Page images
PDF

The edition of the English poets now printing will do aonor to the English poets.—Life of Johnson.

The nation bad cried out loudly against the crime while it was committing.Bolingbroke.

Note. The form of expression, is being built, is being committed, &c., is almost universally condemned by grammarians ; but it is sometimes met with in respectable writers. It occurs most frequently in newspaper paragraphs and in hasty compositions. See on the subject, Worcester's Universal and Critical Dictionary.

RULE XXI.
Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.

REMARKS. 1. Adverbs are generally placed near the words which they modj. fy; as, He conducts foolishly ; very sick; right onward.

2. Adverbs are sometimes used for adjectives; as, The then ministry; the above discourse ;* to-morrow morning ; the men only.

Note.-When only refers to a noun, it should be placed near it to avoid ambiguity.

3. Adverbs are sometimes used as nouns; as, Until now; yet a little while.

4. From is sometimes unnecessarily used before whence, thence, hence; as, From whence art thou, for whence, &c.

5. The adverb there often stands at the beginning of a sentence, without particular reference to any other word; as, There are many who believe, &c.

6. The word modified by the adverb is sometimes omitted; as, l'll hence to London.

7. Two negatives in the same clause are equivalent to an affirmative; as, Nor did they not perceive, i. e. they did perceive.

8. An adverb sometimes modifies the word a, used in the sense of one; as, Almost a year; not a dollar.

9. The word but used in the sense of only may be treated as an adverb; as, All are but parts of one stupendous whole; I have but one request to make.

*Such expressions, though not destitute of authority, are excouco ingly inelegant and irreconcilable with authority_Crombies

1

10. As in the sense of so, is an adverb; as, As well; as much..

11. The adverb now frequently stands at the beginning of para graphs in argumentative and familiar discourse as a general con. nective, without modifying any particular word; as, Now, it is evi. dent, &c.

12. A preposition with its object is sometimes equivalent to 20 adverb; as, In truth, for truly, &c.

13. Adverbs are not unfrequently absolute; that is, they qualify no particular word, but usually refer to the whole preceding sen. tence; as, Yes, no, therefore, then, however, &c., and not unfrequently they are expletives, that is, qualify nothing; as, Why, well, there, &c.-Nutting.

14. Adverbs sometimes modify prepositions, adjuncts, phrases, and entire clauses ; as, Just below the surface ; nearly round the world; I hear almost in vain; independently of these considerations

RULE XXII.
Prepositions govern the objective case.

REMARKS. 1. But in the sense of except, appears sometimes to be used as a prepos.tion; as, All but one.

NOTE.-Than is sometimes followed by the objectives whom and which ; as Alfred, than whom, &ic. Beelzebub, than whom, &c.

2. The article a is in a few instances employed in the sense of a preposition; as, Simon Peter said I go a (to) fishing.

3. Two or more words combined are sometimes treated as a compound preposition; as, according to, in respect to, in regard to, from above, from below, as to, as for, over against, instead of, out of, &c

4. The words allowing, considering, concerning, during, respecting, supposing, notwithstanding, excepting, past, are sometimes termed verbal prepositions ;* and also, save and except.

5. Some of the prepositions are occasionally used as adverbs ; the noun however, may generally be supplied.

*Soine grammarians prefer to treat this class of words as participles, under all circumstances, agreeing with the whole sentence, or some word understood; and save and except as verbs in the imperio tive modo.

6. Prepositions sometimes govern a participial clause, or a simple sentence.

7. Prepositions are sometimes followed by an adverb; as, From ofar; to where.

RULE XXIII. Conjunctions connect single words or sentences; as, lle reads and writes. I sought the Lord and he heard me.

REMARKS. 1. The conjunctions if, though, excepi unless and lest, are signs of the subjunctive mode.

NOTE.-If is often omitted before the subjunctive; as, “ Had I tho wings of a dove," for, if I had ; “ could I but stand," for, if I could, &c. ; were there no difference, for if there were. 2. The following are corresponding conjunctions.

Though-yet. Asmas. Whether-or. Samas.

Either-or. As-50. Neither-nor. Both-and. 3. As is sometimes used in the sense of a relative pronoun; as, Such a scheine as I have seen ;-as may be parsed in the objective after seen. The ellipsis of that which, those which, &c., may how. ever be supplied; then as will be treated as a conjunction.

4. The phrases as if, as though, what though, are elliptical. An intervening clause may be supplied.

ő. There are some abridged expressions, which it is convenient to call compound connectives ; such as, As well as, inasmuch as, ir order that, but that, &c; these, however, can generally be analyzed intelligibly, and each word may be parsed separately, by supplying such words as the sense will allow.

6. The word both,* is used as a conjunction, adjective and pro Roun.

7. That is used as a conjunction, an adjective and a relative pro noun.

SENTENCES TO BE ANALYZED AND PARSED. We see all this is done, and all this expenditure is incurred.

*By a careful analysis it may be found that both is in all cases an adjective, and that an adjective or relative, but in most gramman there are other offices assigned them.

(This is a compound sentence, consisting of two simple senten, ces; and connects them.)

In order to produce it now, we diminish the produo tiveness of all other labor. And the only effect is to postpone it to a still more distant period.

Two distinct sentences, the general train of thought is connected py and standing at the beginning of the second, after the period.

A great public as well as private advantage arises from every one's devoting h. iself to that occupation which he prefers, and for which Lo is specially fitted.-Wayland.

As well as, is a compound connective, and joins public and pri vate.

It is also evident that, by each nation's đevoting itself to that branch of production for which it has the greatest facilities, either original or acquired, its own happiness will be better promoted, and a greater amount of produetion created, than in any other manner.-ld

This compound sentence consists of four members or clausės That connects the clause, it is also evident, &c., with the clause, its own happiness will be promoted ; of which the phrase, by each, &c., is an adjunct; and connects the clause following it with the one before; than connects will be created, and will be promoted understood, to the same words expressed; for which, &c., is a relative clause, and refers to production. Either or are corresponding conjunctions and connect original and acquired.

RULE XXIV. Interjections have no governing power, and have no dependence on other words in construction.

REMARKS. Interjections often stand before nouns independent, and before whole clauses; as, O virtue! O for a lodge in some vast wilder. dess! Some words must be supplied before such clauses to com plete the sentence; as, O how I long for a lodge, &e.

ANALYZING AND PARSING.

MODEL. SENTENCE. Those who were skilful in anatomy among the ancients, concluded, from the outward and inWard make of a human body, that it was the work of a Being transcendently wise and powerful.

ANALYZED.

This is a compound sentence, made up of as many simple sentences or clauses as there are verbs in it which are not in the infinitive mode, viz: three simple clauses.

No. 1.-Those among the ancients concluded, &c., is the leading clause.

No. 2.- Who were skilful in anatomy, is a relative clause, connected with No. 1, by who referringto those.

No. 3. That it was the work of, &c., is a dependent clause, connected with No. 1, by the conjunction“ that.”

The subject of No. 1, is those, modified Ist, by the adjunct " among the ancients,” 2d, by the relative clause,“ who were,” &c.

Concluded is the predicate of No. 1, modified 1st, by the adjunct " from the outward” &c., 2d, by the whole clause “ that it was” &c.

The subject of No. 2, is the relative who.

The predicate of No. 2, is “ were skilful ; " skilful is modified by he adjunct“ in anatomy,” showing in what respect they were skil Bul.

The subject of No. 3, is it.
Tlie predicate of No. 3, is “ was the work."

Of a Being is the adjunct of work, and is equivalent to a noun in the possessive case.

Transcendently modifies “ wise" and“ powerful;"'__wise and porn erful modify Being.

« PreviousContinue »