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hearts and lives according to the word of God;" and this I thought might be easily reduced to every precept of the decalogue, each of which tied us to reformation and repentance. Another article I conceived to be in the covenant was, That we should “ maintain and defend the king's just privileges, his person, and government ;" and this, as I judged, might easily be reduced to the decalogue; so did I judge myself by the word of God, laws of the land, yea, and covenant itself, though never taken by me personally, bound to. After this I was asked some questions concerning my acquaintance with several persons, as Mr Fergusson, the Cesnocks, Mr Munro, Mr Baillie of Jerviswood, and others; to which I gave a true, full, ingenuous answer, and was after commanded to remove. What were their thoughts of me, I know not; but it seems they were satisfied I was not in the plot, nor could tell them ought of it, and that I dealt ingenuously with them; and yet were not willing to let me go so, but referred me to the lord mayor, and ordered him to put the oath of allegiance, supremacy, and Oxford oath to me.

The next day, therefore, I appeared before the lord mayor, and was much grieved and troubled that my trials should be stated on the oaths of allegiance and supremacy: for I had neither clearness to take them both, especially the oath of supremacy; nor yet was I so willing to suffer upon the account of refusing them, as being a dark case to me. But, when the messenger told me I was ordered to take the three oaths, my heart was very glad, as being very clear to suffer for refusing the Oxford oath ; wherein a man is bound, besides other things, not to endeavour to make any alteration in the government either in state or church, which I thought hard to swallow. Wherefore, when asked by my lord mayor, whether I would take the said oaths, after I had asked whether Queen Elizabeth's explication might be read to me, and proposed some reasons why I conceived myself not bound by law to take the said oaths, and overruled therein ; at last my answers did issue in this, That as for the oath of allegiance, I was willing to take it, so that it would end the strife; for the oath of supremacy I demurred upon it, until I advised better; and for the Oxford oath, I simpliciter refused it presently: but, if I had not benefit by the oath of allegiance, I would take none of them at all; and in the meantime desired, if they committed me, to do it upon refusing the Oxford oath: which carried by the lord mayor's indulgence, and Sir J. E., who spake in my favours very much against the common serjeant's mind, who pressed much that I should be committed for refusing all the oaths. So an order was drawn, and I sent to Newgate.

In Newgate I continued six lunary months, or twenty-four weeks. Here I had experience of the Lord's goodness and mercy, which did never leave me. I had, short while after I came, one of the best rooms in the prison, in which any person might lodge; a large, cleanly, lightsome, square room it was, and off the ground as ye come in. The captain and under-keepers were all very civil to us, carrying both wisely and discreetly. I kept my health very well all the time I was there. We had comfortable fellowship with fellow-prisoners, who might see one another all day ; some I perceived notional, unlearned, yet obstinate. I stood at the greatest distance with free-willers; but such as I had greatest converse with were those of our own persuasion, who were truly the most sober and learned that were there. In general, I found all of them civil. We were abundantly refreshed and supplied by numbers of all ranks and persuasions (save Quakers) that came in to see us. We wanted nothing. So that I could hardly call it suffering. Only this was sad to us, and which made me desirous to be gone and at liberty, that, 1. We had no occasion of doing good to others, for we preached none while there ; for we were not suffered, nor others to come in to us. 2. It was grievous to me especially, that I had no occasions nor opportunities for retirement; for having a chamber-fellow with me, and all day oppressed with visitants, I could not in the twenty-four hours command one for myself. Wherefore I did little or no good here, and got as little ; only I gave my testimony for Christ, and had experience of the Lord's goodness. When the number of my weeks were fulfilled, I was without further work put at liberty, the turnkey getting word

only from the captain to set me at liberty, and let me out when I pleased. So taking my leave of the captain, and thanking him for his civilities, I came out; my expenses in all not reaching above twenty pounds.


Observations upon my Sufferings. (1.) That such as will live godly in the world must and will suffer persecution, for the trial and exercise of their faith and patience, purging away of their dross, and for weaning their hearts from a present world, and for confirmation of the truth, 2 Tim. ïï. 12; 1 Pet. iv. 12; John xv. 3. (2.) Although at some times there be more or less of persecution, yet there is no time in which the saints shall be without daily crosses; for a wicked world will persecute with the tongue, even in Abraham's family, where piety did obtain, Gal. iv. 28, 29; Gen. xxi. 9. Even when religion was favoured, I found persecution by reproach, and contempt of wicked men. (3.) There are some special days of persecution, when hell breaks loose, and when great trials come, which are called “the hour of tentation,” and “ the evil day, the hour and power of darkness," Rev. iii. 10; Eph. vi. 13; Luke viii. 13, 22, 25. (4.) The Lord “ stayeth his rough wind in the day of his east wind,” Isa. xxvii. 8. He many times puts an end to the extremities of his people's personal trials ere he exercises with public sufferings; he “lays not on men more than is meet," and therefore suffers not a multitude of evils to lie upon his poor people at once, 1 Cor. x. 10. (5.) God first (I find) ordinarily exercises with personal afflictions, ere he call them to sufferings on account of Christ, that, being exercised with the one, they may better bear the other. (6.) I find that the Lord doth many times affright us with troubles which never come upon us, as he did to Nineveh ; and we are made to fear that which the mercy of God never suffers to touch us, Jonah i. 3. (7.) But seldom or never doth a great personal or public stroke come upon the Lord's people, but he gives them some warning, and notice of it before-hand, that we be not surprised, but prepared for it, Zeph. ï. 1, 2, 3, 4. (8.) Obstinacy in sin and impenitency, and the removing of God's precious people, with security under this, have had greatest influence upon my fears of a day of desolation, Isa. lvii. 12 ; Ezek. xi. 3, 4; Isa. ix. 4, 5. (9.) Our fears, unbeliefs, and discouragements, with our confusions, are our greatest troubles in a day of trouble; it is a prison within a prison, Psal. cxlii., “ O bring my soul out of trouble.” Our galled sore backs make our burdens more grievous to us—sin and unbelief are bad ballast in a storm. (10.) The cross of Christ, when we once engage with it, is nothing so terrible, is nothing so heavy as at a distance in apprehension it is. How dreadful did a prison and appearing before synagogues appear to me! But, when I did encounter therewith, I found it nothing so terrible to me. (11.) I was never in that trouble yet upon the account of Christ, but I was delivered out of it by the Lord, and that when it seemed very desperate to look for salvation, Psal. xxxiv. 19, “ The troubles of the righteous are many, but the Lord delivereth out of them all.” We are to believe deliverance from all our troubles, though we cannot tell when or how. (12.) Nothing contributes more to a Christian carriage under trouble, than faith of God's support in and deliverance out of trouble, James v. 7, 8. Unbelief sinks the heart. (13.) It is matter of great humiliation to us, that our troubles and afflictions do us but little good sometimes, that we are so unfruitful under the rod : and especially I observe, that small troubles have but small influence; every physic doth not work with strong constitutions. My lighter troubles, whether upon a personal or more public account, I found but little good by them. It was a deep heart-reaching stroke that did me good : and in times of greatest fears, sharpest afflictions, it was ever still best with me; and at first afflictions do not so much good, it is afterwards that they reap “the peaceable fruits of righteousness," Heb. xii. And, even when the Lord blesses them to do good, the fruit, alas ! is but small; we are not so good under them as we ought to be or might. (14.) I have observed, the more the Lord's people are afflicted and persecuted, the more they grow; and the gospel never thrives better than when it is persecuted, Exod. i. 12; Phil. i. 12. Such things as happened to me have been “ for the furtherance of the gospel.” All the malice of men could never have broken us, if we had not undone ourselves; they “ plowed with our heifer :" for the spreading of the gospel was the effect of a long time of their greatest severities. (15.) Persecutors are ungodly, are cruel, are deceitful; and this did I see evidently, all persecutors have these three properties : and therefore let us beware of such persons, and keep at the utmost distance with them, and expect no good from them; let us not lean on them who smite us; let us suspect all their favours, for “ the kisses of an enemy are deceitful;” but let " our eyes be only to the Lord.” (16.) Too great love, respect to, intimacy and communion with wicked men, and not standing at due distance with them, provokes the Lord to give his people into the hands of the wicked. The Israelites' wicked confederacy with the Canaanites made them “briers and thorns in their sides ;" had we carried to the ungodly as we ought to have done, we should not have smarted as we do this day. (17.) It is a very great comfort to a godly person, that his persecutors and enemies are God's enemies, and wicked persons : “ Let my enemies be as the wicked,” saith Job. We may expect good hearing from God against them. It doth much likewise to determine us in our duties, that what they are for must be ill, and what they are against must be good : and, notwithstanding of the confidence of some compliers, it is strange that in almost six thousand years one instance from Scripture or authentic history cannot be given. (18.) Under public sufferings we are mostly called to submission and patience, both in reference to God and men : “ In patience possess your souls ;” and to Christian cheerfulness. Oh, what a comely thing is it to see a meek sufferer, like the Master, “ not opening his mouth,” but “ dumb as a sheep is before the shearer !” And how ordinarily do men fall in this great sin of impatience? And cheerfulness under the cross of Christ is no less

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