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Men do their broken weapons rather use,
Than their bare hands.

Bra. I pray you, hear her speak ; If she confess that she was half the wooer, Destruction on my head, if my bad blame Light on the man!-Come hither, gentle mistress; Do you perceive in all this noble company, Where most you owe obedience?


My noble father,

I do perceive here a divided duty.
To you I am bound for life and education;
My life and education both do learn me
How to respect you; you are the lord of duty;
I am hitherto your daughter. But here's my
And so much duty as my mother showed
To you, preferring you before her father,
So much I challenge that I may profess
Due to the Moor, my lord.

God be with you!-I have done.-
Please it your grace, on to the state affairs;
I had rather to adopt a child, than get it.-
Come hither, Moor.

I here do give thee that with all my heart,
Which, but thou hast already, with all my heart
I would keep from thee.-For your sake, jewel,
I am glad at soul I have no other child;
For thy escape would teach me tyranny,

To hang clogs on them.I have done, my lord.
Duke. Let me speak like yourself;1 and lay a sentence,
Which has a grise, or step, may help these lovers
Into your favor.


When remedies are past, the griefs are ended,


By seeing the worst, which late on hopes depended.

To mourn a mischief that is past and gone,

Is the next way to draw new mischief on.


1 i. e. "let me speak as yourself would speak, were you not too much heated with passion."-Sir J. Reynolds.

2 Grise. This word occurs again, in the same sense, in Timon of Athens

"For every grise of fortune
Is smoothed by that below."

What cannot be preserved when fortune takes,
Patience her injury a mockery makes.
The robbed, that smiles, steals something from the thief;
He robs himself, that spends a bootless grief.

Bra. So let the Turk of Cyprus us beguile;
We lose it not, so long as we can smile.
He bears the sentence well, that nothing bears
But the free comfort which from thence he hears;
But he bears both the sentence and the sorrow,
That, to pay grief, must of poor patience borrow.
These sentences, to sugar, or to gall,

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Being strong on both sides, are equivocal; But words are words; I never yet did hear ~/ That the bruised heart was pierced through the ear.' I humbly beseech you, proceed to the affairs of state. Duke. The Turk with a most mighty preparation makes for Cyprus.-Othello, the fortitude of the place is best known to you; and though we have there a substitute of most allowed sufficiency, yet opinion, a sovereign mistress of effects, throws a more safer voice on you; you must therefore be content to slubber2 the gloss of your new fortunes with this more stubborn and boisterous expedition.

Oth. The tyrant custom, most grave senators,
Hath made the flinty and steel couch of war
My thrice-driven bed of down.3 I do agnize
A natural and prompt alacrity,

I find in hardness; and do undertake
These present wars against the Ottomites.
Most humbly therefore bending to your state,
I crave fit disposition for my wife;
Due reference of place, and exhibition,5


1 i. e." that the wounds of sorrow were ever cured by the words of consolation." Pierced is here used for penetrated.

2 To slubber here means to obscure.

3 A driven bed is a bed for which the feathers have been selected by driving with a fan, which separates the light from the heavy.

4 To agnize is to acknowledge, confess, or avow. It sometimes signified "to know by some token, to admit, or allow."

5 "I desire that proper disposition be made for my wife, that she may have a fit place appointed for her residence, and such allowance, accommodation, and attendance, as befits her rank." Exhibition for allowance has already occurred in King Lear, and in The Two Gentlemen of Verona.

With such accommodation, and besort,
As levels with her breeding.


Be't at her father's.

If you please,


Oth. Nor I.
Nor I; I would not there reside,
To put my father in impatient thoughts,
By being in his eye. Most gracious duke,
To my unfolding lend a gracious ear;1
And let me find a charter in your voice,2
To assist my simpleness.

Duke. What would you, Desdemona?

I'll not have it so.



Des. That I did love the Moor to live with him,
My downright violence and storm of fortunes 3
May trumpet to the world; my heart's subdued
Even to the very quality of my lord.
I saw Othello's visage in his mind;
And to his honors, and his valiant parts,
Did I my soul and fortunes consecrate.
So that, dear lords, if I be left behind
A moth of peace, and he go to the war,
The rites, for which I love him, are bereft me,
And I a heavy interim shall support

By his dear absence. Let me go with him.

Oth. Your voices, lords;-'beseech you, let her will Have a free way.

Vouch with me, Heaven; I therefore beg it not,
To please the palate of my appetite;

Nor to comply with heat (the young affects,

1 Thus in the quarto 1622. The folio, to avoid the repetition of the same epithet, reads:

Most gracious duke,

To my unfolding lend a prosperous ear."

2 That is, "let your favor privilege me."

3 By her "downright violence and storm of fortunes" Desdemona means, the bold and decisive measures she had taken in giving herself to the Moor. The old quarto reads scorn of fortune.

4 Quality here, as in other passages of Shakspeare, means profession. The quarto reads, "My heart's subdued even to the utmost pleasure of my lord."

In me defunct) and proper satisfaction; 1
But to be free and bounteous to her mind.
And Heaven defend your good souls, that you think
I will your serious and great business scant,
For she is with me. No, when light-winged toys
Of feathered Cupid seel with wanton dulness
My speculative and active instruments,3
That my disports corrupt and taint my business,
Let housewives make a skillet of my helm,
And all indign and base adversities
Make head against my estimation!

Duke. Be it as you shall privately determine, Either for her stay, or going: the affair cries-haste, And speed must answer it; you must hence to-night. Des. To-night, my lord?


This night.


With all my heart. Duke. At nine i' the morning here we'll meet again.

1 Steevens reads, at the suggestion of sir T. Hanmer:

"Nor to comply with heat, the young affects,
In my distinct and proper satisfaction."

Malone reads disjunct instead of distinct. In the Bondman of Massinger we have a passage evidently copied from this speech of Othello:


Let me wear
Your colors, lady, and though youthful heats,
That look no further than your outward form,
Are long since buried in me, while I live,
I am a constant lover of your mind,” &c.

Mr. Gifford observes, that, "as this shows how Shakspeare's contemporaries understood the lines, it should, I think, with us be decisive of their meaning." Affects occur incessantly in the sense of passions, affections; young affects are therefore perfectly synonymous with youthful heats. Mr. Gifford suggests that Shakspeare may have given affect in the singular to correspond with heat. Dr. Johnson's explanation is :-" I ask it not (says Othello) to please appetite or satisfy loose desires, the passions of youth, which I have now outlived, or for any particular gratification of myself, but merely that I may indulge the wishes of my wife."

2 i. e. because.

3 Thus the folio; except that, instead of active instruments, it has officed instrument. The quarto reads "And feathered Cupid foils," &c. Speculative instruments, in Shakspeare's language, are the eyes; and active instruments, the hands and feet. To seel is to close up. The meaning of the passage appears to be, "When the pleasures and idle toys of love make me unfit either for seeing the duties of my office, or for the ready performance of them."

4 The quarto reads reputation,

Othello, leave some officer behind,
And he shall our commission bring to you;
With such things else of quality and respect,
As doth import you.

Please your grace, my ancient;

A man he is of honesty and trust;
To his conveyance I assign my wife,

With what else needful your good grace shall think
To be sent after me.


Let it be so.

Good night to every one.-And, noble seignior, [TO BRABANTIO.

If virtue no delighted' beauty lack,
Your son-in-law is far more fair than black.
[1 Sen. Adieu, brave Moor! use Desdemona well.
Bra. Look to her, Moor; have a quick eye to see;
She has deceived her father, and may thee.

[Exeunt Duke, Senators, Officers, &c. Oth. My life upon her faith.-Honest Iago, My Desdemona must I leave to thee. I pr'ythee, let thy wife attend on her; And bring them after in the best advantage." Come, Desdemona; I have but an hour Of love, of worldly matters and direction, To spend with thee; we must obey the time. [Exeunt OTHELLO and DESDEMona.

Rod. Iago

Iago. What say'st thou, noble heart?
Rod. What will I do, thinkest thou?
Iago. Why, go to bed, and sleep.
Rod. I will incontinently drown myself.

Iago. Well, if thou dost, I shall never love thee after it. Why, thou silly gentleman!

Rod. It is silliness to live, when to live is a torment; and then have we a prescription to die, when death is our physician.

Iago. O, villanous! I have looked upon the world

1 Delighted for delighting.

2 i. e. fairest opportunity.

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