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CONTAININO

RULES OF SYNTAX AND MODELS

FOR

ANALYZING AND TRANSPOSING;

TOGETHER WITH

SELECTIONS OF PROSE AND POETRY

FROM WRITERS OF STANDARD AUTHORITY.

BY ALLEN H. WELD, A. M.

LUTHOR OP LATIN LESSONS AND READER, AND AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

PORTLAND:
PUBLISHED BY SANBORN & CARTER,

18 5 4.

[graphic]

Anrered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1847, by ALLEN H. WELD, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Maino.

SYNOPSIS OF GRAMMATICAL RELATIONS.

See Gram. 00 35, 36, 37, 28, 34, or Parsing Book, pages 5,6.
SUBJECT.

MODIFIERS OF THE SUBJECT. 11 PREDICATE. MODIFIERS OF THE PREDICATE,
The SUBJECT of a sentence The MODIFIERS of the subject may The PREDICATE of a The MODIFIERS of the predicate may
may be a noun or pronoun; al hen moun in apposition; an adjec- || sentence may be a verb ; be a noun in the objective case, (if the
verb in the infinitive; a clause: 1 tive; a preposition with its object or the verb be with any verb is transitive;) a verb in the infini-
or any word or letter of which (adjunct); a participle; a verb in the word or expression con- tive; an adverb ; a preposition with
something can be affirmed. infinitive; a relative clause; and rare nected with it, to com- its object (adjunct); a clause; and
ly an adverb.

plete an assertion. I rarely an adjective.
'The Subject, whose meaning is modified by one or more words, The Predicate, wlinse meaning is modified by one or more words,
is called the MODIFIED (or logical) SUBJECT.

is called the MODIFIED (or logical) PREDICATE.

MOD.

SIMPLE SENTENCES.
MODIFIED SUBJECTS.

MODIFIED PREDICATES.
SUBJECT. MODIFIERS OF THE SUBJECT. || PREDICATE. MODIFIERS OF THE PRED.
Ferdinand,
the king,

held

a council at Cordova.
He,
the marquis of Cadiz,

beheld

from a distance, the peril of

the king.
To die
in peace,

is the privilege of the good.
That you have wronged me by your denial,

is evident

from your own admission.
Evergreens
only, among the trees, || look

verdant, in the winter.
called an article,

is derived - from a Saxon word. The rose,

so fair and beautiful to-day, I may wither and fade to-morrow. who are obliging,

Il may expect

I to be accommodated:

An,

Those,

MODIFICATION OF WORDS.
NOUN OR PRONOUN.
VERB OR PARTICIPLE.

ADJECTIVE.
A noun or pronoun may be modified A verb or participle may be mod. || An adjective may be
1. By a noun in apposition; as, George, ified

modified the king.

1. By a noun in the objective case, |1. By an adverb.; as, Very
2. By an adjective; as, A tall mast.

if the verb is transitive; as, The rich,
3. By a preposition with its object (ad- sun gives light.

2. By a verb in the infini.
junci); as, A life of toil.

2. By a verb in the infinitive; as, tive; as, Pleasant to
4. By a participle; as, T'he sun ris

He hopes to return.

behold.
5. By a verb in the infinitive; as, A time 3. By a preposition with its object; || 3. By a preposition with its
to dis.

as, I walk in the grove.

object; as, True to nature.
6. By a relative clause; as, I, who speak 4. By a clause; as, I hope that you || 4. By another adjective;
noith you,

are well.

as, Deep blue; Liver. 7. Rarely by an adverd; as, Not my teet 5. By an adjective; as, 'The wind . pool deep blue earthen only.

blows fresh.

pitchers.

ADVERB.
an adverb may be modified
1. By another adverb; as, Most

assuredly.
2. By a preposition with its ob-

ject (adjunct); as, Agreea.
bly to nature, most of all,

PREPOSITION.
A preposition may be modified
1. By an adverb; as, For be-

yond. 2. By a noun in the objective w case; as, Over the hills.

COMPOUND SENTENCES.
A Compound Sentence is made up of two or more
simple sentences joined by connectives. CONNECTIVES
are, 1. Conjunctions ; 2. Conjunctive Adverbs; 3.
Relative words. See Gram. $ 112, or Parsing Book,
pages 6, 7.

NOUNS INDEPENDENT.
Nouns which have no grammatical connection with 1
he subject or predicate of a sentence, are said to be
sudependent; as, O virtue!

ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. | CLASSIFICATION OF SEN.
A Sentence may be analyzed by dividing it into

TENCES.
the parts of which it is composed, and explaining 1. Declarative; as, I write.
their relations.

2. Interrogative; as, Do you

write?
1. Divide the sentence into its two general parts,
viz: the Subject or Modified Subject, the Predicate

3. Imperative ; as, Buy the

truth.
or Modified Predicate.

4. Subjunctive; as, If it raina
2. Explain the mutual relations, and point out 5. Erclamatory; as, How
the office of every word which has any modifying much he resembles his
influence.

father!

PREFACE.

The selections which compose the body of the following work are so arranged as to constitute å gradual course of Exercises in Analyzing and Parsing.

The Rules of Syntax are taken from Weld's English GRAMMAR by permission of the Publishers, and to these rules, and also to the Grammar from which they are taken, references are occasionally made, to assist the learner in explaining idiomatic or difficult pas. sages.

As the extracts are from some of the most accomplished and approved writers, the Ornaments of style, Figures of Rhetoric and Scanning, may be profitably attended to by advanced classes.

The book may be used by learners in almost any stage of attaimu ment after the elementary principles of Grammar are understood. The work is designed to take the place of Pope's Essay, Thomson's Seasons, Young's Night Thoughts, and other entire poems, which are used as parsing books in Schools. A variety in the selections, it is believed, will be more profitable and interesting to the learner than any single work can be, which exhibits no gradation In style, and the peculiarities of one writer only.

A. H. W.

HARVARD
UNIVERSITY
LIBRARY

RULES OF SYNTAX.

1. Syntax treats of se:tences, and teaches the proper construction of words in forming them.

CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES. Sentences are of four kinds, declaratory, imperative, interrogative and conditional.

A declaratory sentence is one in which any thing is simply affirmed or denied of a subject; as, Time flies; he will not understand. . An imperative sentence is one in which a command is expressed; as, Buy the truth, and sell it not.

An interrogative sentence is one in which a question is asked; as, Who hath believed our report?

A conditional sentence is oue in which something contingent or hypothetical is expressed; as, If it rains; though he slay me. .

Sentences are either simple or compound. A simple senlence consists of but one proposition; a compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences.

The simple propositions which make up a compound senience, are called clauses or members.

The leading clause is one on which the other members dopend.

A dependent clause is one which makes complete sense only in connection with another clause.

SIMPLE SENTENCES. A simple sentence contains only one subject or nonjnative, and one predicate.

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