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jurisdiction unless supported by the su- 1 66 One word as to the mode of pro. preme authority.
ceeding. The accused is not confront" In 1255 Alexander the Third, ed with his accuser, and every in. with the consent of St. Louis, esta- former is attended to, though a child, blished the Inquisition in France. The a courtezan, or a criminal stigmatised Grand Inquisitors were the Superior by the hand of justice. A son deof the Cordeliers of Paris and the poses against his father, a wife against Provincial of the Dominicans. The her husband, a brother against his Papal bull directed the Inquisitors to brother. In fine, the accused is consult the bishops, to whose advice, obliged to become his own accuser, however, they were not obliged to land to divine and confess the crime submit. This novel species of juris. that is imputed to him, and of which diction gave umbrage equally to the he has no knowledge. . ecclesiastical and the civil authorities, « This unheard-of mode of pro. and the opposition which it met with ceeding is calculated, no doubt, to shortly reduced the dignity of these keep all Spain in a state of alarm, but monks to a mere name. Had the it must not be imagined that it is bishops in other states exhibited the adopted to the letter. It is not every same firmness, their authority might | accusation, though it may excite sushave continued undiminished.
picion in the Inquisitors, that autho66 The Inquisition had been esta. rises them to arrest or punish the ac. blished at Venice in 1289, but, instead cused. In Spain a man, whether na. of being dependant on the Pope, as in tive or foreigner, may live as securely other states, it was entirely subject to and with as much liberty as elsewherë, the Senate; and in the 16th century | provided a dogmatising spirit does not it was decreed that the assistance of incite him to disturb the public peace. three Senators should be necessary for "The declaimers against the Inqui. every judicial process. This decree /sition have drawn in the blackest comade it easy to elude the authority of lours the punishment inflicted by this the Court of Inquisition, which au- tribunal, which they style auto da fè, thority was in consequence annihilated acts of faith. A priest,, say they, in in this state.
a surplice, or a monk, whose profes“ The Sovereigns of Naples and Si. sion is that of mildness and charity, is cily claimed a right, from Papal con. the person who in a vast and dreary cessions, to the exercise of ecclesias. | dungeon directs the torture of a fellow tical jurisdiction. This claim gave creature ; the unhappy victim follows rise to disputes between the Pope and a procession of monks to the pile prethe King about the right of appointing pared for his execution, and the King, the Inquisition the consequence was, whose presence dispenses mercy to crithat none were appointed. And if the minals, assists, on a seat lower than Inquisition was at length establishsd the Inquisitor's, a witness to the death in Sicily, (A. D. 1478) as it had been of his own subjects' expiring in the in Spain, it was still more than in flames. Spain a privilege of the crown.
All this is undoubtedly very pa. " Torquemada, a Dominican, who thetic. But it should be qualified by was made Cardinal and Grand-Ínqui- | the following observations. 1st. It sitor, gave to that tribunal in Spain | bespeaks a want of candour to insl. the juridical form which it still re- nuate that the fire is the portion of all tains. It is said that in the space of whom the Inquisition condemns. It fourteen years he instituted more than is the punishment inflicted only for 80,000 juridical processes, and that crimes which are visited in the same not less than five or six thousand peo. | manner among those nations in which ple suffered. But this account is evi- the Inquisition is not known. Such dently exaggerated.
| as sacrilege, profanation, apostacy,
magic. Other crimes are punished , has very much disarmed it of its terwith perpetual imprisonment, confine- rors in his dominions. He has orment in a monastery, the discipline dained that the procurator general, and other species of penance. 2dly. who is the prosecutor, shall communi. It is a custom in all Christian nations cate to the accused the'articles of imthat criminals should be assisted at peachment and the names of the wittheir execution by the priest, who ex nesses. 2dly. That the accused shall horts them to patience. He is often have the power of choosing an advo. accompanied by members of the con- cate with whom he may also confer: fraternity of the cross, who offer up and 3dly, That no sentence of the Intheir prayers for the criminal, and be. quisition shall be put into execution stow the rite of sepulture on his body. until it has been confirmed by his
Query, Is this a mark of cruelty ? council. | 3dly. Capital punishments are very 66 The person who has declaimed
rare both in Spain and Portugal, and with the greatest virulence against this į no single instance can be produced of tribunal, acknowledges, however, that i its having been jnflicted at Rome. At excesses have frequently been imputed
Rome the Inquisition was always less to it of which it has not been guilty. i severe than any where else, and the In his opinion it betrays à want of | form given to it by Torquemada has judgment to ground an invective on : never been received at Rome. The uncertainties, and still more on falsei suppression of these matters is a re- hoods. It were well had he acted on ! flection on the candour and sincerity this principle, and discovered a little of our declaimers.
more candour in his relations. 1 “ Again, it is somewhat absurd to 1 66 We cordially congratulate France ! denominate these executions Human and Germany that they are free from 1 Sacrifices. To all punishments inflict. the influence of this tribunal. Yet
ed for crimes against Religion this ap- | we have no hesitation in declaring our pellation might with equal justice be firm conviction, that were our infidel applied. These profound gentlemen philosophers to become masters they will have some difficulty to persuade would establish an Inquisition much the Christian world that no offences of more severe than that of Spain." this nature ought to be punished with
To the Editor of the Orthodox Journal. « Reproach a Spaniard with the horrors of the Inquisition he will It is difficult, Mr. Editor, in our answer, that wars on account of reli- days to decide, which is the most gion, in the kingdom of France worthy of credit or attention, the alone, have caused more blood to be Hirelings, as they are termed by one shed than has been spilt by the tribu. party, the Talents, as they are called nals of the Inquisition over the whole by another, or the Jacobins, as they ( World : and he will add, that by means are designated by a third; each of of the Inquisition Spain has been pre. | these are using their utmost exertions served from any infection of the infi. to undermine, in the opinions of their delity which at this day oyerspreads readers, the professors of the Catholic the rest of Europe. Tell him that faith, each exceeding the other in wars are of a temporary nature, and their spirit of malevolence against the must soon subside, but that the Inqui. Supreme Head of our Church, but the sition it would seem, opce established, last exceeding the two former, if posbecomes a permament institution—he sible, in every thing that is absurd, will reply by an appeal to facts. uncharitable, malicious, or uncandid. France, Germany, the States of Ve-Examine the effusions of the first; nice, have suppressed after having ad- all is abuse, without provocation or mitted it. And the king of Portugal ( argument: of the second, all is ma.
lice, enriched, if I may be allowed on the Hibernian Societies; and should ibe expression, with all the ornaments they still doubt, then I would send of superior diction: and the third, all them to the very Meetings of these is hypocrisy, clothed in the garment | Canting Philanthropists, and Bible. of universal philanthropy. The first I mongers, to see with their own eyes, exist from their singular attachment and hear with their own ears, these to everything which the minister wholesale dealers in calumnies. The adopts, and abuse of every thing which second, as opposition must be their ke may dislike, and for this reason are | land-mark, are professing every friend. the Catholics so often the subjects of ship and good will towards the Cathotheir abuse: the second by their no lic Cause, and exerting themselves to less singular attachment to every thing promote the attainment of Emancipa. which may be construed to an oppo- / tion, while they are insulting their sition of the minister, and the posses- feelings by daily abusing their Clergy, sion of those superior powers of argu and the venerable Head of their ment, though sophistically arranged, Church; and the third with an inge. which a classical education can be nuity at once attracting and profane, stow: and the third by an anxiety to are turning every doctrine of our seize on every opportunity which inay Church, and every mandate from its offer itself for making religion the sub. head, into ridicule, and seeking to ject of ridicule, though always shaded draw upon them an universal execrain the onset by some hypocritical | tion and contempt, forgetting that phrase or other, which seldom fails to such attempts have been thrusting, for produce the desired effect, and the many centuries, at them, without even resources attendant on superior natu- inflicting a wound, but seemingly reral talents, though with little informa. torting the ridicule and contempt on tion, save such as may have been those from whom they had sprung. derived from the writings of a Vol. For, as well may it be attempted to taire, a Volney, a Rousseau, or a prevent the rising and setting of the Tom Paine, and the most vulgar and sun, as to bring into general contempt sarcastic modes of expression. Among and ridicule, the doctrines of our all these, I must say, the most to be Church, which, being built on a rock, dreaded, are the latter, because, from supported by the promise of our Satheir extraordinary abilities in sar- | viour himself, shall stand and subdue casms, their effusions are more suited the efforts of human inventions.- In to the vulgar mind.-Now, were I to short, every paper, whether ministedraw the distinctions in which these rial, oppositional, or Jacobinical, parties respectively move, I should daily or weekly, must latterly have say the first are the breakfast com become disgusting to their Catholic panions of the greater part of the higher readers. In one it is the Inquisition, cireles; the second, the afternoon com- in another the Free Masons, and in a panions of the middle circle; and the third the Jesuits; these topics gene. third, the beer and pipe companions rally take their turns; but sometimes of the labouring class.--Thus it is, the whole are combined together, and really, that the first of these daily drawn up in regular battle array, to deal out a profusion of abuse and bespatter with abuse, malice, and hy. false assertions, grounded on some pocrisy, the venerable Head, the Cler. on dit of a malicious calumniator, belgy, and all the professors, of the la cause they suit the palates of the mi-tholic Church. For some time back nister of the day. To prove that such I had formed an idea that the people malicious calumniators do exist, I of England would soon have had an would refer any of your doubting | opportunity of evincing, to their Ca. Teaders to the excellent letters of your tholic countrymen, the interest which very intelligent correspondent“J.C." | they take in their cause, having long suspected and experienced, that while , comply with her wishes: Germany, any thing else, however insigaificant Prussia, and Russia, alone gave them in itself, could attract their attention, protection. At this moment a matri. their Catholic countrymen found little monial union was proposed between or no résource in their good will or the then Dauphin of France and the wisheś.-Now, indeed, that nothing unfortunate Marie Antoinette. Preelse engages their thoughts, we are to vious, however, to this taking place, be honoured with them, but in what a condition was exacted from Germamanner? Is it seeking, by argument, ny; viz. that she would remain neuto withdraw us from the errors (as they tral in the dispute with the Pope reare called) of our Church? Is it by garding the Jesuits, to which that candour to represent our principles in Court reluctantly consented, and then their just shapes? Is it honestly to the storm began to rage with the undertake the advocacy of our cause ? greatest violence. Separations were Is it charitably to interpret our inten- / threatened on all sides; and the tions, and those of Catholic princes? French ambassador had positive or No; it is much to be regretted, that ders to quit Rome, should not the argument has long since left their ban. views of his Court be immediately acners, and sophistry has taken its ceeded to: at length, Gangenelli, the place, on religious subjects. The then Pope, with the utmost reluctance volumes of their papers and magazines submitted, and solemnly suppressed are filled with calumnies; they are the order. The late Empress of Russia, abusing us for not surrendering the Catharine, who it may be recollected discipline of our Church into the was not a Catholic, knowing the im. hands of their ministers, and accepting portance of such a body, and bearing the Veto: in short, they are ever witness to their many distinguished filled with the basest insinuations and virtuous qualities, offered them against us.
shelter and protection in her own doIn this letter it is not my intention minions; and the work of Philosophy, to enter into a discussion of the many after having first built a sufficiently unjust charges, calúmnies, and insi. firm foundation, began to expand it nuations, which have for the last two self throughout Europe, but particumonths disgraced their columns; such larly in France. Soon was every a task would be tedious, irksome, and Coffee-house and Library infected by unnecessary; but as the restoration the pernicious principles of the Philoof that important body of men, the sophers; nothing was heard or read but Jesuits, seems to have singularly of. | Voltaire, or some such deadly wrifended them, I shall merely shew whatter. Debauchery began to assume all circumstances strike me as causes shapes; irreligion was considered the arising, in the first instance, from the proof of a reasonable mind; ambition suppression of that body by Pope Cle. I and dreams of equality seized the ment XIV.; and should they prolong brains of the vulgar; the passions were my letter too much, in another I shall inflamed; the minds corrupted; and try to shew the benefits which are, in Paris, which had flourished, and han my opinion, likely to result from their for centuries been the boast of the re-establishment by Pope Pius VII. Christian Church, now became a scene
It will be recollected that, previous of savage barbarity. Men naturally to their suppression, all the Catholic born to love each other, had now beCourts were urging the Pope to that come mere canibals; the King brought measure; among the foremost of which by an insolent mob to trial; constood that of Portugal, then under the demned; and by his own subjects led government of the detestable Pombal; to the scaffold; the unhappy Queen which, in fact, had threatened to 'se- dragged from prison to prison, at parate from Rome, did not its Court, length met the fate of her husband;
the King's sister, whose piety had I was not spared : it is needless to repeat been the admiration of the whole of her woes. Her venerable Pontiff has France, also led to the scaffold, and suffered equal to any of his prede. her body afterwards insulted and cessors in the cause of virtue and reli: mangled with the utmost barbarity by gion, with a degree of Christian for. a bloody and unmanly mob. The re- titude which has been the admiration mainder of the Royal Family and the land wonder of Europe: but Russia, nobility obliged to seek protection in the Protector of the Jesuits, and latemigration, not unfrequently suffering terly the Protector of Europe, alone the cruel pangs of hunger, without was spared, she indeed, also saw the the means or probability of obtaining enemy enter her capital ; but under food to satisfy them. The Clergy | what circumstances? Was it not to in. basely and savagely butchered; the crease his troubles ? His victorious gentry wandering about strange soils, I career first slackened when he put foot begging their sustenance; and the peo- ! on Russian ground, and when he en. ple at length become the prey, of an i tered her capital, then the measure of ambitious Tyrant. In short, all na. his woes were complete. His army was ture seemed to have received a shock; | reduced to the utmost want and misery; and as the foundation of all these I himself forced to seek shelter under evils, France has to look to her the cover of a feigned name, abandon. conduct towards the Jesuits, and the ed his army perishing with cold and profanation committed in the adora. hunger, finding comfort only in the tion which was paid to Voltaire at his sabres of the Cossacks which rid them return from banishment to Paris, at of their miserable existence. No doubt the Theatre. Had France but sup- the prayers of those holy but persecupressed the Free Masons, and sup. ted men, the Jesuits, contributed not ported the Jesuits, Europe would not a little to the success which the arms have to deplore twenty years devasta. I of Russia afterwards found in their tion. But is France, I would ask, I pursuit of the Desolator of Europe. the only Power which has suffered ? Russia, victoriously entered the capi. No, is my answer. Spisin has also tal of France, hurled the Tyrant from grievously suffered. Her Sovereign his throne, profered peace to that un. has been thrust from his Throne, and happy, country, restored its exiled the Royal Family forced to abdicate monarch, and bearing the olive in her in favour of a cowardly Usurper; hand, her sovereign returned to his themselves insulted and cast into pri- own dominions, all Europe bearing son. 'The Court of Portugal was also I witness to his virtues : such were the compelled to take flight, and seek l afflictions with which the wrath of the shelter in her South American Colo- | Almighty visited Europe, after the nies.—Yes, the same Tagus which had suppression and persecution of the Je. received the exiled Jesuits, afterwards suits. saw the same Court which had banished | Were I now to enter into a defence virtue to admit vice, pass in exile of the Jesuits, against the foul charges through its angry waves:-Austria | adduced by their enemies, it would be was humbled, and her sovereign com
ner sovereign com- partly encouraging them. —No, cdo pelled to give his daughter in marriage
e his daughter in marriage | lumny proceeding from such quarters to a Tyrant, after having been obliged is more an honour than a stain to their to exchange his title, and experience character. But I am told that some the mortification of twice beholding of our own clergy are among the se. the victorious enemy enter her capital. cret calumniators of these holy men, Prussia also saw the enemy victorious. I and have expressed sorrow at their re: ly enter her capital, after having in a storation by the present Pope; to such few days destroyed her army.-- Rome, I would say, it can only proceed ir itself, in the vengeance of the Almighty, an inexcusable ignorance of the vi