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which are often found on the Tops of the highest Mountains, and petrified Bones and Teeth of Fishes, which are dug up hundreds of Miles from the Sca, Trees and Shrubs buried many Farhom under ground, are the clear, eft Evidence in the World, that the Waters have some Time or other overflow'd the highest Parts of the Earth; which was the Deluge which we contend for. The Truth of these Matters is not to be contested now, by any that have but the least Insight in experimental Philofophy. Nor can it be with any Degree of Probability faid, that all these subterraneous Bodies, are but only the mimical and mock Productions of Nature, for that these are real Shells, the nicest Examination both of the Eye and the Microscope do attest; and that they are true Bones, may be experimented by burning them; and then they will first turn into a Cole, and afterwards into a Calx, às other Bones do. How far Nature may sport her self in the subterraneous World, in the Impression of the Images of terrestrial Plants upon Slate and Coles, I will not dispute ; but that it should produce true Bones and Shells, which answer in all Respects to those of the genuine Animals, is incredible, and next to the Bold: pess of an epicurean Concourse, for the Frame of the World. : ?. I all therefore only set my self to prove, that that the there is Water enough in or about the Earth to drown it, Deluge and to rise up to that height which Moses did report it was poff

* ble, I confess, I do not think, that the Waters of the Sea are one quarter enough for such a Deluge, and therefore it must be sought for elsewhere. That there is a vast Quantity of Waters under ground, and an * Abyss with: in the outward Crust of the Earth, is I think evident to any who considers, that in many places the Sea disgorges it self into the Bowels of the Earth, and does not pass off by any Out-current. The single Mediterranean Sea is a fufficient Instance of this ; for considering how many,


* Vid. Dr. Burnet's Theor. P. I.

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and some vast Rivers run into it, and it having no visible outlet, what should become of the Waters? Nay, considering that there are two Currents of the Sea set into it, one at the Straits of Gibralter, and another vastly strong one of the Pontus, which the Ships do, with difficulty, bear up against ; it must necessarily be allowed, that this Sea does empty it self by fubterraneous Passages into some great Receptacle of Waters underneath. For otherways, many Ages ago, the Mediterranean had over-flow'd and drowned several Countries on the adjacent Shores. Nay,

the fathomless Bottoms there which some have tried in vain with so much Cordage to reach, is the most evident Proof which can be of the Truth of this Assertion. And the same holds likewise in the Caspian-Sea. And I think there is little doubt to be made, but those dangerous Gulfs and Eddies which the Sailors Thun in many parts of the Ocean, are but only great Holes or subterraneous Passages through which the upper Sea is gulping down into the Abyss beneath. Now if there be such a great Receptacle of Waters beneath the Earth, as there is no Question to be made of it, so many mighty Seas continually running into it, then the Earth must be hollow, and only a superior Crust, concluding within it an Abyss of Wa. ters, as is represented, Fig. I. and Fig. II. If there be the same Quantity of Water remaining as there was at the Creation, then the total Hollow of the Earth will be filled up with Water : But if any part of it be lost, or consolidated upon the outward Superficies of the Earth's Crust; then by the Laws of Attraction, if the Water does not exceed in Gravity, the circumambient Earth, it will lie round it in the ring PSRQ, and there will be a hollow in the central Part ww.xz. But if the Body of Water be of greater Gravity than the Crust of the Earth, then the Mass of it will lie next to the thickest Part of the Earth, or where there is more Matter; so that if the Earth be țhicķer about the Pole X, or if there be

* Vid. Dr. Smith's Account to the Royal Society in the Philofophical Transactions

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any internal Solid there, it will then lie round Part of the Limbus of the Earth UTXY and leave the hollow at UY. Fig. II. Now suppose the Diameter of the Earth or terraqueous Globe to be, as it is thereabouts, eight chousand Miles, and the Thickness of the Crust of the Earth a thirty-second part of this, as the second Figure represents, then the Crust will be two hundred and fifty Miles thick, which will be a Solidity strong enough to contain the internal Waters, to resist the chapping from the Sun, to keep a consistency in all the rapid Motions of the Earth. Or let it be an eighth Part, as is represented, Fig. I. and then the Earth's Crust will be five hundred Miles thick, which to be sure is abundantly sufficient. Now upon either of these two Suppositions, there will be Water enough, when drawn out upon the Superficies of the Earth, to drown the World to a far greater Height, than what Moses relates. Now it is but supposing, that God by a miraculous Power sucked out Part of this Abyss through the Foramina or subtarraneous Passages which lie dispersed at the bottom of the Sea, as fuppose about the Point T of Fig. II. to the Height of four or five Miles ; and then the highest Mountains will be laid under Water, the Water diffusing it self both Ways from b. to k; so that if it be in h four Miles high, it will be at least three in k. And then if after that the Suspending Force were taken of, and the Water descended through the fame Foramina, and left the Earth dry as it was before ; you have, Philologus, at least a possible Account of the Deluge.

Phil. But truly, Sir, this miraculous Power sticks most in my Stomach ; that is so strangely Unphilosophical, and such a subterfuge of dull Divines, that methinks any Man of Sense should be ashamed to make Use of that shift. Besides, I am not very well reconciled to your Waters which you suppose to fill up the hollow of the Earth. Indeed those who allow a central Solid, have somewhat. more to say for themselves; but your Hypothesis destroys the Laws of specifick Gravity, and makes the lighter Waters most unnaturally to lie below the Crust of the heavy Earth


Cred. Let the Supposition of a miraculous Power in the Deluge be aś unphilosophical as you please, I am fure it is more Unchristian, and more unreasonable, to suppose, that it came to pass by natural Causes. For if it came to pass by natural Causes, there must have been a Deluge, whether the antediluvian World had been so wicked or no ; and then, the Preaching of Noah to them had been all Collusion, and God's Menaces bea fore-hand had been inconsistent, both with his Justice and Verity. If they had repented upon Noah's Instructions, they could not have escaped the Deluge, which by this Supposition depended upon necessary Cause's, and could not but have been. Or to say that it was necelfary both for the Antediluvians to be lo perversly wicked, and that the Deluge must likewise happen ; is to assert a Fatality of sinning, is at the fame Time to destroy all Religion, Free-will, and the Goodness of God. 'Tis therefore plain, that the Deluge did not depend upon natural and necessary Causes ; but upon the just and providential Power of God, which overruled the Power of Nature, and might either bring the Deluge upon the World, or with-hold it, according to his good Pleasure and Wisdom, or as the Deferts of Mankind did require.

Neither is your Notion of specifick Gravíty any Obje&tion against our Supposition of an Abyss being includ, ed within the Crust of the Earth, even without the Fancy of a central Solid, or dense Fluid, which some imagine. For the Notion of a central Solid is but a Contri yance to keep in the central Fire that fome Men fancy there, which otherways would be quenched by the circumambient Waters. But this central Fire is only Cartefars's Conceit, who by this Means contrived to turn burning Earths into Suns, and incrustated Suns into Earth; which is a fancy the World now begins to be weary of, And as for a dense Fluid, that I take to be a more precarious Hypothesis, and less to be relied upon than the other. Neither can it be supposed, that Nature must be confined to Work in the Creation according to the Laws of specifick Gravity. For-according to this Rule,


the Sun, which is the Centre of the Magnus Orbis, mult be the densest of all the planetary System, which though it be the biggest, yet is the most thin and refined. Ve nus, Mercury *, and the Moon, though nigher to the Centre of the System, are denser than the Earth. Neither is this Rule observable in the Earth it self. For several of the heaviest Fossils, as Metals, Marble, and Stone, lie often very high towards the Surface of the Earth, and other tighter Strata below them. Nor is there any Reason to think, that God in the Creation wrought by such Laws of Gravity. For without doubt he wrought either by his immediate omnipotent Power, or else by a fubordinare plastick Nature, as he does in the Production of Animals and Vegetables since. And here the Laws of specifick Gravity have little or nothing to do ; nay, we see they are constantly superseded. When the Fibres of a Tree thrust themselves upwards from the Centre, and the Juices of it, contrary to their own proper Tendency, are drawn up so many Foot from the Ground, what be. come here of the Laws of specifick Gravity? Is the Body of any Animal composed after this manner? If this weré so, there would be no such Thing as organical Parts, which are composed so admirably for the Use and Beauty of the Animal. If this were so, a Man which is the most beautiful, would be the most clumsy Creature in the Creation. His Bones must all lie towards his Feet, his Flesh next to them, his Blood and Spirits where his Head. And then consider what a Monster of a Creature this specifick Gravity would make him. Neither does it avail any Thing to say, that the Composition of an Animal does in some Measure answer to the Laws of specifick Gravity, because the heavy Bones which lie inmost are inclosed with the Flesh and Blood which are lighter. But then pray consider, that the Bones were not placed there by this Law, but by the prudent Direction of Nature to fupport the pliable Flesh, and to extend it to that just Proportion which she deligned. But granting the Sup

consider, thh and Bloodes which lie of specifick

* Sce Mr. New:an's Principle Philolophy Math. .


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