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“ freedom for the Church of England from State control” OUR PRESENT DANGERS.
means, for example, such a deplorable and disheartening
position of affairs as exists in North Britain, may the Saints THERE is nothing more disheartening than to mark the preserve us from contemplating such an unlovely precedent, cynical apathy with which so many Churchmen contemplate still more from imitating it ! the various perplexing and extending dangers of the Church It should be noticed that the very men, who by their pens of England. It may be true that some of these appear and pamphlets, their well-organized “Unions and their greater than they really are, from the fact of their constant underground burrowing, their abuse of the Bishops and their discussion and exaggeration by those who are external to the insolence to authority, have done so much to weaken the National communion. But recent events, more especially the alliance between Church and State, and to produce the rapid and startling manner in which the Irish Church was existing anarchy, are expectant Scotchmen and daring Irishshamefully robbed by a confederation of political Dissenters, men who should have continued to bless their native countries adventurous Whigs, and designing Roman Catholics, should with their pleasing presence and labours, instead of making make us realize our dangers and strive to meet them. foraging expeditions and experimental revolutions here.
As regards the numerical position of the Church in the These are the persons who for a long series of years have nation, we quite believe that the Census of twenty years ago laboured with a quiet determination and an energy unsurwas planned in fraud and taken by trickery: but the moral passed to detach the English Clergy from the Conservative effect of the trick has not the less been both damaging and party. This they have to a great extent succeeded in effecting, disadvantageous to us. It may be a question how far the first by sanctimoniously declaring that any alliance with any Catholic movement has numerically strengthened the Church. political party is a spiritual mistake ; and then, when this Morally, intellectually, and doctrinally it has done much : policy has been recognized, by preaching an unquestioned politically it has effected little or nothing. Circumstances adherence to Mr. Gladstone as the sum and substance of their which of old made some of its leading representatives at political creed. The palpable fallacies of such need not be Oxford warm and active allies of the Whigs and Liberals, and further dwelt upon. more recently their docile and obedient creatures, could not If, as we believe, there is an abstract truth in politics, do other than cause weakness and create dangers. Of old independent of time, country and circumstance, then it follows the Church and the Conservatives were properly and reasonably that the Parish Priest has just as much right to take an allies. Such an alliance was natural, both as regards prin- active part in snch questions as the parish beadle. And even ciples and precedents. A Whig parson, at one time a very greater. For the Parish Priest has to teach. He is responlusus naturæ, has been and is at all times an Ecclesiastical sible for the souls of his people. And if he would benefit abortion. It is absolutely impossible for a Whig or a Liberal them here, and prepare them for hereafter, he cannot fail to to be a sound Churchman. For the unchangeable principles of be constantly called upon to expound political truth,-pointing both these sections are utterly contrarient to the great prin- his moral and adorning his tale from the events of the day. ciple of authority. Where is the Whig who in his inmost The reason why the pulpits of the Church of England have heart does other than look upon the Church as a mere means lost their power is because the Clergy have unwisely renounced and instrument for preserving social order and advancing their legitimate position as public teachers, and have relegated Whiggism—an institution like in kind to that in Scotland- this duty to the anonymous writers of the press. yard, the officers of the former merely wearing surplices and Christianity has an enduring and unchanging principle to black scarves instead of blue tunics and helmets.
apply to wars and their origin, to diplomatic intercourse, the Where, again, is the Liberal who, without being painfully relations of colonies to the mother country, the power of a shallow orglaringly inconsistent, can be a Catholic Churchman ? large State over a small, as well as to every subject of internal The Whig and Liberal systems are founded on principles— social legislation. To disconnect the Christian principle from more or less developed or obscured as necessities arise— Education, the rights of individuals and corporations, the identical with those set forth in “The Rights of Man," and care and sustentation of the poor, the relation of King to wbolly repugnant to any coherent Christian system which, on subject and of subject to King, is to set God at defiance and Divine authority, claims the obedience of the faithful because to deny His interest and authority in the world. We are of the Incarnation of the Most High. What do the flippant well aware that this is done by “Liberalism"-falsely so-called: Foung gentlemen of the cheap Ritualistic press, whose notions and that where Liberalism permanently attains the upper and noise are so distasteful to their seniors, understand by the hand, nations as well as individuals go to the dogs. It was promise that the nations of the World should acknowledge so in England during the Commonwealth for a long series of and accept the Christian principle ? Are the sober members disastrous years ; and such a result would then have happened of the English Church - forgetting the history of the past to this country had not the good sense and sound principles twelve centuries—to ignore alĩ that has been won, to repudiate of a few great men cut the knot and sent adrift the canting all that has been effected, to barter away all that has been impostors and crafty hypocrites, who by the power of Might bequeathed to us by the faith and piety of past generations, had for a while obtained the upper hand. Puritanism was for some paltry favour from the present Prime Minister ; who, the scourge then : now it is Infidelity. With this danger, in his turn, will expect his fawning and obsequious followers everywhere extending, with an unnatural alliance between to follow him in the future whithersoever he may lead ? If Roman Catholics and Dissenters of all kinds—an alliance
which has made Mr. Gladstone dictator of our destinies—and are doing vast mischief. The appointment, we need not the leaders of which contemplate nothing less than the same say, has created a positive consternation. For ourselves we kind of measure for the Church of England as was last Session pity with unfeigned pity those disappointed dupes who during meted out for the Church of Ireland—what are we doing? the University elections were so completely misled by leading What do we propose to effect in our defence? Where can men at Oxford professing to be the exclusive recipients of Mr. we look for help?
Gladstone's confidence. We need not mention them for they are Ecclesiastically speaking, the spirit of anarchy has fallen known to all. We have not forgotten the curious and amusing upon us. Dreamers, in the quiet of their libraries, dream Happy Family exhibited at a Trafalgar-square Hotel—birds that disestablishment would bring down a heaven upon earth, and beasts, clean and unclean, whose claws were pruned lest making all our rough places smooth. And the Scotch and they should fight, and whose instincts were artificially Irish prophets of destruction, with rant and rhapsody, go deadened, lest they should devour each other an exhibition about preaching this newly-found Gospel. If only beardless which won applause and excited admiration. We have not youths and sentimental women were entrapped by their forgotten the urgent, pressing letters of the Secretaries to frothy eloquence, little harm would ensue. But old principles doubtful Puseyites—promising a state of unchanging Eccleare forgotten by others, and even certain elders now seem to siastical bliss so soon as Mr. Gladstone should be duly installed be ever on the look out for novel sensations, and appear to in Downing-street. The deceivers are at present up in arms“despair of the ancient republic."
the dupes are ashamed of themselves. Sceptics now ride in Of one fact in the future our readers may rest assured. triumph on the shoulders of Oxford professors and Tractarian Every fresh step that is taken to weaken the alliance between devotees ; and the principles of Essays and Reviews are to Church and State blots out the Christian principle from our become an authorized part of the Church of England's tradilegislative acts as a nation. And any step that does this hastens tion. The Guardian, inspired from Carlton House Terrace, the coming day of certain punishment.” In consenting to the informs us in its last number that it is for “the good of the making of new experiments, we may wonder at the patience Church to have at least one very vigorous and thoroughly of the Great King of the whole Earth. We may hug the Liberal Bishop"—as if there were not plenty already—and delusion, that though other nations may appear to have elsewhere threatens those who may counsel opposition, that suffered in byegone ages because of such, we shall be certain such " in the present state of one's feelings might prove the to go unpunished. We may be tempted for a time even to signal for mischief of which no one can tell the end." The accept the shallow falsehoods of self-worshipping philosophers smaller fry of Liberal Church papers, in announcing the and Liberal “ thinkers " as true ; but so surely as the nation appointment, are remarkably coy and common-place. Valiant rejects the Christian principle-embodied in an Established defenders of the use of extreme ceremonies shrink out of sight Church and in Christian legislation-s0 surely shall we be and are silent in the present difficulty, while the coarse punished for our sins.
language of the traducers of the Reformation gives place to There is a judicial blindness on many. The paltry petti- words of butter and honey just now. ness displayed regarding some detail of external worship; the Dr. Pusey, however, is not silent. He has written a unprecedented narrowness of thought exemplified by aliens long letter to the Guardian, and a second, equally long, and adventurers who have thrust themselves forward to lead; to the John Bull. With him the appointment is the infantine simplicity and delusive hopes of the led, are • horrible scandal.” His one remedy, however, is—Disestabeach and all details of the warning which stands silent to lishment. Throughout the letters there is not a single word of warn. And the dangers and perplexities thicken daily ; for, apology for, or explanation of, Mr. Gladstone's scandalous while the present is an age of random change and unpre- appointment. From end to end his followers get no light cedented propositions, our chief and most dangerous foes are thrown upon a dark subject, foreboding nothing less than those of our own household.
future disruption. For if the Essays and Reviews and their principles are now to be legally a part of the Anglican tradi
tion, the Archbishop of York's treatment of Mr. Voysey MR. GLADSTONE'S BISHOP-DESIGNATE OF EXETER. becomes unjustifiable. The Incumbent of Healaugh, however
heretical in his notions, is at least honest and plain-spoken. The appointment of Dr. Temple of Rugby to be Bishop He did not, like others, wrap up his notions in language which Phillpotts's successor is certainly as plain an insult to all was misty. For as Dr. Pusey writes of the Essayists :Christians of the Church of England as could possibly be “ They undermined men's faith without denying it themselves conceived. Dr. Temple, we are aware, is unquestionably a in such definite terms as would materially injure their offices man of high intellectual ability. In Easter Term, 1842, he and positions.” Quite true is this, but then, what a queer was placed in the First Class at Oxford in both schools, in remedy is the Doctor's proposition ! Politically speaking, disciplinis Mathematicis as well as in Literis Humanioribus, and he has misled a section of the Catholic party for
years. He has since done something to promote education. He is, has promised and given pledges again and again. The late however, one of the leaders of the Broad Church sect, and Mr. Keble unfortunately did the same. And now a crisis is the chief writer in Essays and Reviews. He has never been a upon us. Dr. Pusey can only recommend disestablishment. Parish Clergyman, and his chief merit, from a Liberal point What an impotent anti-climax! Had Churchmen during the of view, seems to be that at the last election he generously past thirty years generously given their confidence to their stumped the country on behalf of Mr. Gladstone in his hour natural allies the Tories, Church parties would have been in a of need. What else he has done to merit a Bishopric even the very different state from what they are now. Instead of Guardian is unable to tell us. Within the last two or three chaos, we should have had order : instead of cliques and years, in conjunction with Mr. McArthur, the M.P. for sectarianism, discipline and united action. But we are all at Lambeth, he publicly assisted at laying the foundation-stone sixes and sevens. Our Unions” have promoted disunion : of a new Wesleyan preaching-houge at Rugby-where, as we our great leaders' political idol is placing Dr. Temple upon learn from the Rugby Advertiser, he formally declared of the Dr. Phillpotts's honored throne. schismatics there—"I wish you from the very depth of my We remember Dr. Pusey's weighty words after the Essays heart all the success that can possibly be granted you, and and Reviews' judgment—words which stood in the Preface of that your congregation may increase.” Such an act of a notable Sermon. They created a profound sensation at the “Liberality” will no doubt be very consoling to the Clergy of time. Men, if we remember rightly, were urged not to conCornwall where the heresies and vagaries of this sect tribute to any Church works, not to promote the consecration
of any new Churches, until the stain of that judgment had new dogmas are promulgated, it is hoped that every whisper been removed and its scandal wiped out. Yet now Dr. Pusey of opposition will be suppressed. But those who deprecate has to put up with this uncalled for and gratuitous insult to discussion are, nevertheless, using all available means to the Church of England, from his great ally Mr. Gladstone, dictate beforehand what they bid us regard as the utterances who, to reward a political partizan, is bold enough to make of the Spirit of God, and it is in order to expose and Dr. Temple a Bishop, and of which ally Dr. Pusey remarks, refute their tactics that the present work has been written. “ He who has meditated this outrage on the faith of Christians “ Janus” is evidently a nom de plume to disguise some very himself holds that faith.” This valuable and generous testi- “eminent hand” amongst the Roman Catholic divines of monial to the fact of Mr. Gladstone's Christianity-however Germany, and we may say at once that there is an amount appreciated by the person more immediately concerned-is but of learning amassed in this comparatively small volume, and cold comfort to Dr. Pusey's anxious followers, or to the Church brought into a focus to illustrate the central question of Infalliof England in general. But cold comfort is all that can be bility, which will repay the careful study of scholars and theoexpected when the Liberals are in office. So we must “rest logians. But here we have no space to enter on these aspects of and be thankful."
the book, which our readers will do well to investigate more fully Did we hope-which the adroitness and opportunities of for themselves. We must be content to indicate very briefly our opponents do not lead us to do—that the Dean and its immediate bearing on the great question of the day in the Chapter of Exeter would stand to their colours as men and Roman Church. The author's idea seems to be to bring Christians, we should say to them: After you have solemnly together such a mass of evidence, attested by writers of his own invoked the assistance of the Holy Ghost in your act and communion, against the proposed dogma of Infallibility, deed, take any consequences, risk any trumpery legal threat as may make it morally impossible for the Council to of punishment, rather than fail or falter. Choose some good define it, though he also distinctly contemplates, as we shall man and true, and return his name as Bishop-Elect, giving see presently, the event of a wrong decision, and is in that reasons to the Queen why Dr. Temple is passed over. Without case prepared, not to accept the decision, but to challenge the election by the Chapter Dr. Temple never can become a legal authority from which it emanates. That he is not alone in Bishop. Letters Patent only, privately threatened without a this resolve is clear from Father Hyacinthe's letter as well as change in the law-considering the unalterable enactments from other sources. We may pretty safely assume that, if and carefully-followed customs of our Church-would not the Court of Rome determines on carrying out “the plan of serve to make him such. All depends, therefore, on the the campaign," sketched by the Jesuit faction, they will Dean and Chapter. If they are true to themselves, to the encounter a strenuous opposition in the Council from a conChurch and to their God, they may succeed in knocking off siderable section at least of the French and German Bishops, and the chains of Tudor tyranny, and giving that freedom to the that if, as is very possible, all resistance is borne down by sheer National Communion in the election of Bishops which was force of numbers, the decree of the majority will not be ensured by Magna Charta. May God defend the right! acquiesced in as final by the Roman Catholic world. The
author does not think this consideration will have any Reviews of Books.
deterrent effect on “Loyola's Steersmen," who will find it an easier task to guide the bark of Peter when the educated
portion of the crew has been got rid of. But there may be THE POPE AND THE COUNCIL. By Janus. Authorised others who will not think the precedent of Benedict XIII. Translation from the German. (London: Rivingtons, 1869), announcing from his solitary retreat that the whole Catholic
The great Council summoned to meet in Rome next Church was assembled in the Castle of Peniscola an auspicious. December cannot but have an interest even for those who do one. Those who are not yet prepared to treat history as not regard it as strictly “Ecumenical.” Whether any direct “ an old almanac," but, like Dr. Newman, “take their stand overtures will be made to the English Bishops seems to on the Fathers, and do not mean to budge," will find it be very doubtful, and it is difficult to say how they would difficult to accept a dogma never heard of for thirteen be received. But the Council may, and some think will, last centuries, and of which no single Father in East or West many years, and if so, no one can predict what changes in the gives the ery faintest hint, though many of them have comsituation of affairs may supervene. Meanwhile, such an mented at great length on those passages of the New Testaassemblage can hardly fail to have permanent results of one ment on which its modern advocates base it. From a common kind or another, and if it does nothing to remedy it must sense point of view the portentous catalogue here given inevitably do much to complicate the present religious con- of the contradictions and errors of the Popes—we mean, fusions of Christendom. That the latter assumption is that of course, errors judged by a Roman not a Protestant to which present appearances most directly point, cannot be standard—will be even a more fatal crux in the way denied, and the book now before us is one only, though in every of swallowing the theory of the Infallibilists. If the Pope way the most remarkable, of many proofs that such an is really what Archbishop Manning calls him, “the sole anticipation is by no means confined to ourselves. There is last Supreme Judge of what is right and wrong," or as clearly a large party within the Roman Catholic Church who the Jesuit doctors express it, a “ Vice God," in whom we look to the approaching Council with distrust, if not with live and move and have our being, it does seem a little positive repugnance, and who find much in the avowed awkward that the Divine and Infallible Judge should have designs of the Ultramontane party and their Jesuit leaders, made, on any coherent theory of right and wrong whatsoever, to justify their worst fears. Nor is there anything in the so many and such very serious mistakes. How came two tone of Ultramontane journalism either in England or early Popes, for instance, to assert that all infants who die on the continent to reassure them. From the Civilta without receiving Communion go straight to hell, and the Cattolica downwards the organs of the Romanizing party Council of Trent a thousand years afterwards to anathematize are open-mouthed in their confident predictions of the this doctrine ? How came Nicholas I. to tell the Bulgarians “ dogmatizing of the Syllabus and Papal Infallibility, that Baptism in the name of Christ (not of the Trinity) and if the Tablet has lately expressed its desire that was valid, and confirmation administered by a Priest, as all discussion should be avoided till the Holy Ghost has is always done in the East, invalid, both judgments being spoken by the assembled Fathers, that is only because previous in flat opposition to the received doctrine of his Church? discussion might endanger the desired result, about which it And how came several more to insist on re-ordaining Priests professes to entertain no sort of doubt, and when once the ordained by unworthy Bishops, in defiance of the funda