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drawing, he cannot too soon have recourse to nature; he will obtain from her the materials for acquiring every species of excellence, in a greater degree than from the works of the first masters. The study of these, however, will greatly abridge his labour, and it should go hand in hand with drawing from nature.

The fewer colours that are used in a drawing, the better, as harmony is most easily preserved ; and by the mixture of a few, every possible tint may be obtained.

It was mentioned, when treating on optics, that. the sun's rays were considered by Sir Isaac Newton to be composed of seven primitive colours; but all the vast variety of tints which we see in nature may be formed by the mixture of red, blue, and yellow, in various proportions. If we had pigments of these colours perfectly pure, we should have no occasion for more than these three; but this is not the case, and therefore we are obliged to have recourse to materials of other broken tints. The colours that are found to be the most useful in drawing landscapes in water-colours, are, lake, indigo, Prussian-blue, gamboge, light red, yellow ochre, burnt terra Sienna, burnt umber, and Cologne earth. Some of the other colours may be occasion . ally useful, but these are all that are necessary for general use.

The best sort of water-colours are those mixed with gum and made up into cakes, as these may be used by rubbing upon a tile, in the same manner as Indian ink.

Mechanical Drawing. We have given the name mechanical draw ing to that sort of delineation which depends entirely

on geometrical rules, and which is executed by the use of the ruler and compasses : such as the drawing of plans, elevations and sections of buildings, machinery, &c. This species of drawing is of very extensive utility, and is of so easy acquirement that it may be learned by every person in the same manner as writing.

For this purpose the geometrical problems should first be carefully and neatly drawn, and the hand should be accustomed to the use of the compasses and drawing-pen. Then the architectural mouldings should be studied, as they occur not only in buildings, but also in cabinet-work, machinery, and almost all kinds of implements.

In this kind of drawing the outlines of objects are laid down from actual measurement, by scales of equal parts; and the lines are drawn first with black lead pencil, and afterwards with ink, by means of the steel drawing-pen. The shadows also are added in Indian ink, and are drawn by rules that are established with mathematical precision.

OF THE MECHANICAL MEANS FOR COPYING

DRAWINGS.

There are various methods by which those who are ignorant of the art of drawing may copy very accurately the outlines of pictures, prints, and drawings; and these methods are often useful to those who can draw, and to engravers, when either great expedition or great accuracy is required; though none of them should ever be used by one who is learning to draw.

Tracing against the Light. Hold the drawing you wish to copy against one of the panes of the window; or have a pane

of

glass put in a frame, and fitted up like a musicstand, with a candle behind it. Lay your paper over your drawing, and you will see all the lines of the original distinctly through it, by which means you can easily trace them with a pen or black-lead pencil.

To make Tracing-Paper. Mix together equal parts of oil of turpentine and drying-oil, and with a rag rub it evenly over some fan, or tissue paper, or

any
other

very Hang it by to dry for a day or two, and it will be fit for use. Lay this over the print or drawing you want to copy, and you will see every line distinctly through, so that you can go over them with the black-lead pencil. If you wish to do it in ink, you must mix a little ox’s gall with the ink, to make the

paper take it, which it would not otherwise do on account of the oil.

thin paper.

To make Camp-Paper. Take some hard soap, mix it with lamp-black; make it into the consistence of a jelly with water; with this brush over one side of your paper, and let it dry. When you use it, put it between two sheets of clean paper, with its black side downwards, and with a pin, or stick with a sharp point, draw or write what you please upon the clean paper; and where the tracer has touched, there will be an impression upon the lowermost sheet of paper, as if it had been written or drawn with a pen. It may be made of any colour, .by mixing with the soap black-lead, vermillion, &c.

Stenciling. Lay the print or drawing you wish to have copied, over á sheet of paper, and with a pin or needle prick all the outline over with holes, through both the papers. Then take the clean paper with the holes made in it, and lay it upon

the

paper you wish to have the design transferred to, and dust it over with the powder of charcoal in a small muslin bag; the dust will penetrate through the holes, and leave a correct copy of the original upon the paper. This pricked paper will do again for any

number of copies. This is very useful for ladies who work flowers

upon

muslin.

The Method of Enlarging and Contracting

by Squares.

Divide the sides of your original with a pair of compasses into any number of equal parts, and rule lines across with a black-lead pencil from side to side, and from top to bottom. Then having your paper of the size you intend, divide it into the same number of squares, either larger or less, as you would enlarge or contract it.

Then placing your original before you, draw, square by square, the several parts, observing to make the part of the figure you are drawing fall in the same part of the squares in the copy, as it does in your original. To prevent mistakes, number the squares both of the original and copy. This method is much used by engravers.

To prevent the necessity of ruling across the original, which in some cases may injure it, take a square pane of crown glass, and divide its sides, and

also its top and bottom into equal parts: then from each division draw lines across the glass with lampblack ground with gum-water, and you will divide the glass into squares. Then lay the glass upon the original which you wish to copy, and having drawn the same number of squares upon your paper, proceed to copy into each square on your paper what appears behind each corresponding square of the glass. Instead of a glass, an open frame with threads stretched across will answer the same purpose.

The Pentagraph. The Pentagraph is an instrument by means of which one may copy, enlarge, or reduce the outlines of any picture, print, or drawing. They may be had at most mathematical instrument-makers, and are extremely useful for copying plans, maps, and other complicated figures.

PAINTING TRANSPARENCIES.

The effect of this kind of painting is very pleasing, if managed with judgment, particularly in fire and moon lights, where brilliancy, of light and strength of shade are so very desirable.

The very great expence attending the purchase of stained glass, and the risk of keeping it secure from accident, almost precludes the use of it in ornamenting rooms; but transparencies form a substitute nearly equal, and at a very small expence.

The paper upon which you intend to paint must be fixed in a straining-frame, in order that you may be able to place it between you and the light, when you see occasion in the progress of

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