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of God united to the human nature ; for the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son; that all men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father.' John v. 22, 23.

“ The Father has given him authority to execute judgment also, because he is the Son of man.' John v. 27. We must distinguish between the essential and economical power and authority of Christ. The Son of God, considered in his divine nature, has an original power and authority of judgment equal with the Father; but considered as Mediator, he has a power and authority committed by delegation.

Conscience, awakened by sharp afflictions, by sudden dangers, and the approaches of death, makes a sad detection of past sins, and forecasts cruel things; it cites the offender before the enlightened tribunal of heaven, scourges with remorse, and makes him feel, even here, the strokes of hell. Though the sin be secret, and the guilty person powerful, and not within the reach or cognizance of human justice, yet conscience has a rack within, and causes pain and anxiety, by fearful expectations of judgment to come. Hence the mere handwriting on the wall made king Belshazzar tremble, as much as Felix did at the preaching of St. Paul.

“Fallen angels also will be judged. They are said to be reserved unto the judgment of the great day.” Jude vi. They shall receive their final sentence. Matt. viii. 29; xxv. 46; 1 Cor. vi. 3; 2 Pet. ii. 4; Rev. xx. 10.

“ The heathen will be judged by the light of nature : 'For as many as have sinned without law, shall also perish without law.' Rom. ii. 12. Our people the Jews will be judged by the law of Moses : 'Do not think that I will accuse you to the Father: there is one that accuseth you, many as

even Moses, in whom ye trust.' John v. 45. As have sinned in the law, shall be judged by the law.' Rom. i. 12. Those who are favoured with the means of grace will be judged by the Gospel. He that rejecteth me, and receiveth not my words, hath one that judgeth him; the word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day.' John xii. 48.*"

“The fire of hell,” we conceive, is symbolic of a selfaccusing conscience, of bitter grief, disappointment, and remorse, -of agony, anguish, and despair,-of"weeping, wailing, and gnashing of teeth;" and we cannot doubt but that innumerable grades of punishment will be suitably adapted to each individual condition.

With whatever body the wicked shall be raised, it can scarcely be imagined to be of the same spiritual nature as the celestial body of the saints; for their punishment will respond in every particular to “ the righteous judgments of God." See 1 Cor. xv. 24-28.

“ It is indeed easy to admit the illusion that, if we were but translated to a purer sphere, and were but exempted from certain evil influences, we should at once become virtuous; but a supposition such as this will not bear to be examined; for although external causes may have had a powerful influence, at first, in producing our present moral dispositions, and so in determining our character, these dispositions, when once formed, possess a fixed continuity of their own, which is by no means destroyed merely by removing the exterior influences whence they arose: and moreover, such dispositions, or settled passions, when actually generated and consolidated, include a reproductive

* Frey.

energy; they are living powers; they vegetate, and cover the entire surface of the soul."

We have seen what are the blessings which God has destined for his faithful people in the Millennial world. As to the heavenly state in which the righteous shall ultimately shine, when all connection with the earth shall have ceased, this appears to be described in the following passages:

Acts 11. 68. Thou hast made known to me the ways of life; thou shall make me full of joy with thy countenance.

Psalm xvi. 11. Thou wilt shew me the path of life : in thy presence is fulness of joy ; at thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore.

The above passages evidently portray the heavenly state, because they relate to the Saviour's entrance into it after his resurrection. See Matt. vi. 10; Phil. 11. 10; 1 Kings XXII. 19; Luke 1. 19.

* See Supplement, No. XX.


No. I.- Page 17.


As there is no reason to doubt that the same Scripture language often conveys both a literal and symbolic meaning,--to mark which, we have placed certain portions of this quotation in Italics :-"For understanding the prophecies, we are, in the first place, to acquaint ourselves with the figurative language of the prophets. This language is taken from the analogy between the world natural and an empire, or kingdom, considered as a world politic. Accordingly, the whole world natural, consisting of heaven and earth, signifies the whole world politic, consisting of thrones and people, or so much of it as is considered in the prophecy, and the things in that world signify the analogous things in this. For the heavens, and the things therein, signify thrones, and dignities, and those who enjoy them; and the earth, with the things thereon, the inferior people; and the lowest parts of the earth, called Hades or Hell, the lowest or most miserable of them. Whence, ascending towards heaven, and descending to the earth, are put for rising or falling in power and honour : rising out of the earth or waters, and falling into them, for the rising up to any dignity or dominion, out of the inferior state of the people, or falling down from the same into that inferior state ; descending into the lower parts of the earth, for descending to a very low or unhappy estate; speaking with a faint voice out of the dust, for being in a weak or low condition ; moving from one place to another, for translation from one office, dignity, or dominion, to another; great earthquakes, and the shaking of heaven and earth, for the shaking of kingdoms, so as to distract or overthrow them ; the creating a new heaven and earth, and the passing away of an old one, or the beginning and end of the world, for the rise and ruin of the body politic signified thereby.

“In the heavens, the sun and moon are, by interpreters of dreams, put for the persons of kings and queens ; but in sacred prophecy, which regards not single persons, the sun is put for the whole species and race of kings in the kingdom or kingdoms of the world politic, shining with regal power and glory; the moon, for the body of the common people, considered as the king's wife ; the stars, for subordinate princes and great men; . . . light, for the glory, truth, and knowledge, wherewith great and good men shine and illuminate others : darkness, for obscurity of condition, and for error, blindness, and ignorance ; darkening, smiting, or setting of the sun, moon, and stars, for the ceasing of a kingdom, or for the desolation thereof, proportional to the darkness; darkening the sun, turning the moon into blood, and falling of the stars, for the same;

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