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to their Diana Taurica or Scythica, fo renowned of old; and the Sarmatians worshiping in strange Rites one Deity called Pogwisd, another Yelja, a third called Lacton; and Nia, Marzana, and Zievonia, Goddesses; besides two famous Deities named Zelus and Poletus, which were jointJy worshiped like the Dioscuri. I need not make any Remarks upon the ceremonious Worships of the Ægyptians, Greeks, and Romans ; for among them I am sure natural Religion was buried under Loads of Ceremonies: There we shall hear of nothing but Temples, and Priests, and Altars ; Expiations, Lustrations, Pomps and Procesfions ; Images, Hieroglyphicks, Auguries, Plays, and a thousand other Rites, which learned Men have wrote large Volumes to explain. And if we go farther Easte ward into Persia, and Syria; we shall see the former employed about strange Ceremonies in the worship of the Sun, keeping in the sacred Fires, facrificing Horses ro Mithras, with many other Rites which the Magi had invento ed ; and shall find the Syrians running after à Troop of different Gods, with as different Worships, Molech, Asistaroth, Baal, Dagon, Beelzebub, Nisroch, Rimmon, Neboj &c. Vid. Selden de Diis Syris. · And if you please to look upon the Books of Travels into the East and West-Indies, you will find altogether as much Ceremony in the Heathen's Worship there : So that I beseech you, Philologus, to shew in what Part of the World this natural Religion of yours lay sculking, in this universal Reign of Rites and Ceremonies. And if you cannot, I must conclude that this Story of the ancient Universality of pure natural Religion is all philofophical Romance, and never had any Being, but in the Brains of the Gentlemen of your Persuasion, and those of some System-makers and Preachers of late, drawn from the scatter'd Sayings and Books of Philosophers, which some have fansied a compleàt System of Religion, which alone was owned and practised for some Ages in the World. But I think it is clear from the foregoing Observations, that your Notion of such a fimple muural Religion was never practised in the World, as far as prophane

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History goes ; and as for those that allow the sacred, the Sacrisices of Cain and Abel will evince ritual Worship to be as old as Mankind it self. Which will be yet clearer

when it appears. dibat is 3. That the common Rules of Morality, or a good calied na- Life, which we generally call natural Religion, were at sural Relic son

first revealed by God. This may seem a little strange. gion, ar as at Res" to those who are preposseffed by other Opinions ; but it

seems rather more strange to consider, that those moral Notions should come into the Soul by the ufual Ways that are generally fuppofed. It was formerly the current Opinion of the Schools, that thefe moral Notices were Ideas connate with the Soul, and in a certain Manner inscribed upon it. But it is very odd to think, how such Propositions as these, Parents are to be honoured, Friends are to be alisted, the Marriage-bed to be undefiled, Whoredom and Drunkenness avoided ; 'tis odd to think, I say, how these Propositions which are the Complication of so many distinct and simple Ideas, which we are sure are generally attained by Experience and Reason, should yer be asserted to come into the Mind by such an unaccountable Way, as this of Inscription. But seeing no more is meant by this Inscription, than a Kind of natural and universal Inspiration of the Soul or Imbution of it with these moral Principles; this is altogether unagreeable to the Souls of Children, Ideots, and some very barbarous People, who we are certain do want most of these moral Notions. So that of late this Opinion of innate Ideas has been generally exploded by learned Men, and another taken up, it may be fubject to as many Difficulties, which attributes the Origin of these moral Notions to the Deductions of right Reason ; asserting, that the Generality of Men having the Use of Reason, and few of them beirig fo brutish, but in their Life-time chcy apply their Minds to the Confideration of these moral Duties, and so by the Agrecableness of them to the social Life of Mankind, do calily inícr the Obligation of them. And fo the Lov natural is by this Explicacion nothing else, but a Scheme of Virtues and Vices, which every Man, by


late this on ?oft of these

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other taken

his own Reason and Experience, has found out to be such from their Agreeableness and Disagreeableness to Society, and to the Ends Man is designed for. Thus I am suppo. sed to come to know, that to rob my Neighbour is unlawful, because this is contrary to those * Pacis of Fidelity we have entred into together, or because this is inconfistent with that mutual † Love and Kindness we ought to bear to our Fellow-creatures ; or because this violates the natural Right which acerues to another by Occupation, il and which cannot be alienated but by Gift, or Sale, or Dereliction. Now there is many a poor honeft Indian who knows it is his Duty not to steal, as well as e'er a Hobbs or Puffendorff of them all; and yet he never in his Life so much as dreamt of Palts, or Fides Data, or Occupation. Suppose I bargain with an honest Virginian for a Pipe of Tobacco, and a Bottle of Sack, to watch my Tent, whilst I sleep, from wild Beasts or Banditti's: now when he might cut my Throat, and run away with all that I have ; what is the Reason that the poor Fellow stays walking about as trustfully with his Bow and Arrow, as if he were fet Centinel by a Captain that would hang him for running away? Why, fay most of our Natural-religion Men, by frequent Exer. cife of his Reason and Thinking, he has come to the Knowledge of the Horridness of the Sin of Murther, and the Baseness of Unfaithfulness. But then who can ever think, that this poor ignorant Wretch should ever have given himself to such grave and philosophick Dirquisitions that he should ever have considered, that to kill a rational Creature, was to deface the Image of the All-wise Deity, to ufurp a barbarous Power over one naturally equal with himself, and to takeaway that Life which mutual Friendship obliged him to protect ; that to violate a given Faith was a Bareness beneath the Dignity of a rational Man, and which, if universally practised, would destroy all Society out of the World. No certainly, the

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1. Vid. Hobb's Leviathan. + Parker's Law of Nature. fendorff de Jur. Nat, & Gentium.

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poor Indian never troubled his Head with these Matters į his Thoughts in his younger Days ran all upon Hunting, and Swimming, and Loving, and afterwards to get good Store of Prog for his Wives and Children ; ut he never thought a Word of these Rationales of Morality; which were invented by Men of a learned Education and busy Thoughts. How came then this poor Fellow to the Knowledge of these moral Duties? Why truly, I can conceive no other Way than by Tradition; his Father taught them him, and his Grand-fáther his Father, and fo up to Adam, the common Parent of us all; who had them first from God Almighty, as the universal Laws, that all his Posterity should be governed by: Nor is it any Objection against this Opinion, that. Tradition does not seem to some so proper a Means to convey Morality by to Mankind, because of its Liableness to Corruption ; and that it would have been inore sensibly vitiated than we find it is, had it descended by this Method : For tho' Relations of Matters of Fact, ancient Customs, and difficult Articles of Faith, may suffer much by being conveyed this Way ; because the Understandings of Men cannot be supposed to have a clear Understanding of these Things upon the first Proposal, and so may be liable to mistake them, which must occasion very great Alterations in such a Number of Deliveries; but these plain Rules of Morality, such as worship God, honour thy Parents, thou fhalt do, no Murther, thou shalt not steal, &c. are so natural to the Understanding, so easy to be embraced by it, and appear upon Proposal to be so extremely useful to Mankind, that they must be assented to, and can never be mistakon or forgot. The fame is the Case of these noral Rules, as of very carly and useful Inventions, such as Spinning, Weaving, Arching, &c. which are conveyed to all the World, not by being written in Books, or in Men's Hearts, but by the handing down from one to another for several thoufnd Years together. Now una Jess it was the general Opinion of Mankind, that this was the ordinary Way of conveying the Rules of Morality to their posterity; to what Purpose should they take fo


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much Pains in instructing their Children, as we find Men
have done in all Ages, and in all Countries? Bụt if Mo-..
rality were inscribed on Men's Hearts, and so were all one
as if it were implanted in their Nature; Parents might
with as much Wisdom pretend to teach their Children to
eat and drink, to love their Children, and desire a Propa-
gation of their Species, which they cannot but do; or
if these moral Duties were the necessary and unavoidable
Deductions of Reason, it would be as simple to go about
to learn them the Rules of Virtue, as to teach them that
one and one make two. And it is farther particularly
remarkable, and which may serve as a good Proof of what
has been said, we find that Parents are commanded by
God, Deut. vi. 6. to teach their Children these moral
Duties. For after the recital of the ten Commandments,
(viz. the moral-Law,) He adds, And these Words which I
Command thee this Day Mall be in thy Heari ; and thou Malt
teach them diligently to thy Children, and Malt talk of them
when thou fortest in thy Honfe, and when thou walkest by the
Way, and when thon liest down, and when thou rifet up.
And ”tis yet farther remarkable, that what Moses here says,
Mall be in the Jews Hearts, the Apostle fays, Rom. ii. 15.
was written in the Gentiles Hearts ; So that unless there
can be a substantial Difference evinced between being in the
Heart, and being written there, all the Doctrine of infcri-
bed Propofitions falls to the ground. And I am sure there
is no Reason why God should write moral Laws in the
grofs and literal Senfe in the Gentiles Hearts, and put them
into the Jews by the ordinary Way of Teaching and In,

4. But in the fourth place, Philolagus, you are some- Riddles not thing mistaken in asserting that it was the ancient Riddles, the Corrupwhen Men affected to deliver facred Truths in the ænig- '.

tion of naa matical Way, that first debauthed natural Religion, by cion

ng tural Reliz introducing all the Fabulofity of the Heathen Polytheism. This is a Position, which is asserted very confidently by some, who I believe are better Friends to Religion than you, but I think without just Ground, for whatever I could see

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