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new moons, for the return of a dispersed people into a body politic or ecclesiastic. Fire and meteors refer to both heaven and earth, and signify as follows :-burning anything with fire is put for the consuming thereof by war; a conflagration of the earth, or turning a country into a lake of fire, for the consumption of a kingdom by war; the being in a furnace, for the being in slavery under another nation ; the ascending up of the smoke of any burning thing for ever and ever, for the continuation of a conquered people under the misery of perpetual subjection and slavery ; the scorching heat of the sun, for vexatious wars, persecutions, and troubles, inflicted by the king ; riding on the clouds, for reigning aver much people; covering the sun with a eloud, or with smoke, for oppression of the king by the armies of an enemy; tempestuous winds, or the motion of clouds, for wars ; thunder, or the voice of a cloud, for the voice of a multitude ; a storm of thunder, lightning, hail, and overflowing rain, for a tempest of war descending from the heavens and clouds politic on the heads of their enemies ; rain, if not immoderate, and dew, and living water, for the graces and doctrines of the Spirit ; and the defect of rain for spiritual barrenness.

“In the earth, the dry land and congregated waters—as a sea, a river, a flood, are put for the people of several regions, nations, and dominions ; embittering of waters, for great affliction of the people by war and persecution; turning things into blood, for the mystical death of bodies politic, that is, for their dissolution ; the overflowing of a sea or river, for the invasion of the earth politic by the people of the waters ; drying up of waters, for the conquest of their regions by the earth; fountains of waters, for cities—the permanent heads of rivers politic; mountains and islands, for the citics of the earth and sea politic, with the territories and dominions belonging to those cities ; dens and rocks of mountains, for the temples of cities; . . . houses and ships, for families, assemblies, and towns in the earth and sea politic; and a navy of ships of war, for an army of that kingdom that is signified by the sea.

“ Animals also and vegetables are pui for the people of several regions and conditions ; and particularly trees, herbs, and land animals, for the people of the earth politic; flags, reeds, and fishes, for those of the waters politic ; birds and insects, for those of the politic heaven and earth; a forest for a kingdom

“ If the world politic, considered in propheey, consists of many kingdoms, they are represented by as many parts of the world natural: as the noblest, by the celestial frame, and then the moon and clouds are put for the common people; the less noble, by the earth, sea, and rivers, and by the animals, or vegetables, or buildings therein; and then the greater and more powerful animals, and taller trees are put for kings, princes, and nobles. And because the whole kingdom is the body politic of the king, therefore the sun, or a tree, or a beast, or bird, or a man, whereby the king is represented, is put in a large signification for the whole kingdom ; and several animals, as a lion, a bear, a leopard, a goat, according to their qualities, are put for several kingdoms and bodies politic; and sacrificing of beasts, for slaughtering and conquering of kingdoms; and friendship between beasts, for peace between kingdoms. Yet sometimes vegetables and animals are, by certain epithets, or circumstances, extended to other significations ; as a tree, when called the tree


of life or of knowledge; and a beast, when called the old serpent, or worshipped.

“When a beast or man is put for a kingdom, his parts or qualities are put for the analogous parts and qualities of the kingdom; as the head of a beast, for the great men who preside and govern; the tail, for the inferior people who follow and are governed ; the heads, if more than one, for the number of capital parts or dynasties, or dominions in the kingdom, whether collateral or successive, with respect to the civil government; the horns on any head, for the number of kingdoms in that head, with respect to military power; seeing, for understanding and the eyes of men of understanding and policy ; . , . speaking, for making laws; the mouth, for a lawgiver, whether civil or sacred ; the loudness of the voice, for might and power; the faintness thereof for weakness ; eating and drinking, for acquiring what is signified by the things eaten and drank; the hairs of a beast or man, and the feathers of a bird, for people; the wings, for the number of kingdoms represented by the beast; the arm of a man, for his power, or for any people wherein his strength and power consist ; his feet, for the lowest of the people, or for the latter end of the kingdom ; the feet, nails, and teeth of beasts of prey, for armies, and squadrons of armies; the bones, for strength, and for fortified places; the flesh, for riches and possessions; and the days of their acting, for years; and when a tree is put for a kingdom, its branches, leaves, and fruit signify as do the wings, feathers, and food of a bird or beast.

“When a man is taken in a mystical sense, his qualities are often signified by his action, and by the circumstances of things about him. So a ruler is signified by his riding on a beast; a warrior and conqueror, by his having a sword and bow ; a potent man, by his gigantic stature; a judge, by weights and measures ; a sentence of absolution or condemnation, by a white or a black stone; a new dignity, by a new name; moral or civil qualifications, by garments ; honour and glory, by splendid apparel; royal dignity, by purple or scarlet, or by a crown; righteousness, by white and clean robes; wickedness, by spotted and filthy garments; affliction, mourning, and humiliation, by clothing in sackcloth ; dishonour, shame, and want of good works, by nakedness; error and misery, by drinking a cup of his or her wine that causeth it; propagating any religion for gain, by exercising traffic and merchandise with that people whose religion it is; worshipping or serving the false gods of any nation, by committing adultery with their princes, or by worshipping them; a council of a kingdom, by its image ; idolatry, by blasphemy; overthrow in war, by a wound of man or beast ; a durable plague of war, by a sore or pain ; the affliction or persecution which a people suffers in labouring to bring forth a new kingdom, by the pain of a woman in labour to bring forth a man child ; the dissolution of a body politic or ecclesiastic, by the death of a man or beast ; and the revival of a dissolved dominion, by the resurrection of the dead."

No. II.–Page 22.


“Never, perhaps, in the history of man, were the times more ominous, or pregnant with greater events than the present. The signs of them are in many respects set before the eyes of men, and need not to be told; and they strike the senses so forcibly, and come so closely to the apprehension of all, that they may be said to be felt, as well as to be seen. The face of the sky never indicated more clearly an approaching tempest, than the signs of the times betoken an approaching convulsion-not partial, but universal. It is not a single cloud, surcharged with electricity, on the rending of which a momentary flash might appear, and the thunderbolt shiver a pine, or scathe a few lovely shrubs, that is now rising into view; but the whole atmosphere is lowering, a gathering storm is accumulating fearfully in every region, the lightning is already seen gleaming in the heavens, and passing in quick succession from one distant cloud to another, as if every tree in the forest would be enkindled, and the devastating tempest, before purifying the atmosphere, spread ruin on every side. Such is now the aspect of the political horizon. The whole world is in agitation. All kings on earth, whose words are wont to be laws, are troubled. The calm repose of ages, in which thrones and altars were held sacred, has been broken for a moment. Ancient monarchies, which seemed long to defy dissolution and to mock at time, pass away like a dream. And the question is not now of the death of a king, or even of the ceasing of one dynasty and the commencement of another ; but the whole fabric of government is insecure, the whole frame of society is shaken. Every kingdom, instead of being knit together and dreaded by surrounding states, is divided against itself, as if dissolution were the sure destiny of them all. A citizen king, the choice of the people, and not a military usurper, sits on the throne of the Capets. And, as if the signal had gone throughout the world, quick as lightning, nations, instead of advancing slowly to regeneration, start at once into life. And from the banks of the Don to the Tagus, from the shores of the Bosphorus to Lapland; and, wide Europe being too narrow a field for the spirit of change that now ranges simultaneously throughout the world, from the new states of South America to the hitherto unchangeable China, skirting Africa, and traversing Asia, to the extremity of the globe on the frozen North, there are signs of change in every country under heaven ; and none can tell of what kingdom it may not be told in the news of to-morrow, that a revolution has been begun and perfected in a week. Every kingdom seems but to wait for its day of revolt or revival. And the only wonder now would be, that any nation should continue much longer what for ages it has been ; or that the signs of the times should not everywhere alike be a striking contrast to those of the past."

No. III.- Page 28. THE VINTAGE, &c., JEREMIAH xxv. 16-38.-BY THE REV. 3. W. BROOKS.

"Mr. Begg has an interesting exposition of it in his Connected View of the Redeemer's Advent, &c. According to him the prophet declares the relative order of a series of desolating judgments, from before the time of the publication of the prophecy, till the final destruction of Antichrist, under the figure of a wine-cup, which the prophet is directed to present to the nations in succession. He maintains that the order of succession is designed not only from the rotation in which the nations are mentioned, but from the circumstance of the same nations being in some instances made to drink twice, as in the case of Edom, ander its own name in ver. 21, and under the name of Dedan in ver. 23. The names Buz, (or, despised,) and Zimri, (or, my vine, or, my field,) he conceives to be mystic appellations of Israel. The king of Sheshach, who is to drink last, he infers from Jer. Li. 45, to be mystic Babylon, showing that though Jeremiah, in ch. Ll., speaks of the literal Babylon in some places, yet that the general terms of the prophecy, both there and in ch. xxv, can only accord with the mystic Babylon."*

“I conceive, however, that Sheshach cânnot mean here that Babylon which is represented in the Apocalypse as the harlot, and which is destroyed by the Beast that wages war with her ; but rather that beast who is the destroyer, and who is the last antichristian power destroyed. This appears the more probable from the fact, that after enumeration of the various parties who are to drink of it in succession, the next parties, and the last before Sheshach, are all the nations of the world: which agrees with the intimation given in the prophecies I have just cited from Ezekiel and Joel, of the vengeance that is to be poured out upon all the heathen,' or Gentile nations. And all the kings of the north, far and near, one with another ; and all the kingdoms of the world which are upon the face of the earth, and the king of Sheshach shall drink after them.'—ver. 26.

* "The passage in Jeremiah LI, 41, quoted by Mr. Begg as explanatory of the King of Sheshach, is as follows : 'How is Sheshach taken! and how is the praise of the whole earth surprised ! how is Babylon become an astonishment among the nations! Mr. Begg seems to consider the last sentence as exegetical of the former, in which opinion I entirely agree with him, and should be satisfied there to leave the matter. It may be useful, however, to the reader, as this name has given occasion to much discussion, to notice the opinions of learned men on the subject, which opinions may be classified under three heads : Jerome gives a cabalistic account of it after the Jewish manner, by substituting other letters of equal numerical value, till out of them he makes Babel; and he is quoted as authority for this signification of the word Sheshach by many subsequent writers, who enter not into his mode of deriving it. The second class includes those who say, as Mr. Scott does, that it evidently means Babylon, though it is not certain on what account it is so called. This view is not more satisfactory, as to the origin of the term, than that of Jerome. The learned Selden appears to me to have given the true solution, and is followed by Calmet and some others. He says that Sesach was the name of one of the Babylonian deities, in honour of whom there was a feast which lasted five days, called Sacæa, like the Saturnalia among the Romans, after Saturn. The authority he gives for it is a fragment preserved by Athenæus, from Berosus the Chaldean. (See his work, 'De Diis Syris,' ch. XIII.) Thus the prophet calls it, in the first instance, by the name of one of its tutelar deities, just as in ch. 1, 11, he calls it by the names of other of its gods.

Babylon is taken, Bel is confounded, Merodach is broken in pieces. A writer in the Morning Watch, vol. 111, p. 78, to whom I am indebted for the above reference to Selden, thinks that the name Meshach, given to Michael, was after this same deity; which is probable, if we compare Dan 1.7, with Dan iv. 8, by which it plainly appears that Daniel received his new surname after the manner of their god, Bel.'


After alluding, in ver. 28, to the refusal of some to take the è

cup, (which cani be none other than their determination to shut their eyes to the coming judg. ments, and to cry peace when a sword is coming,) the prophecy continues,

For, lo, I begin to bring evil on the city which is called by my name, and should ye be utterly unpunished ?

“ The similitude used in ver. 32, of a 'great whirlwind, leads me to observe that the reader will frequently find the suddenness, fierceness, and rapidity of these judgments couched under this figure of a whirlwind, in the prophets. He shall take them away as a whirlwind,' &c.

“Multitudes of professors of religion are at this time under a delusion in regard to the nature of those events which are impending over the church of Christ. The generality are agreed that a great crisis is at hand, and likewise that we are on the eve of the Millennium; but the party just alluded to are disposed to think, that the period of prosperity to the church is to arrive without any previous season of tribulation ;-that we are to glide into it, as it were, by the instrumentality of our various institutions for evangelizing the heathen ; by means of which there will be a gradually increasing diffusion of Scriptural light, until 'the whole earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea.' (Is. XI. 9.)."

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No. IV.- Page 47. ON DISOBEDIENCE TO PARENTS, &c.---BY TIIE REV. J. W. BROOKS. "In regard to disobedience to parents, it is a circumstance so commonly noticed by persons at all observant of the moral character of the age, as espe • cially belonging to the present times, that it requires no further comment. Even our justice-rooms do not unfrequently witness instances of parents coming to complain of, and to ask protection against, their own children ; whilst those who have anything to do with the education of the poor must well know how defective it is, from the want of a spirit of obedience and subordination to the wishes of their parents. A great declension has been noticed in this respect in the course of the last half century, as compared with the times immediately preceding; but if we compare the present with patriarchal times, and consider the deference shown in those days to parents, the contrast will be more remarkable. Indeed, I fear it would now provoke the laughter of many, were they to be seriously reminded, that the sons and daughters of those days rose up before tleir parents, and did them homage. Gen. xxxi. 31; 1 Kings XI. 19;-—and see also Lev. xix. 32, as regards the deference to elders generally. And though the Romans are described in Rom. 1. 30, as being disobedient to parents, yet we have instances mentioned in heathen authors of filial piety and reverence, and of deference to age, which might put to the blush multitudes of the present generation of professing Christians. ... It is daily becoming more a maxim among professors of religion to leave their children to run after pleasures or amusements which they themselves condemn, and to suffer them also to go into any company; excusing themselves under

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