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even Moses, in whom ye trust.' John v. 45.

. As many as have sinned in the law, shall be judged by the law.' Rom. ii. 12. Those who are favoured with the means of grace will be judged by the Gospel.' 'He that rejecteth me, and receiveth not my words, hath one that judgeth him; the word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day.' John xii. 48.*"

“The fire of hell,” we conceive, is symbolic of a selfaccusing conscience, of bitter grief, disappointment, and remorse,-of agony, anguish, and despair,-of"weeping, wailing, and gnashing of teeth ;” and we cannot doubt but that innumerable grades of punishment will be suitably adapted to each individual condition.

With whatever body the wicked shall be raised, it can scarcely be imagined to be of the same spiritual nature as the celestial body of the saints; for their punishment will respond in every particular to “ the righteous judgments of God.” See 1 Cor. xv. 24-28.

“It is indeed easy to admit the illusion that, if we were but translated to a purer sphere, and were but exempted from certain evil influences, we should at once become virtuous; but a supposition such as this will not bear to be examined; for although external causes may have had a powerful influence, at first, in producing our present moral dispositions, and so in determining our character, these dispositions, when once formed, possess a fixed continuity of their own, which is by no means destroyed merely by removing the exterior influences whence they arose : and moreover, such dispositions, or settled passions, when actually generated and consolidated, include a reproductive

* Frey.

energy; they are living powers; they vegetate, and cover the entire surface of the soul."

We have seen what are the blessings which God has destined for his faithful people in the Millennial world. As to the heavenly state in which the righteous shall ultimately shine, when all connection with the earth shall have ceased, this appears to be described in the following passages:

Acts 11. 68. Thou hast made known to me the ways of life ; thou shall make me full of joy with thy countenance.

Psalm xvi. 11. Thou wilt shew me the path of life : in thy presence is fulness of joy ; at thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore.

The above passages evidently portray the heavenly state, because they relate to the Saviour's entrance into it after his resurrection. See Matt. vi. 10; Phil. 11. 10; 1 Kings XXII. 19; Luke 1. 19.

* See Supplement, No. XX.


No. I.- Page 17.


As there is no reason to doubt that the same Scripture language often conveys both a literal and symbolic meaning,--to mark which, we have placed certain portions of this quotation in Italics :--"For understanding the prophecies, we are, in the first place, to acquaint ourselves with the figurative language of the prophets. This language is taken from the analogy between the world natural and an empire, or kingdom, considered as a world politic. Accordingly, the whole world natural, consisting of heaven and earth, signifies the whole world politic, consisting of thrones and people, or so much of it as is considered in the prophecy, and the things in that world signify the analogous things in this. For the heavens, and the things therein, signify thrones, and dignities, and those who enjoy them; and the earth, with the things thereon, the inferior people; and the lowest parts of the earth, called Hades or Hell, the lowest or most miserable of them. Whence, ascending towards heaven, and descending to the earth, are put for rising or falling in power and honour : rising out of the earth or waters, and falling into them, for the rising up to any dignity or dominion, out of the inferior state of the people, or falling down from the same into that inferior state ; descending into the lower parts of the earth, for descending to a very low or unhappy estate; speaking with a faint voice out of the dust, for being in a weak or low condition ; moving from one place to another, for translation from one office, dignity, or dominion, to another; great earthquakes, and the shaking of heaven and earth, for the shaking of kingdoms, so as to distract or overthrow them; the creating a new heaven and earth, and the passing away of an old one, or the beginning and end of the world, for the rise and ruin of the body politic signified thereby.

"In the heavens, the sun and moon are, by interpreters of dreams, put for the persons of kings and queens; but in sacred prophecy, which regards not single persons, the sun is put for the whole species and race of kings in the kingdom or kingdoms of the world politic, shining with regal power and glory;

for the body of the common people, considered as the king's wife ; the stars, for subordinate princes and great men; . . . light, for the glory, truth, and knowledge, wherewith great and good men shine and illuminate others : darkness, for obscurity of condition, and for error, blindness, and ignorance ; darkening, smiting, or setting of the sun, moon, and stars, for the ceasing of a kingdom, or for the desolation thereof, proportional to the darkness; darkening the sun, turning the moon into blood, and falling of the stars, for the same;

the moon,

new moons, for the return of a dispersed people into a body politic or ecclesiastic. Fire and meteors refer to both heaven and earth, and signify as follows :-burning anything with fire is put for the consuming thereof by war; a conflagration of the earth, or turning a country into a lake of fire, for the consumption of a kingdom by war; the being in a furnace, for the being in slavery under another nation ; the ascending up of the smoke of any burning thing for ever and ever, for the continuation of a conquered people under the misery of perpetual subjection and slavery ; the scorching heat of the sun, for vexatious wars, persecutions, and troubles, inflicted by the king; riding on the clouds, for reigning aver much people; covering the sun with a cloud, or with smoke, for oppression of the king by the armies of an enemy; tempestuous winds, or the motion of clouds, .for wars ; thunder, or the voice of a cloud, for the voice of a multitude; a storm of thunder, lightning, hail, and overflowing rain, for a tempest of war descending from the heavens and clouds politic on the heads of their enemies ; rain, if not immoderate, and dew, and living water, for the graces and doctrines of the Spirit ; and the defect of rain for spiritual barrenness.

“In the earth, the dry land and congregated waters as a sea, a river, a flood, are put for the people of several regions, nations, and dominions; embittering of waters, for great affliction of the people by war and persecution; turning things into blood, for the mystical death of bodies politic, that is, for their dissolution; the overflowing of a sea or river, for the invasion of the earth politic by the people of the waters ; drying up of waters, for the conquest of their regions by the earth; fountains of waters, for cities—the permanent heads of rivers politic; mountains and islands, for the cities of the earth and sea politic, with the territories and dominions belonging to those cities; dens and rocks of mountains, for the temples of cities; houses and ships, for families, assemblies, and towns in the earth and sea politic; and a navy of ships of war, for an army of that kingdom that is signified by the sea.

“ Animals also and vegetables are put for the people of several regions and conditions; and particularly trees, herbs, and land animals, for the people of the earth politic; flags, reeds, and fishes, for those of the waters politic ; birds and insects, for those of the politic heaven and earth; a forest for a kingdom

“If the world politic, considered in propheey, consists of many kingdoms, they are represented by as many parts of the world natural: as the noblest, by the celestial frame, and then the moon and clouds are put for the common people; the less noble, by the earth, sea, and rivers, and by the animals, or vegetables, or buildings therein; and then the greater and more powerful animals, and taller trees are put for kings, princes, and nobles. And because the whole kingdom is the body politic of the king, therefore the sun, or a tree, or a beast, or bird, or a man, whereby the king is represented, is put in a large signification for the whole kingdom ; and several animals, as a lion, a bear, a leopard, a goat, according to their qualities, are put for several kingdoms and bodies politic; and sacrificing of beasts, for slaughtering and conquering of kingdoms; and friendship between beasts, for peace between kingdoms. Yet sometimes vegetables and animals are, by certain epithets, or circumstances, extended to other significations; as a tree, when called the tree

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