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After tracing in your design, the colours must be laid on in the usual method of stained drawings. When the tints are got in, you must place your picture against the window, on a pane of glass framed for the purpose, and begin to strengthen the shadows with Indian ink, or with colours, according as the effect requires, laying the colours sometimes on both sides of the paper, to give greater force and depth of colour. The last touches for giving final strength to shadows and forms, are to be done with ivory-black, or lampblack prepared with gum-water, as there is no pigment so opaque and capable of giving strength and decision.
When the picture is finished, and every part has got its depth of colour and brilliancy, being perfectly dry, you touch very carefully with spirits of turpentine on both sides, those parts which are to be the brightest, such as the moon and fire, and those parts requiring less brightness, only on one side. Then lay on immediately with a pencil, a varnish made by dissolving one ounce of Canada balsam in an equal quantity of spirit of turpentine. You must be cautious with the varnish, as it is apt to spread. When the varnish is dry, you tint the flame with red-lead and gamboge, slightly tinging the smoke next the flame: the moon must not be tinted with colour.
Much depends upon the choice of the subject, and none is so admirably adapted to this species of effect as the gloomy Gothic ruin, whose antique towers and pointed turrets finely contrast their dark battlements with the pale, yet brilliant moon. Rays passing through the ruined windows half choaked with ivy, a fire amongst the clustering pillars and broken monuments of the choir, round
which are figures of banditti, or others whose haggard faces catch the reflecting light, afford a peculiarity of effect, not to be equalled in any other species of painting. Internal views of cathedrals, also, where windows of stained glass are introduced, form beautiful subjects.
The great point to be attained is a happy coincidence between the subject and the effect produced. The fine light should not be too near the moon, as its glare would tend to injure her pale silver sight; those parts which are not interesting should be kept in an undistinguishable gloom, and where the principal light is, they should be marked with precision. Groups of figures should be well contrasted; those in shadow crossing those that are in light, by which means the opposition of light against shade is effected.
If the limits of our work would have permitted us, we should have here said something respecting this branch of the art; but upon considering that it is a very inferior mode of painting, being only adapted for portraits, and being so perishable, that it is a pity the talents of any eminent artist should ever be employed in it, we have judged it better to suppress the article altogether, to make room for something of more importance. Those who are desirous of attempting it, may easily be furnished with the crayons ready prepared; and there is nothing particular in their use, which may not be easily acquired by any one who is acquainted with the practice of drawing.
We shall now give a brief account of the different pigments or colours, which are used either in water or oil, for the purposes of drawing or painting.
Lakes. This term is used to denote a species of colours formed by the combination of alumine, or the oxyd of tin, with the colouring matters of vegetables.
The lakes chiefly used are red colours, and these are of different qualities, according to the basis and colouring matter employed.
The principal lakes are carmine, Florence-lake, and madder-lake.
Carmine is a very rich bright crimson colour, and stands well in water. For the preparation of carmine, four ounces of finely-pulverized cochineal are to be poured into four or six quarts of rain, or distilled water, that has been previously boiled in a pewter kettle, and boiled with it for the space of six minutes longer (some advise to add, during the boiling, two drachms of pulverized crystals of tartar). Eight scruples of Roman alum, in powder, are to be then added, and the whole kept upon the fire one minute longer. As soon as the gross powder has subsided, and the decoction has become clear, it is to be carefully decanted into large cylindrical glasses, covered over, and kept undisturbod, till a fine powder is observed to have settled at the bottom. The liquor is then to be poured off from this powder, which is to be gradually dried. From the liquor, which is still much coloured, the rest of the colouring matter may be separated by
means of the solution of tin, when it yields a car. mine little inferior to the former.
Florentine lake is the kind in general use, known by the name of lake. It is used in water and also in oil, but does not stand, which is much to be lamented, as it is a very beautiful colour, and the is no substitute that will completely answer all the purposes of lake.
The best sort may be prepared from the sediment of cochineal that remains in the kettle after making carmine, adding to it a small quantity of cochineal, or Brazil-wood, and precipitating the colouring matter with a solution of tin.
Madder-lake is not so bright and rich a colour as the last-mentioned lakes, but has this valuable advantage, that it stands much better, and it may answer many of the purposes of Florence-lake.
It is prepared nearly in the same manner as the foregoing.
Rose-lake. This is generally called rose-pink. It is a lake made by a basis of chalk, coloured by Brazil or Campeachy wood. It does not stànd, and is only used for house-painting and paperhanging
Vermillion, a bright scarlet pigment, formed from sulphur and quicksilver. Its goodness is known by its brightness, and by its inclining to a crimson hue. It is a very useful colour in oil, where it stands very well; but in water it is apt to turn black.
Red lead, or minium, is lead calcined till it acquires a red colour, by exposing it with a large surface to the fire. This colour is very apt to turn black in water, and is therefore seldom used.
Indian red. This colour is sometimes employed to answer some of the purposes of lake. It is
difficult to procure the genuine kind, which comes from the East Indies. What is sold for Indian red, is said to be chiefly made in this country.
Venetian red is a native red ochre, rather inclining to the scarlet than the crimson hue : it is not far different in colour from the common Indian red, and is a very good colour.
Spanish-brown is also an earthy substance, found in the same state in which it is used; it is nearly of the same colour as Venetian red, but coarser. It is only used for the commonest purposes.
Light red, or burnt ochre. This is common yellow ochre heated red-hot in the fire, till the colour changes from yellow to a red. It is a very excellent colour, both in water and oil, having the quality in common with all the ochres, of standing perfectly well.
Red chalk. This is the same substance as is used for drawing on paper, in the manner of a crayon. It is very much like light red, and is used instead of it, for some purposes. It stands perfectly well, and may be used both in water and oil.
Burnt Terra Sienna. This colour is made by calcining raw terra Sienna till it acquires a red colour. It is of a very rich tint, and is much used both in water and oil. It stands well in both.
Ultramarine is prepared from lapis lazuli, by calcining and washing it very clean. When genuine, it is an extremely bright blue colour, somewhat transparent both in oil and water, and stands perfectly. On these accounts it is of the utmost value, being excellent in every kind of painting,