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ference, viz. BCD, for their base; therefore the angle BFD is double (20. 3.) of the angle BAD for the same reason, the angle BFD is double of the angle BED: therefore the angle BAD is equal to the angle BED.

A E

D

. F

But, if the segment BAED be not greater than a semicircle, let BAD, BED be angles in it; these also are equal to one another: draw AF to the centre, and produce it to C, and join CE: therefore the segment BADC is greater than a semicircle; and the an- B gles in it, BAC, BEC are equal, by the first case; for the same reason because CBED is greater than a semicircle, the angles CAD, CED are equal: therefore the whole angle BAD is equal to the whole angle BED. Wherefore the angles in the same segment, &c. Q. E. D.

C

PROP. XXII. THEOR.

THE opposite angles of any quadrilateral figure described in a circle, are together equal to two right angles.

Let ABCD be a quadrilateral figure in the circle ABCD; any two of its opposite angles are together equal to two right angles.

D

C

Join AC, BD; and because the three angles of every triangle are equal (32. 1.) to two right angles, the three angles of the triangle CAB, viz. the angles CAB, ABC, BCA are equal to two right angles: but the angle CAB is equal (21. 3.) to the angle CDB, because they are in the same segment BADC, and the angle ACB is equal to the angle ADB, because they are in the same segment ADCB: therefore the whole angle ADC is equal to the angles CAB, ACB: to A each of these equals add the angle ABC: therefore the angles ABC, CAB, BCA

B

are equal to the angles ABC, ADC: but ABC, CAB, BCA are equal to two right angles; therefore also the angles ABC, ADC are equal to two right angles; in the same manner, the angles

BAD, DCB may be shown to be equal to two right angles. Therefore the opposite angles, &c. Q. E. D.

PROP. XXIII. THEOR.

UPON the same straight line, and upon the same side of it, there cannot be two similar segments of circles, not coinciding with one another.*

D

Ifit be possible, let the two similar segments of circles, viz. ACB, ABD be upon the same side of the same straight line AB, not coinciding with one another: then, because the circle ACB cuts the circle ADB in the two points A, B, they cannot cut one another in any other point (10. 3): one of the segments must therefore fall within the other; let ACB fall within ADB, and draw the straight line BCD, and join CA, DA : and because the segment ACB is similar to the segment ADB, and that similar segments of circles contain (11. def. 3.) equal angles; the angle ACB is equal to the angle ADB, the exterior to the interior, which is impossible (16. 1). Therefore, there cannot be two similar segments of a circle upon the same side of the same line, which do not coincide. Q. E. D.

PROP. XXIV. THEOR.

A

B

SIMILAR segments of circles upon equal straight lines, are equal to one another.*

Let AEB, CFD be similar segments of circles upon the equal straight lines AB, CD: the segment AEB is equal to the segment CFD.

For, if the segment AEB be applied to the

segment CFD, so as the

point A be on C, and

the straight line AB A

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upon CD, the point B shall coincide with the point D, because

• See Notes.

AB is equal to CD: therefore the straight line AB coinciding with CD, the segment AEB, must (23. 3.) coincide with the segment CFD, and therefore is equal to it. Wherefore similar segments, &c. Q. E. D.

PROP. XXV. PROB.

A SEGMENT of a circle being given to describe the circle of which it is the segment.*

Let ABC be the given segment of a circle; it is required to describe the circle of which it is the segment.

Bisect (10. 1.) AC in D, and from the point D draw (11. 1.) DB at right angles to AC, and join AB; first, let the angles ABD, BAD, be equal to one another; then the straight line BD is equal (6. 1.) to DA, and therefore to DC, and because the three straight lines DA, DB, DC, are all equal; D is the centre of the circle (9. 3.): from the centre D, at the distance of any of the three DA, DB, DC, describe a circle; this shall pass through the other points; and the circle of which ABC is a segment is described and because the centre D is in AC; the segment ABC

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is a semicircle: but if the angles ABD, BAD are not equal to one another, at the point A, in the straight line AB, make (23. 1.) the angle BAE equal to the angle ABD, and produce BD, if ne cessary, to E, and join EC: and because the angle ABE is equal to the angle BAE, the straight line BE is equal (6. 1.) to EA; and because AD is equal to DC, and DE common to the triangles ADE, CDE, the two sides AD, DE are equal to the two CD, DE, each to each; and the angle ADE is equal to the angle CDE, for each of them is a right angle; therefore the base AE is equal (4. 1.) to the base EC: but AE was shown to be equal to EB, wherefore also BE is equal to EC: and the three straight lines

See Note.

From the centre E, at the EC, describe a circle, this the circle of which ABC

AE, EB, EC are therefore equal to one another; wherefore (9. 3.) E is the centre of the circle. distance of any of the three AE, EB, shall I pass through the cher points; is a segment is described and it is evident, that if the angle ABD be greater than the angle BAD, the centre E falls without the segment ABC, which therefore is less than a semicircle; but if the angle ABD be less than BAD, the centre E falls within the segment ABC, which is therefore greater than a semicircle: wherefore a segment of a circle being given, the circle is described of which it is a segment. Which was to be done.

PROP. XXVI. THEOR.

In equal circles, equal angles stand upon equal circumferences, whether they be at the centres or circumferences.

Let ABC, DEF be equal circles, and the equal angles BGC, EHF at their centres, and BAC, EDF at their circumferences: the circumference BKC is equal to the circumference ELF.

Join BC, EF; and because the circles ABC, DEF are equal, the straight lines drawn from their centres are equal: therefore the two sides BG, GC are equal to the two EH, HF; and

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the angle at G is equal to the angle at H; therefore the base BC is equal (4. 1.) to the base EF; and because the angle at A is equal to the angle at D, the segment BAC is similar (11. def. 3.) to the segment EDF; and they are upon equal straight lines BĆ, EF; but similar segments of circles upon equal straight lines are equal (24. 3.) to one another; therefore the segment BAC is equal to

the segment EDF; but the whole circle ABC is equal to the whole EDF; therefore the remaining segment BKC is equal to the remaining segment ELF, and the circumference BKC to the circumference ELF. Wherefore, in equal circles, &c. Q. E. D.

PROP. XXVII. THEOR.

IN equal circles, the angles which stand upon équal circumferences are equal to one another, whether they be at the centres or circumferences.

Let the angles BGC, EHF at the centres, and BAC, EDF at the circumferences of the equal circles ABC, DEF stand upon the equal circumferences BC, EF; the angle BGC is equal to the angle EHF, and the angle BAC to the angle EDF.

If the angle BGC be equal to the angle EHF, it is manifest (20. 3.) that the angle BAC is also equal to EDF: but, if not, one

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of them is the greater; let BGC be the greater: and at the point G, in the straight line BG, make (23. I.) the angle BGK equal to the angle EHF; but equal angles stand upon equal circumferences (26. 3.) when they are at the centre; therefore the circumference BK is equal to the circumference EF: but EF is equal to BC; therefore also BK is equal to BC, the less to the greater, which is impossible: therefore the angle BGC is not unequal to the angle EHF; that is, it is equal to it: and the angle at A is half of the angle BGC, and the angle at D half of the angle EHF therefore the angle at A is equal to the angle at D. Wherefore, in equal circles, &c. Q. E. D.

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