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facturing of tools. The inversion of syntax, whereby the adjective idea is expressed by a noun of kindred meaning, is very common in all languages, and is frequently used by the poets with great effect; as, "the might of Gabriel” (Milton); i. e. the mighty Gabriel. Atque = and particularly; giving a single instance of the implements that were then invented. This is a frequent practice with our poet. Serrae. The invention of the saw was attributed by some to Daedalus, by others to Perdix, his nephew. See on Ov. M. VIII. Introd. — 144. Primi; sc. homines. — 146. Improbus =exacting, excessive. Some critics make it=persevering. See on Hor. C. III. 24. 62. Egestas want ; especially of food. This leads the poet back to his subject. — 147. Prima Ceres. The connection is as follows: Before the time of Jupiter there was no tillage (v. 125); but under his reign various arts were invented, and especially that of agriculture, by Ceres. See on v. 7. - 148. Glandes. See on v. & Sacrae is explained by Dodona. See on Chaonias, E. IX. 13. – 149. Deficerent = began to fail. Silvae is the genitive limiting glandes and arbuta ; though some make it the subject of deficerent. Dodona, famous for its oak groves, is used poetically for the oaks themselves. - 150. Et = even ; to be construed with frumentis. Labor injury, trouble, plagues. As examples of labor used of the sufferings of things inanimate, see v. 79, and II. 343, 372. Additus (sc. est); i. e. by Jupiter. Mala baleful, destructive. Cf. V. 129. – 151. Esset. Gr. 291 ; 492. A. & S. 181; 262. — Robigo =blight, mildew. To avert it the Romans worshipped a deity named Robigus, or Robigo, whom they propitiated by a festival called Robigalia. Segnis = unfruitful, worthless. — 152. Subit comes up (in its stead). Silva. See on v. 76. It is explained by the two following nouns. — 154. Infelix ... avenae. See on E. V. 37. – 155. Quod nisi. See on E. IX. 14. Assiduis assidue. Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 15 (a). Herbam. See on v. 69. – 157. Umbram; i. the trees and foliage that make the shade. Votis. Vows were paid to Jupiter Pluvius. — 158. Acervum. Cf.v. 185.159. Concussa ... quercu by shaking the oak; i. e. for acords.

- 160. Dicendum; sc. est mihi. Et = etiam. Arma= imple. ments, utensils, tools. Cf. A. 177. 161. Quis sine. Gr. 187. 1; 602. II. 1. A. & S. 136, R. 2; 279. 10 (a) and . Nec potuere

have never been able. For the perfect, see on v. 49. - 162. Inflexi is explained by vv. 169, 170. – Primum is often used in the beginning of an enumeration without a following deinde or tum, the office of which, however, is often performed by vero, ctiam, auten, etc Grave robur the ponderous and strong ; lit. the ponderous strength : robur aratri for robustum aratrum, like ferri rigor, v. 143, and aeternaque ferri Robora, A. VII. 609. - 163. Tarda = tarde;

qualifying volventia. See on assiduis, v. 155. Eleusinae matris; i. e. of Demeter or Ceres, who was chiefly worshipped at Eleusis in Attica. She is called mater, probably in allusion to her name, Demeter, i. e. Mother Earth. — 164. Tribula, traheae; two kinds of threshing-sledge; the former of which consisted of a thick wooden board, which was armed underneath with pieces of iron or sharp flints, and drawn over the corn by a yoke of oxen, either the driver or a heavy weight being placed upon it, for the purpose of separating the grain and cutting the straw; the latter, a kind of drag, sometimes used, was probably either entirely of stone or made of the trunk of a tree. Iniquo immoderate, very great. Pondere. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. Rastri. See on v. 94. – 165. Virgea ... supellex seems to include baskets, colanders, &c., as well as the hurdles and the fan. Celei; the father of Triptolemus and Demophon, and the first priest of Ceres at Eleusis. She instructed him in agriculture and in the making of wicker-work implements. · 166. Crates. See on v. 94. Vannus the winnowing-fan. This was a broad basket, into which the corn mixed with chaff was received after threshing, and was then thrown in the direction of the wind. It is called mystica, because at the celebration of the Eleusinian mysteries it was carried in the processions in honor of lacchus, the son of Demeter and Zeus, sometimes confounded with Bacchus (as in E. VII. 61), and sometimes distinguished from him. Bacchus was the son of Zeus and Semele. Ceres, Celeus, and Iacchus are here introduced to give a religious dignity to what might otherwise seem trivial. - 167. Multo. Gr. 418 and 1. A. & S. 256, R. 16 (3). Ante; i. e. before they are needed. Memor provisa carefully (mindfully) provided. Provisa repones = providebis et repones. Gr. 579. A. & S. 274. 3 (6). - 168. Digna = deserved, merited. Si manet; for si vis, ut le maneat. Divini ruris ; either as the abode of the rural deities, or, at least, as pleasing to them. – 169. Continuo in silvis = in the very woods. Continuo is explained by in silvis. The words can only mean that the young elm while yet in the woods is bent and made to grow in the required shape, whatever may be thought of the possibility of the thing, which Keightley denies. - 170. Burim the plough-beam. Gr. 85. III. and 2. A. & S. 79.

The buris was a piece of strong wood, naturally or artificially curved, to one end of which was afhxed the pole, to the other the dentuls, and into it was mortised the stiva. It therefore formed the body of the plough. Curvi ... aratri. As the buris gave the characteristic bend to the plough, it is here called by the plough's name, aratri. - 171. Huic; sc. buri. – Ab stirpe=from the lower part; i. e. of the temo. Connect with proténtus. Temo=the pole. Sc aptatur. It was part of the plough, as well as of the cart or car.


riage. The yoke was fastened to the end of it, and by means of it the oxen drew. Sometimes the temo was of the same piece of timber with the buris and share-beam (dentale), though not in the kind of plough here described. — 172. Aures - mould-boards. These rose on each side of the share (vomer), bending outwardly in such a manner as to throw on either hand the soil which had been previously

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Fig. 1. – 1. dentalia : 2. buris ; 3. temo ; 4. Stiva ; 5. manicula ; 6. semer; 7. jugum ; a. funiculus ; b. clavus ; c. collare; d. lora subjugia.

Fig. II. – The common ploughshare.
Fig. III. — The dentalra alone.
Fig. IV. – A plough with mould-boards, aratrum auritum ; 7. 7. aures.

Joosened and raised by the share, and were adjusted to the sharebeam which was made double (duplici dorso) for the purpose of receiving them. Duplici ... dorso. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. Dentalia = the share-beam ; a piece of wood fixed horizontally at the lower end of the buris, and to which the share was fitted. In some cases it was itself shod with iron. It is not certain whether it was one solid piece of timber, with a space to admit the end of the buris, or two pieces fastened on each side of it and running to a point. The plural dentalia is used by Virgil in speaking of one plough, but it is probably nothing more than a usual poetic license. – 173. Ante. See on v. 167. Jugo; piece of wood, straight in the middle and curved towards both ends, which was attached to the end of the pole of the plough or cart, and went over the necks of the oxen. Fagus stivaque; by hendiadys for stiva fagina. Gr. 704. II. 2. A. & S. 323. 2 (3). — 174. Stiva = the plough-handle. The stiva was originally mortised into the buris, but it sometimes formed one piece with it. It had a cross piece named manicula, by which the plough. man held and directed the plough. Cursus ... imos the lowest courses ; referring, perhaps, to the turning of the plough at the end of the furrow. Most editors read currus (= carriage). Gr. 500, A. & S. 264. 5. – 175. Explorat searches (i. e. dries) and tests.

The above diagrams, illustrating Virgil's plough, are taken from the work of Schulz, De Aratri Romani Forma et Compositione.

176. Possum ... ni refugis. Gr. 508. A. & S. 261. R. I, Tibi Maecenas is addressed throughout as the ideal reader. 177. Refugis ; i.e. from hearing, as in A. II. 12 from speaking. Observe the mood and tense : I can repeat . but I see you start oft - 178. Cum primis =

= as a matter of the first importance, especially. -179. Vertenda manu. The earth had to be turned up and worked, or kneaded, with the hand. This operation really preceded the aequanda cylındro, as the preparation of the floor was the first thing. Gr. 704. IV. 2. A. & S. 323. 4 (2). Creta = argilla, as in II. 215. The clay was for the purpose of making it harden and bake. - 180. Pulvere ; for siccitate, effect for cause. — 181 Tum tum ; i. e. if the threshing.floor cracks. Illudant = may mock; i.e. the threshing-floor and the husbandman's labor. See II. 375, where the goats are said to mock, to disport themselves with the young vine. Gr. 485. A. & S. 260. II. Pestes; as injuring the floor and annoying the husbandman. - 182. Posuit ... fecit; aoristic perfects. See on v. 49. – 183. Oculis capti = blind ; lit. taken in the eyes. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. I. The expression seems to come from the use of capi, for to be injured. The mole has eyes, though they are very small, and much covered over. Talpae. Gr. 44. Ex. A. & S. 42. 2. — 184. Inventus; which is found in holes, and which therefore is likely to creep into holes. Bufo is said to. occur nowhere else in the classics. Plurima. Gr. 453. 5. A. & S. 206 (7) (a) and (6). - 185. Monstra=unsightly creatures ; sometimes, as here, without reference to their size. Farris, Cf. on v. 73. – 186. Senectae. Gr. 385. 3. A. & S. 223. Ants live but for a short time (supposed to be for one year only), so that senectae is a poetical expression for hiemi, which is the old age of their brief existence. It is well known that the ancients were in error about the habits of the ant, which has no storehouses, and remains torpid dur.


ing the greater part of the winter. – 187. Contemplator. Gr. 537. II. A. & S. 267 (3). Nux= the walnut-tree. Some understand it of the almond-tree. Plurima abundantly. – 188. Curvabit; said by anticipation; for if the poet uses fetus of the blossoms, or embryo fruit, he may likewise speak of these bending the branches. - 189. Si — fetus; i. e. if a great number of the blossoms set, as the gardeners term it. — 190. There will be a very hot summer and a great threshing; i. e. an abundant harvest. — 191. Foliorum is emphatic, opposed to fetus; umbra, general. – 192. Nequidquam. Connect with teret. Palea. Gr. 419. III. A. & S. 250. 2. Teret

The tritura was performed sometimes by the trampling of oxen, sometimes by the tribulum or trahen (sce on v. 164), sometimes by fustes, fails or sticks. — 193 - 203. Steeping seed-beans is a plan often pursued, to make the produce larger and easier to be cooked. But the best seeds will degenerate, unless you pick every year. It is the tendency of everything in nature, and only man's most strenuous efforts can counteract it. — 194. Nitro; not our nitre, but a mineral alkali, carbonate of soda, and therefore used in washing. Amurca lees of olive oil. — 195. Siliquis. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. Fallacibus; referring to the general character of the pods of beans, which in this particular case are to be less deceptive than usual. - 196. Quamvis — maderent that they might be quickly cooked by a fire however small. Properata = propere; lit. being hastened. — 198. Vis humana; i.e. homines. - 199. Quaeque. Gr. 458. 1. A. & S. 207, R. 35 (6). — 200. Ruere

referri. Gr. 545. 1. A. & S. 209, R. 5 and N. 7. Translate, are accustomed,” etc. Retro — referri = slipping away to be borne backward. Retro is often used pleonastically with verbs beginning with re. Cf. A. II. 169. - 201. Flumine. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. - 202. Subigit. Cf. A. VI. 302. – 203. Atque, according to Gellius and Servius, is statim, but it is better to connect it with remisit, and give it its usual signification. Virgil does not expressly introduce an apodosis in such comparisons, but makes his whole sentence depend on the quam or si which follows the non aliter or haud secus following the simile. Cl. A. IV. 669. Illum is doubtless the lembus, which is distinguished from the rower. Wr. accounts for atque by supplying retro sublapsis

efertur before it, and making the whole into an apodosis, but he quotes no similar instance. Alveus = the current. Amni. Gr. 87. III. 3. A. & S. 82. Ex. 5 (a). — 204 - 207. The husbandman must observe the rising and setting of the constellations as attentively as the sailor. — 204. Arcturi. See on Ov. M. II. 176, and cf. v. 68. Nobis. Gr. 388. I. A. & S. 225. III. — 205. Haedorum the Kids, or Goat. See on Ov. M. III. 594. An

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