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PREFACE.

This edition is a careful revision of the one published in 1882.

The text, as in the former edition, follows Ribbeck in the main, adhering, however, to the received reading where he seems to be not fully supported by his own apparatus criticus.

The illustrations have been much increased in number and improved in execution. Many of the new ones have been inserted in the text instead of in the notes in order to present them more directly to the eye of the student when he is reading the passages that they illustrate. The pictures are intended to represent only objects or conceptions which were familiar to the minds of the poet and his contemporaries, and consequently nothing modern has been admitted among them. For the sake of the associations, however, a number of views of the scenes in which the action takes place have been included.

The introduction deals more fully than that of the former edition with the life and times of Virgil, as well as with his literary models. There have been added also an entirely new account of the development of epic poetry and a discussion of the influence of Virgil on modern, especially English, literature. With the same purpose of showing the continuity

of literary tradition a large number of passages from modern poetry covering a wide range have been inserted in the notes. These passages are either direct imitations of Virgil or they deal with ideas suggested by his works. Considerable matter not necessary for young students has been omitted from the notes to appear in a separate volume designed for teachers only. Thus the notes have been simplified and the bulk of the book has not been perceptibly increased. A fuller explanation of the metrical form and more detailed directions for reading have also been added.

J. B. GREENOUGH
G. L. KITTREDGE.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

ABBREVIATIONS.

Ann. Inst. - Annali (Bolletino) dell' Insti

tuto di Corrispondenza Archeologica.

Rome.
Arch. Zeit. Archäologische Zeitung.

Berlin.
Baum. - Baumeister,

Denkmäler des klassischen Altertums. Munich. Compt. Rend. - Compte-Rendu de la

Commission Impériale Archéologique.

St. Pétersbourg. De Clarac. – Musée de Sculpture. G. & K. - Das Leben der Griechen und

Römer. Guhl und Koner. Gior. Sca.--Giornale dei Scavi a Pom

pei. Hirt.- Bilderbuch für Mythologie, Archä

ologie, und Kunst, herausgegeben von

A. Hirt. Berlin, 1805. H. & P. - Herculanum et Pompei, par

H. Roux Ainé. Paris, 1840. Inghirami. – Galeria Omerica. Lütz. - Münchener Antiken von Carl

Fr. A. von Lützow.

Micali. - Monumenti per servire alla

Storia, etc. Mill. -- A. L. Millin's Mythologische

Gallerie. Berlin, 1848. Müller. – Denkmäler der alten Kunst,

C. O. Müller. Göttingen, 1832. Müller-Wieseler. – Denkmäler der alten

Kunst (revised by Wieseler). Mus. Chiar. - Museo Chiaramonte. Mus. Flor. Museum de Florence. Nicolini. - Case di Pompei. Overbeck. Griechische Kunst-Mytholo

gie, von J. Overbeck. Leipzig, 1873-78. R.R. · Raoul Rochette, Monumenti in

editi. Sepolcri. Gli Antichi Sepolcri, da Pietro

Sante Bartoli. Rome, 1727. Smith. — Smith's Dictionary of Antiqui

ties. Visconti. Visconti, Iconographie Ro

maine. Zahn. – Die schönsten Ornamente aus

Pompeii.

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IN THE TEXT.

PAGE

Death of Icarus. Wall painting at Pompeii. Baum. Frontispiece.
Juno. Statue. Mus. Chiar.

3 Ideal portrait of Virgil. Vatican Fragments.

3 The Parcæ with Minerva. Relief. Müller-Wieseler.

5
Neptune in his car, with sea-horses. Gem. Hirt.
Hunting Scenes. Wall paintings. Zahn.
Jupiter. Statue. Mus. Chiar.
Temple of Augustus (Maison Carrée) at Nismes. Photograph. 14
Flying Mercury. . Vase painting. Nicolini.

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Warrior with two spears. Vase painting. Compt. Rend.
Diana hunting. Relief. Mus. Chiar.

17
Building of Carthage. Vatican Fragments.
Amazons defeated by Theseus. Ancient sarcophagus. Photograph.
Fortune seated on a throne (solium). Bronze from Pompeii. Pre-
suhn.

23 Reception of Ilioneus by Dido. Vatican Fragments.

25 Bride with Veil. Wall painting. Monumenti dell'Istituto.

29 Lady with diadem (corona). Statue. Compt. Rend.

29 Dido and Æneas at the feast. Vatican Fragments.

34
Trojan horse drawn within the walls. - Women supplicating Pallas.
– Priam seated. — Cassandra raving on the walls. H. & P.

36
Sacrifice of Iphigenia. Relief. R. R.
Theft of the Palladium. Wall painting. Monumenti dell'Istituto. 41
Laocoön. Vatican Museum. Photograph.

43 Cassandra. Vase painting. R. R.

49 Murder of Priam. Vase painting. Müller-Wieseler.

54 Pallas. Statue. Mus. Chiar.

56 The fiery omen. Vatican Fragments.

59 Flight of Æneas. Gem. Mus. Flor..

61 Part of the Tabula Iliaca, carved (or cast in gypsum) with illustra

tions of the Sack of Troy as told by Stesichorus. Jahn, Bilderchronik.

64 Æneas's vision of the Penates. Vatican Fragments.

65 Apollo Musagetes. Statue. Museo Pio-Clementino.

68 Sacrifice. Relief on the altar of Mercury at Pompeii. Photograph. 69 Harpies. Ancient mausoleum. Monumenti dell'Istituto.

73 Offerings to the dead. Vase painting. Mus. Borb.

77 Veiled Roman sacrificing. Statue. Photograph.

80 Scylla. Ancient vase.

81
Chain-mail (lorica). Fragment found in a tomb. Compt. Rend.
Temple at Agrigentum. Photograph.
View of Mt. Ætna. Photograph.
Polyphemus. Wall painting in Pompeii. Nuovi Scavi.

89 View of the coast of Sicily. Rocks of the Cyclops. Photograph. 90 View of Trapani (Drepanum). Photograph.

91 Dido sacrificing. Vatican Fragments.

92 Ceres. Statue. Mus. Chiar.

94 Youth with chlamys. Statuette. Müller-Wieseler.

97 Roman marriage. Pronuba uniting the pair. Ancient sarcophagus. 99

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83 85

87

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Mercury Psychopompus (with caduceus, etc.), presenting shades to

Pluto and Proserpina. Wall painting from tomb. Sepolcri.
Mercury. Statue. Mus. Chiar.
Bacchic scene.

Ancient sarcophagus in Vatican Museum. Photo-
graph.
Sortes. -- Italian form of divination. Priestess of Fortune at
Præneste drawing the oracular sors.

Gior. Sca. .
Orestes and the Furies. Vase painting. R. R.
Hecate. Archäologisch-epigraphische Mittheilungen.
Death of Dido. Vatican Fragments.
Venus and Neptune. Vatican Fragments.
Carchesium. Ancient vase. Annali dell'Istituto.
Serpent (genius loci) tasting the offerings on an altar.—Youth with

sacred bush. H. & P.
Galley. Wall painting at Pompeii. Baum.
Nereids. Ancient Stucco.
Horse with trappings. Roman tomb. Lindenschmidt, Tracht.
Dares and Entellus. Relief. Photograph.
Ulysses shooting with the bow. Vase painting. Monumenti

dell'Istituto.
Neptune. Baum.
Neptune. Gem. Baum.
Neptune and Amphitrite in car. Triton, etc. Relief.
Vicinity of Cumæ. Photograph. .
Æneas, Achates, and the Sibyl. Vatican Fragments.
Theseus and the Minotaur. Vase painting.
Orpheus and Eurydice. Naples Museum. Photograph.
Hercules and Theseus carrying off Cerberus. Painting from a

tomb. Sepolcri. . .
Promontory of Misenum. Photograph.
Charon receiving his passenger and fare. Ancient lamp. Bartoli,

Lucerne.
Cerberus. Æneas and the Sibyl. - In the background, judgment

of the shades. Vatican Frag nts.
Laodamia. Ancient relief. Baum.
Tantalus, Ixion, and Sisyphus. Wall painting from a tomb.

Sepolcri. .
Augustus with the civic crown. Ancient bust. Photograph.
Marcus Aurelius receiving submission. From photograph of the

walls of the Capitol at Rome.

138 147 148 149

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