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und flavor); the infinitives being equivalent to ablatives modifying certave: rit, on which they depend.—101. Dis, etc. At the second table or course, wine was brought on, and the drinking commenced with a libation or thank offering to the gods. Comp. Ae. I, 736, and n.—103, 104. Neque est numerus; nor does any number exist, or “no number can express," how many, etc.—110. Fluminibus, paludibus; ablative of situation ; better than the dative. Comp. E. VII, 66, where in is expressed with fluviis, and is used like English “on." The European alder, unlike our American shrub, or low tree of that species, grows to the size of a forest-tree. -112. Myrtetis laetissima seems to mean at once most abundant in ” and “most charming with myrtle-groves." The margin of the water stimulates the myrtles to the most vigorous growth, and is also the place where they best adorn the landscape. See on Ge. I, 306.-114, Orbem, part, or region of the world.116. Piotos Gelonos ; like the Agathyrsi, a kindred tribe. See Dictionary, and Ae. IV, 146.—116, Divisae arboribus patriao, native countries, or their own countries are distributed to trees ; every tree has its own native land. Sola. Either the language is inexact, as the ebony grows also in Africa, or India is used here as in G. IV, 292, where Indi are put for Aethiopians.117. Solis Sabaeis. Comp. Ge.'1, 57. Turea virga. "Branch of the frankin


Frankincense. pense-tree.—118. Odorato. Strictly, it is the gum, and not the wood, that is fragrant. -119. Balsama; a fragrant gum obtained from a shrub or small tree peculiar to Palestine, Arabia, and Abyssinia. -que-et; so que-atque, G. I, 182. Bacas acanthi. Probably the pods of the Egyptian acanthus, or evergreen acacia, are here intended by "berries" ; by some it is referred to the drops of gum, or gum-Arabic, exuding from the bark. For the herbaceous or mollis acanthus and the acanthus spinosus, see illustration on Ge. IV, 123.—120. Nemora-lana; of the cotton plant or shrub.—121. Vellera at depectant Seres, how the Seres comb off the fleecy

webe. As the silkworm had not yet been introduced into Europe (it was first brought to the West in the time of Justinian), Vergil supposes that the silk material was a vegetable fiber gathered or combed from the leaves of trees. Tennia in this verno


Balsam or myrrh-tree. is a dissyllable. --122. Oceano propior ; nearer to the ocean than the Seres, who are conceived of, not as we think of the Seres or Chinese, but as an

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inland people. The Arabian or Indian Ocean was supposed to bound the Eastern world.-123. Sinus indicates the winding coasts of India ; the word is often applied to irregular border tracts of land, either in the interior or on the coast. -123, 124. Ubi, etc. This would be easily true if any trees of India equaled the height of the great trees of California or Australia. 124. Potuere; the perfect as in G. I, 49.- -125. Somptis, etc. ; not wanting in force, by no means powerless when they take the arrows ip hand; being, like all Orientals, skillful archers.—127. Felicis mali, of the healing apple. Martyn thinks it is the citron of Media.- -129. This verse may have been interpolated by some copyist from G. III, 283. Miscuěrunt here shortens the penultimate syllable. — 131. Ipsa ; the tree itself as distinguished from its fruit, to which the attention has been drawn.—133. Eratí a lively substitute for esset. See H. 511, 1; A.-808, c; M. 348, obs.

136-176. But, while other lands have their gifts, no land can vie with Italy-teeming with its harvests, and with the fruits of the vine and the olive (186–144); rich in herds and flocks (144-148); blessed with a genial climate, that yields twice a year the fruit both of flock and field (149, 150); free from noxious animals and plants (151-154); studded with well-built towns on her hills and rivers (155–157); commanding on either side the commerce of great seas (158); possessing beautiful lakes, well-constructed ports, and mines of silver and copper (159-166); the nurse of warlike tribes and of great captains (167–172); fruitful not less in her brare yeomanry than her abundant crops ; may ber sons listen to the teaching of the poet (173-176)

138. Medorum. The Parthians had succeeded to the empire of the Medes and Persians; the Roman poets constantly use all three designations as synonymous. -139. Panchaia. Some authorities describe this as an island east of the Arabian coast ; others, less accurately, as a sandy region in Arabia itself. Pinguis, rich ; i. e., because it abounded in frankincense.

-140. Haec loca, etc.; an allusion to the fabled voyage of the Argonauts. Italy, while not less fertile than Colchis, is not tilled with bullocks breathing fire, like those with which Jason was compelled to plow the field of the Colebian king Aeetes, as a condition of securing the golden fleece. 141. Satis dentibus í a dativus commodi : “ for the sowing of the

teeth,” etc. This is the interpretation of Wagner, followed by Forbiger. Others make it an ablat. absol -142. An allusion to the crop of armed men that sprang up from the dragon's teeth.-144. Implevere, tenent. The object is ea, referring to haec loca. Oleae, in the scanning, here retains the diphthong. See on Ge. I, 437. Lasta, prolific; kindred in meaning here to gravidae in 143. -145, 146. Hinc, hino; rendered by Ruaeus ex una parte, ex alia parte. From one region of Italy comes forth the horse to the battle-field, from another, and most of all from thee, Clitummus, the white cattle and the bullock, greatest of victims. Others understand hinc, in both lines, of Italy: from this land, from this land," too... White oxen were preferred for sacrifice, and those of the valley of the Clitumnus were proverbial for their beauty. -148. Duxere. The victims were placed at the head of the triumphal procession that ascended to the front of the temple of Jupiter, on the Capitol, where the sacrifice was offered. ---149. Alienis mensibus, in months not its own; months not usually bringing summer weather in other lands, as in Italy. -160. Pomis; dative. Comp. 323. —-152. Miseros ; proleptic. Aconita. Vergil seems to have been misinformed; as the poisonous wolf's-bane is found in Italy. -153, 154. Immensos, tanto tractu. The snakes of Italy are not formidable, not of enormous size, as those of Africa and Asia. "Tractu is an ablative of manner. -155. Operum laborem, vast structures ; works built with great labor; referring to fortifications and public buildings. Comp. Ac. 1, 455. —156. Saxis ; ablative of situation.- -157. Flamina subterlabentia. Many ancient Italian cities were built and fortified (congesta manu) on high bills, often with the additional protection of a river flowing at their fuet. Such was Rome itself. 168. Quod supra ; the Adriatic Sea. Quod infra; the Tuscan.--160. Marino. Lake Benacus

(Garda) is so large that its storms are like those of the sea.-161-164. Luorino, etc. Of the ports, the Julian is mentioned as the most remarkable, and especially because it had been completed in B. c. 37, about the time when the Georgics were begun. It consisted of two basins formed by the lakes Lucrinus and Avernus, made accessible from the Bay of Naples (here, Tyrrhenus aestus) by artificial channels connecting the two lakes with each other and with the bay. Agrippa seems to have planned and constructed the new harbor, by the command of Augustus, for the Roman navy, and named it, in honor of the emperor, Portus Julius. Nearly all traces of the work have been obliterated by the volcanic eruption wbich threw up the cone called Monte Nuovo, in 1538.161. Claustra 1 an embankment and breakwater protecting the mouth of the channel, and strengthening the natural dike between the Lu

crine Lake and the open bay:—-162. Aconite.

Indignatum, venting his rage. The sea

is personified as resenting the attempt thus to resist his free movement. Stridoribus , ablat. of manner. 163. Iulia unda for Iulii portus unda. Ponto longe refuso, with the sea cast back afar-struck back by the “breakwater."- -164. Fretis Avernis, with the Avernian waters. Fretis, usually denoting waters of the sea, may have reference here to the changed character of the waters of the lake.—165. Rivos, streams, a synonym here for venas. — 166. Ostendit, fluxit, has brought to light, has flowed, i. e., has contributed abundantly in times past to the world's supply of metals. Some suppose that the perfect tense indicates that mining has ceased in Italy,

in accordance with a decree of the Senate mentioned in Pliny's Nat. Hist. III, 20, 24. Venis; ablat. of situation. Plurima, agreeing with haec, is substituted for multum qualifying the verb.-168. Malo, hardship, suffering. The Ligurians occupied å mountainous and rugged country, where the spurs of the Alps pass into the northwestern ridges of the Apennines. — 171, 172. The allusion here is to the visit made hy Augustus to Syria and Egypt, soon after the battle of Actium (B. C.

31), and before the capture of Alexandria and the death of Antony and Cleopatra. Extremis Asiae, the utmost borders of Asia. Augustus seems to have reached the Euphrates. -172. Imbellem, feeble in war ; perhaps, submissive; giving up all resistance to the victorious emperor. Avertis Romanis arcibus. It had been the popular apprehension, artfully stimulated by Augustus, that Antony and Cleopatra designed to lead their forces, including all their Eastern allies, to Rome, and to set up a new kingdom on the Seven Hills (arces). Indom ; for Orientals in general, especially Parthians, Arabians, and Egyptians. 173. Saturnia tellus, a designation of Italy as the chosen retreat of Saturn, when he was expelled by his son Jupiter from heaven. See Ae. VIII, 319, sqq.—174. Tibi; for thy


behoof. Antiquae-artis, Agriculture, res rusticae, had been honored and cherished even from the time of Saturn.

177-258. In the cultivation of trees, the first thing to be considered is the choice of soils ; especially the kinds adapted respectively to the olive and vine (177-194); some, indeed, are better for pasturage 94-202); some for graincrops, and others are available for every purpose (203-225); instructions for ascertaining the qualities of soils (226–25S).

180. Tenuis, meager, hungry; dissyllable, as in 121. -181. Palladia. See G. I, 18. Vitacis olivae. The Olive is known to liye for many centuries. 182. Oleaster. The wild olive, or oleaster, differs from the cultivated varieties as the crab-apple from the cultivated apple. The so-called oleaster," cultivated in English gardens,

An old olive-tree. Martyn says, is not correctly named.183. Bacis. The ground covered with the wild berries of the Oleaster, or natural olive, indicates that the soil is favorable to the growth of the species; that is, to the cultivated olive as well as the wild. -188. Feli


Ollve and oleaster, or wild olive, gathered near Florence; the olive one third of the

natural size, the oleaster one half.

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