finally, the spectator, even at the best point of view, could see but a few of those companies and of the wide spaces between them, and would be reminded of a vineyard no more than if he were looking at a line of large buildings interrupted by three or four broad streets opening obliguely to the rear. In the order by cohorts the incongruity would be still greater. On the whole, the interpretation which refers the comparison to the general order and appearance of the individual soldiers seems to be more natural, though here there is no correspondence to the quincunx. After all, the essential thing in the comparison is the regularity of the intersections of the lines. Now, the ranks and files of men in their cohorts, keeping their distances with the scrupulous precision to which they were trained, allowing the eye to range through the lanes from front to rear, and through those extending from flank to flank of each cohort, as well as through those that opened obliquely, all gleaming with burnished shields and armor, waving with plumes and bristling with spears, presented, indeed, a magnificent spectacle, and may well have been called up to the poet's memory by the perfect and pleasing order of the rows and cross-rows of the vineyard. Therefore, I think Martyn is right in referring the comparison, not to the relative position of maniples or cohorts, but to that of the individual legionary soldiers in rank and file, as shown in the last diagram.—279. Ut saepe oum; similar to veluti cum saepe, Ae. I, 143. After ut we may supply as its correlative ita before omnia sint. Longa ; proleptic. The legion on the march forms a rectangular column, but, when preparing for battle, unfolds its cohorts into a long-extended line.- - 280. Agmen : not in its specific sense, "a marching column," but for army, or host.—281, 282. Fluctuat tellus. The whole of the far-stretching plain seems to be like a sea of flashing waves.-283. Dubius. Mars is uncertain in whose favor he will decide the impending battle. Mediis in armis , i. e., between the two embattled hosts. -284. Omnia, all things, everything, spaces and lines in every particular. Paribus numeris viarum, by or in equal proportions of the alleys, or in alleys of equal dimensions ; numeris being used in the sense of mensuris, spaces, relative measurements. The order, bowever, may be omnia dimensa (intervalla) viarum sint paribus numeris making the ablative one of description.- -285. Inanem, idle ; merely gratifying the fancy.--290. Altior, for altius. Arbos ; here the supporting tree.

-391, 292. Quantum, eto. ; repeated in Ae. IV, 445, sq.- -293. Hiemes, storms. -296. Volvens, living through. Comp. Ae. I, 9.- -297. Ipsa, the tree itself ; i. e., the trunk, the essential part or body, as distinguished from the limbs.

-299. Corylum. The hazel soon puts up a multitude of suckers, and chokes the vines. - 299, 300. Neve flagella, etc. The topmost shoots or joints of the vine, when ripened, bear the fruit of the following season, and, therefore, should not be cut off for planting; besides, those nearer the root are stronger. -301. Tantus, etc. Nearer the ground or root they get more, nourishment. Ferro retunso. A dull knife leaves a ragged wound or broken bark, not so easily healed as a clean cut.—-302. Olese is the most authentic reading. The later German editors have adopted olea from Wago ner. With our reading, the caution is to avoid planting (inserere) wild olives or oleasters among the vines; a practice that was soinetimes resorted to for the advantage they were expected to afford both as supports for the vine and for the feed their leaves furnished for cattle. With olea, insere must be taken in the sense of grafting, and the precept relates, not to the vineyard, but to the olive-orchard. For the difference between the cultivated and the wild olive or oleaster, see on 182.-308. Ignis. Fire might be lighted by herdsmen at night, while watching cattle, pastured near the vineyards. -304, Pingui. The oily nature of the bark makes the tree take fire the more readily from any lurking spark. Other trees, such as the elm, the maple, or the poplar, are less dangerous.-- -306. Caolo. Comp. G. I, 322. Secutus, creeping along, making its way. -308. Nemus, here, vineyard, plantation. Comp. 401.

-309. Picea crassus caligine. The flame is mingled with black wreaths of smoke. Comp. Ae. IV, 384. –310. Silvis, on the vineyard. -312. Hoo abi; supply accidit. Non-valent, they (the vines) have no strength at the root ; not vitality enough to spring up again. The effect of the fire is the same as that of the cold, wben, in one of our severe Northern winters, an old vine, as sometimes happens, is "winter-billed” or blighted down to

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