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giant, who, having offered violence to Diana, was cast into Tartarus, where he lay outstretched on the ground, with two vultures devouring his liver, which grew as fast as it was consumed. Cf. Virg. A. VI. 595 600.44. Belides the Danaides, daughters of Danaus, the son of Belus, who, for the murder of their husbands, were doomed to draw water in sieves to fill a leaky cask. Sisyphus was an avaricious and cruel king of Corinth, who was punished in Hades by having to roll up hill a huge stone which rolled back again as soon as it reached the top. The music of Orpheus wins a respite for all these wretches. -46. Eumenidum; one of the Greek names of the Furies. It means “the benevolent goddesses”; a mere euphemism to avoid calling the fearful beings by their real name. Conjux; i. e. Proserpina. -47. Oranti; sc. ei. Gr. 385. A. & S. 223, R. 2. — 50. Rhodopeius. See on v. 11. — 51. Ne depends on the command implied in legem. Gr. 558. VI. A. & S. 273. 2. - 51. Avernas = infernas. See on V. 540. - 52. Aut= or else; "in opposition to a condition alluded to, but not completely expressed." Futura; sc. sint, depending on the implied ut. -56. Ne deficeret fail (from fatigue). Gr. 492. 4 and 1). A. & S. 262 and R. 7. Videndi. Gr. 563. 1. 2). A. & S. 275. III. R. 1 and (2). — 60. Quicquam. Gr. 380 and 2. A. & S. 232 (3) and N. 2.- - 61. Quereretur. Gr. 486. II. A. & S. 260, R. 5. Amatam; sc. esse. Gr. 551. III. A. & S. 273, N. 7. 62. Supremum. A. & S. 205, R. 8.63. Acciperet could catch. A. & S. 260. II. -64. Nece. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. 1 (2). — 65. Medio; sc. collo his middle neck. — 66. Canis; i. e. Cerberus, when Hercules dragged him to the upper world. See on v. 22. — 67. Saxo. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. — 68. The second illustration is that of Olenus. Nothing is known of the story except from this passage. Lethaea seems to have offended the gods by boasting of her beauty, and her husband to have wished to take the blame upon himself, and both to have been turned to stone. Quique Olenos et (quam) Olenos (stupuit) qui. So tuque.-69. Figurae. Gr. 419. 4. 2). A. & S. 245. II. R. 1. - 71. Pectora. Gr. 705. III. A. & S. 324. 3. Cf. Virg. A. II. 349. Ide. See on II. 218. - 73. Portitor; i. e. Charon, who ferried shades across the Styx. Cf. Virg. A. VI. 298–304. -74. Cereris munere without food. -76. Esse. See on v. 61.77. Aquilonibus. See on I. 262. Haemon. See on II. 219.

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Gr. 438. 3.

Gr. 486. III.

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METAMORPHOSES. BOOK XI.

THE STORY OF THE DEATH OF ORPHEUS. [vv. 184] After the loss of Eurydice, Orpheus wandered among the woods and mountains, singing of his bereavement. The beasts and the birds gathered about him, and even the trees followed him, charmed by the magic of his voice and lyre.

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Tale nemus vates attraxerat, inque ferarum
Concilio medius turba volucrumque sedebat.

At this point, the narrative in the text begins.

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3. Nurus=mulieres. Cf. II. 366. Ciconum. See on X. 2. Lymphata = frantic; i. e. carried away with Bacchic fury. Strictly, it means nympholeptic, or made insane by seeing the image of a nymph in the water. Lympha and nympha are originally the same word. — 4. Pectora. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. - 5. Percussis — nervis. Cf. X. 16, 40. - 7. Nostri. Orpheus in his grief had shunned the society of women. - 8. Apollinei. See on Orphea, X. 3. —9. Foliis. The hasta was a thyrsus, a staff twined with ivy and vineleaves, carried by Bacchus and his votaries. See v. 28, and III. 667. -13. Sed enim. See on VI. 152. - 14. Abiit; final syllable lengthened by the caesura. Erinnys, or Erinys. See on I. 241. — 15. Forent essent. Gr. 486. I. A. & S. 260. II. or 261, R. 4, the condition being implied in sed, etc. 16. Berecyntia; from Berecyntus, a mountain in Phrygia, sacred to the goddess Cybele. Cf. Virg. A. VI. 785. The instruments used in her worship were adopted in the Bacchic orgies also. The Berecyntian pipe was curved like a horn; hence inflato cornu; sc. ejus.—17. Bacchei; the final syllable not elided. Cf. Virg. G. I. 281, 436; A. IV. 667, See on X. 3.-18. Sono. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. Tum denique tum demum.-21. See Introduction to this story.22. Maenades Bacchantes; from μaivopai, to be mad. Titulum gloriam. Rapuere attacked; hence cruentatis dextris. Theatri ; i. e. the audience of beasts and birds. Theatrum is often put for the persons in the theatre. Gr. 705. II. A. & S. 324. 2. - 23. Inde. After tearing in pieces the animals which had thronged about Orpheus, they turn against the minstrel himself. Vertuntur; used reflexively, as often. - 24. Luce by day. Cf. Virg. A. IV. 186. -25. Noctis avem = the night-owl. Structoque-theatro = in the amphitheatre; which, being circular, while the theatre was semi-circular, may be described as a "theatre built up on both sides," or a double theatre.-26. Matutina. The fights of wild beasts were the morning performance in the Roman theatre. Gr. 443. 2.

etc.

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A. & S. 205, R. 15 (a). Cervus. After coëunt, ut, we should expect canes as the subject; but the change of construction does not seem to us so "awkward as some of the critics have considered it. -28. Non-factos = not made for such a use. Cf. Virg. A. IV. 647.-30. Neu — furori = and that they may not want for weapons in their frenzy. Gr. 491. A. & S. 262. Neu, as often in Ovid, =et ne. ―31. Presso. Cf. depresso aratro, Virg. G. I. 45. Subigebant. Cf. I. 103 and Virg. G. I. 125.-32. Fructum; i. e. the future harvest. 34. Agmine; i. e. the Bacchantes. — 35. Arma the tools, implements. — 36. Graveз. Cf. iniquo pondere and gravibus, Virg. G. I. 164, 496. For sarculaque, see on I. 114. - 38. Divellere have torn in pieces. Fata = caedem. — 41. Sacrilegae; since Orpheus was of divine descent, and a favorite of Apollo and the Muses. -42. Saxis. Gr. 388. 4. A. & S. 225. II. — 43. In ventos. Cf. Virg. A. IV. 705. 47. Comam. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. Lacrimis — suis = were swollen with their own tears. 48. Obscuraque - pullo their robes (or mantles) Carbasa; the ma

dark with mourning. Pullo is used as a noun.
terial for the thing made of it.
A. & S. 324. 3. — 49.
Dryades the wood-nymphs.
192. Passos; from
pandere.-50. Diversa locis.
A. & S. 250. I. Cf. I.
173. Hebre. See on X. 2 and II. 257.- 52. Nescio quid
I
know not what; i. e. something. The phrase is equivalent to an ac-
cusative after queritur. Gr. 371. 3. 1). A. & S. 234 (2) and N. 1.

Gr. 705. III.
See on I.
Gr. 429.

54. Invectae; sc. lingua et lyra. Flumen populare his native river; i. e. the Hebrus. - 55. Litore. Gr. 419. I. A. & S. 245. I. Lesbi= Lesbos (called Methymnæan from Methymna, one of its chief cities); a large and important island, in the Aegean, off the coast of Mysia. Cf. Milton, in Lycidas:

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What could the Muse herself, that Orpheus bore,
The Muse herself, for her enchanting son,
Whom universal nature did lament,

When by the rout that made the hideous roar
His gory visage down the stream was sent,
Down the swift Hebrus to the Lesbian shore?

Cf. VI. 307. — 61. before; i. e. when

56. Arenis. Gr. 422. I. 2). A. & S. 254, R. 3. — 57. Rore 58. Tandem : aqua. at last; not earlier, as might have been expected. 60. Congelat is here transitive. Terras. Gr. 371. 4. A. & S. 233 (3). Ante he had gone thither in search of Eurydice. See X. 13 foll. -62. Arva piorum = the Elysian Fields. - 63. Ulnis: arms. See ref. on carbasa, v. 48.65. Anteit. Gr. 669. II. 2. A. & S. 306. 1. 66. Tuto; i. e. without fear of losing her. See X. 51 foll. - 67. Lyaeus Bacchus; i. e. (Avaîos) he who frees from care. Cf. Liber,

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III. 636. — 68. Suorum. According to some of the legends, Orpheus had introduced the orgiastic worship of Bacchus into Thrace. — 69. Edonidas Thracian; from the Edoni, or Edones, a people of Thrace, noted for their devotion to Bacchus. - 70. Quae — nefas =who saw (had seen) the impious deed. Several MSS. read fecere, which is preferred by some modern critics. Radice. Gr. 414 4 A. & S. 247. 3. — 71. In-secuta as far as each had pursued ; i. e. where each had halted in the pursuit of Orpheus. Some make it = quotquot secutae sunt, as many as had pursued him. One editor frankly says that he does not understand the passage; and another shows that he does not by translating: (Füsse) womit eine jede ihm gefolgt war; i. e. with which (feet) each had followed him!-72. Traxit = lengthened. — 73. The prose order would be: et ut volucris, ubi crus suum laqueis, quos callidus auceps abdidit, commisit et teneri se sensit, plangitur, etc. Laqueis. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224 — 75. Ac motu and fluttering tightens the cords by its motion; i. e. its efforts to escape.—78. Exsultantem=exsultare conantem.

― suras=

- 79. Sint. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. — 80. Adspicit she sees wood take the place of her rounded limbs. - 82. Fiunt. Gr. 462. 2. A. & S. 209, R. 9. 84. Putes. Gr. 486. I. A. & S. 260. II. and R. 4. So fallare.

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Bacchus. chantes.

――

THE STORY OF MIDAS. [vv. 85-193.] — 86. Choro= cohors, v. 89. i. e. train, retinue. Tymoli=Tymolus, or Tmolus, a a mountain in Lydia. Sui; because of the vineta. — 87. Pactolon the Pactolus, a river of Lydia, rising on Tmolus, famous for its golden sands. — 88. Invidiosus envied, or enviable. See on VI. 276. Arenis. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. 1.—89. Hunc; i. e. Satyri Satyrs. See on I. 193. Bacchae Bac- 90. Silenus. The older Satyrs were generally called Sileni, but one of these is commonly the Silenus, who always attends Bacchus, and is said to have been his foster-father. He is described as a jovial old man, bald, fat, generally drunk, riding on an ass, or supported by other Satyrs. -92. Regem; sc. Phrygiae. Orpheus. See on v. 68. — 93. Cecropio Eumolpo = Athenian Eumolpus; a bard of Thracian birth, who spent much of his life in Attica, where he introduced the worship of Ceres and Bacchus. Here, as in some other legends, he is associated with Orpheus. There are so many conflicting stories about him that some of the ancients supposed that there were several Eumolpi. The final syllable of Cecropio is not elided, and the line is spondaic. See on v. 17, and on I. 117. — Cecropio, from Cecrops, first king of Attica and founder of Athens. 94. Qui; i. e. Midas. — 95. Adventu. Gr. 414. 2 and 3). A. & S. 247 and R. 2 (a). — 97. Cf. II. 114. — 98. Lucifer, like Aurora, is often = dies. Cf. Virg. A. V. 65. —99. Alumno Bacchus, who

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is represented as ever youthful. — 100. Huic Midas. Optandi. Gr. 562 and 1. A. & S. 275. II. Inutile = pernicious; as it proved. -102. Donis. Gr. 419. I. A. & S. 245. I. —103. Vertatur. Gr. 493. 2. A. & S. 262, R. 4. — 104. Solvit bestows. -105. Petisset. Gr. 234 1; 520. II. A. & S. 162. 7 (a); 266. 3. - 106. Berecyntius heros; i. e. Midas. See on v. 16. —107. Fidem... tentat tests the truth. -108. The order is: non alta ilice virgam fronde virentem detraxit. Fronde. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. 1. -110. Humo. Gr. 424. 2. A. & S. 255, R. 1. - 112. Massa; sc. aurea, or auri. Cereris of wheat. Cf. Virg. A. I. 177.-114. Hesperidas — putes = you would think that the Hesperides had given it to him. The Hesperides were the guardians of the golden apples which Terra gave to Juno at her marriage with Jupiter. See on IV. 637. For putes, see on v. 84. So posset, v. 117.-117. Danaën; an allusion to the golden shower in which Jupiter visited Danaë. See on IV. 611.-118. Vix-capit= scarcely can he grasp in thought his own hopes. Fingens as he imagines. 120. Tostae frugis = corn roasted (and ground, and made into bread). Gr. 409. I. A. & S. 220. 3. Cf. Virg. G. I. 267; A. I. 179.-121. Cerealia munera. Cf. X. 74.-123. Dente. Gr. 414. 4. A. & S. 247. 3. - 124. Dente. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. Premebat covered. 125. Auctorem muneris = Bacchus; i. e. wine. Cf. v. 112, and see on VIII. 665. Undis aqua. See on V. 555.-126. Videres. Gr. 486. I. and 4. A. & S. 260. II. R. 2, or 261, R. 4. — 128. Voverat had prayed for. -130. Meritus. Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 15. Auro. Gr. 414. 2. 3). A. & S. 247 and R. 2 (a). — 133. Specioso damno this splendid wretchedness.-134. Mite deum (= deorum) numen = = mitis deus. Cf. Virg. A. II. 623, 777. -135. Restituit restored him; i. e. to his former nature. Factaque-solvit and revokes the gift he had bestowed in fulfilment of his promise. In v. 104, munera solvit means "fulfils his promise concerning the gift," or frees himself from his obligation by bestowing it; here it means "frees Midas from the gift." In both cases solvere has its original meaning, "to loosen, unbind, or release." - 136. Neve... ait et ait: Ne, etc. Cf. I. 151; II. 33, etc. Maneas. Gr. 491. A. & S. 262. — 137. Sardibus = Sardes, or Sardis, the capital of Lydia. Amnem; i. e. the Pactolus. See on v. 87.-138. Perque - viam = and take your way along the height of the bank, up the stream. Undis. Gr. 391. A. & S. 222, R. 1 (b). — 139. Venias. Gr. 522. II. A. & S. 263. 4.140. Fonti. Gr. 386. 1. A. & S. 224, N. 1. Plurimus maximus. Cf. Virg. A. I. 419. – 141. Corpusque - crimen while you bathe your body, wash away your fault. Cf. Virg. A. VI. 741. — 142. Jussae. Cf. I. 399; VI. 163, etc. Vis aurea; i. e. the power of changing everything to

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