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might want a hat; and so the shoemaker must find out some hatter, who wants shoes, and get a hat from him, and

then exchange the hat with the baker for bread. 6 All this would be very troublesome; but by the use of

money, the trouble is saved. 7 Any one who has money, may get for it just what he may

chance to want. The baker, for example, is always willing 8 to part with his bread for money, because he knows that he

can exchange it for shoes, or a hat, or firewood, or any

thing else he needs. What time and trouble it must have 9 cost men, to exchange one thing for another before money

was in use! DEFINITIONS, &c.—Define money, at a loss, (of power to decido ; i. e. in doubt,) bread, meat, exchange, baker, offer, pair, butcher, happen, troublesome, saved, (avoided,) chance, willing, firewood, needs, cost, was in use, (was brought into use : was used.)


1 EXCHANGE between nations, we call commerce. All 2 countries will not produce the same things'; but by means

of exchanges between them, each may enjoy all the products 3 of the others. Tea comes from China, and sugar from the

West Indies. Neither could be raised in the state of New

York, nor could oranges, without a hothouse; but we get 4 them in exchange for cloth, flour, knives, scissors, &c., which

we can make much cheaper and better than the Chinese and West Indians'; and so both parties are better off than if they

made them at home. 5 How useful water is for commerce! The sea seems to 6 keep different countries separate; but for the purposes of

commerce, it rather brings them together. If there were 7 only land between this country and England, we could not

sell our cotton'; for the carriage of it would cost more than

it is worth : from China we could get no tea'; and from 8 the West Indies, no sugar. Think how many

horses would be wanted to draw such a load as comes to us in a ship! 9 And then they mușt eat and rest while they were travelling 10 But the winds are the horses which carry the ship along';

and they cost us nothing but to spread a sail. Then, too

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11 the ship moves easily, because it floats on the water, instead of dragging on the ground like a wagon.

What folly, as well as sin, it is, for different nations to be 12 jealous of one another, instead of trading together peace

ably; by which all would be richer and better off! But the 13 best gift3 of God are given in vain, to those who are per

verse! DEFINITIONS, &c.—Define exchanges, products, tea, sagar, oranges hothouse, cloth, knives, scissors, parties, better off, (aro gainers ?) separate purposes, carriage, (carrying of it, transportation,) travelling, sail, floats, dragging, wagon, folly, trading, perverse.

SECTION XCVIII.--EXCHANGES. 1 But why should not every man make what he wants for

himself, instead of going to his neighbor to buy it? Go

into the shoemaker's shop and ask him why he does not 2 make tables and chairs for himself, and hats and shoes, and every thing else which he wants : he will tell you, that he must have a complete set of joiner's tools to make one chair properly; the same tools that would serve to make hundreds

of chairs. Then if he were also to make the tools himself, 3 and nails, he would need a blacksmith’s forge, and an anvil,

and hammers; and after all, it would cost him great labor to make

very clumsy tools and chairs, because he has not been used to that kind of work. It is therefore less trouble to 4 him to make shoes that he can sell for as much as will buy

a dozen chairs, than it would be to make one chair for him5 self. To the joiner, again, it would be just as great a loss to

attempt to make shoes for himself; and it is thus with the

tailor, the hatter, and all other trades. It is best for all, that 6 each should work in his own way, and supply his neighbors,

while they, in their turn, supply him. When every man does 7 every thing for himself, every thing is badly done ; and a

few hundred of savages will be half starved in a country, which would maintain ten times as many thousands of us, in much greater comfort. DEFINITIONS, &c.--Define make, what, (such things as,) wants, instead of, shop, tables, chairs, hats, shoes, complete set, joiner, properly, tools, hundreds, nails, blacksmith, forge, anvil, hammers, after all, (all what?) clumsy, work, dozen, just, attempt, tailor, trades, way, supply, turn, bad. ly, savages, comfort.



SECTION XCIX. -DETACHED THOUGHTS. 1 LOVE OF LIFE.—2 How tenaciously man clings to life! 3 Though few and fleeting are his years, he forms schemes,

and makes engagements, just as he would if life were ing4 mortal. The older a person grows, the more strongly does

he grasp at the shadow. A man climbing a tree takes a 5 final hold when near its top: so does the aged individual

cling stronger to life the nearer he approaches its termina6 tion. He is never ready to die, until he feels he can no 7 longer remain. He then makes a virtue of necessity, and ex

pires. 8 TIME LOST.–9 There is time lost and wasted in the pur

suit of what men call pleasure, which, if properly appropriated, would place them in a high state of cultivation.

Time can be found to ride, and dance, and sing”; time can 10 be found to lounge and talk nonsense ; but alas ! how many think « they can't


time” to attend to the noblest and best part of their nature ! DEFINITIONS, &c.—Define tenaciously, fleeting, schemes, engagements, immortal, grows, (becomes,) grasp, shadow, climbing, tree, final, top, cling, approaches, termination, remain, makes a virtue, (submits as if he did a good thing, and deserved roward,) expires, lost, wasted, appropriated, (devoted to things proper,) cultivation, high state, ride, dance, sing, lounge, talk nonsense. What is the noblest and best part of our nature ?

SECT. C.-DISTRIBUTION OF PARTS FOR REHEARSAL. (Enter Snug, Bottom, Flute, Snout, Quince, and Starveling.) 1 Quince. Is all our company here ? 2 Bottom. You were best to call them generally, man by man, according to the scrip.

Quin. Here is the scroll of every man's name, which is 3 thought fit, through all Athens, to play our interlude before

the duke and duchess, on his wedding-night. 4 Bot. First, good Peter Quince, say what the play treats on: then read the names of the actors; and so go on to appoint.

Quin, Marry, our play is, “ The most lamentable comedy, and most cruel death of Pyramus and Thisby.” 6 Bot. A very good piece of work, I assure you, and a y merry.—Now good Peter Quince, call forth your actors by 8 the scroll. Masters, spread yourselves.




9 Quin. Answer as I call you.—10 Nick Bottom, the weaver. 11 Bot. Ready". 12 Name what part I am for, and proceed.

Quin. You, Nick Bottom, are set down for Pyramus. 14 Bot. What is Pyramus ? 15 A lover, or a tyrant ? 16 Quin. A lover, that kills himself most gallantly for love. 17 Bot. That will ask some tears in the true performance'. 18 If I do it, let the audience look to their eyes: I will move 19 storms; I will condole in some measure. To the rest.20 Yet my chief humor is for a tyrant: I could play a part to tear a cat in; to make all split.

The raging rocks,
With shivering shocks,

Shall break the locks 21

Of prison gates;
And Phibbus' car
Shall shine from far
And make and mar

The foolish fates. 22 This was lofty !-23 Now name the rest of the players.24 This is a tyrant's vein: a lover's is more condoling. 25 Quin. Francis Flute, the bellows-mender. 26 Flute. Here, Peter Quince. 27 Quin. You must take Thisby on you. 28 Flu. What is Thisby? 29 A wandering Knight? 30 Quin. It is the lady that Pyramus must love. 31 Flu. Nay, faith; let me not play woman'; I have a

beard coming 32 Quin. That's all one'; you shall play it in a mask; and

you may speak as small as you will. 33 Bot. If I may hide my face, let me play Thisby too. I'll 34 speak in a monstrous little voice: Thisne! Thisne !—Ah,

Pyramus, my lover dear !--Thy Thisby dear! and thy lady dear!

Quin. No: no! you must play Pyramus; and, Flute, you Thisby. 36 Bot. Well, proceed. 37 Quin. Robin Starveling, the tailor. 38 Star. Here, Peter Quince. 39 Quin. You, Pyramus's father; myself, Thisby's father ;

Snug, the joiner, you, the lion's part; and, I hope, here is a


play fitted.



40 Snug. Have you the lion's part written ? 41 Pray you,

if it be, give it me; for I am slow of study. 42 Quin. You may do it extempore; for it is nothing but

roaring 43 Bot. Let me play the lion too. I will roar, that it will do 44 any man's heart good to hear me: I will roar that I will

make the duke say, Let him roar again ! let him roar again!

Quin. If you should do it too terribly, you would frighten 45 the duchess and the ladies, that they would shriek; and

that were enough to hang us all. 46 All. That would hang us every mother's son.

Bot. I grant you, friends, if that you should frighten the 47 ladies out of their wits, they would have no more discretion

than to hang'; but I will aggravate my voice so, that I will roar you as gently as any sucking dove : I will roar you as if 'twere a nightingale.

Quin. You can play no part but Pyramus ; for Pyramus 48 is a sweet-faced man, a proper man, as one shall see in a

summer's day : a most lovely, gentlemanlike man: therefore

you must needs play Pyramus. 49 Bot. Well, I will undertake it. 50 What beard were I

best to play it in ? 51 Quin. Why, what you will.

Bot. I will discharge it in either your straw-colored beard, 52 your orange-tawny beard, your purple-in-grain beard, or your

French-crown-color beard : your perfect yellow. 53 Quin. Some of your French crowns have no hair at all ;

and then you will play barefaced.—But, masters, here are

your parts; and I am to entreat you, request you, and desire 54 you, to con them by to-morrow night, and meet me in the

palace wood, a mile without the town, by moonlight. There 55 will we rehearse ; for if we meet in the city, we shall be 56 dogged with company, and our devices known. I pray you,

fail me not. 57 Bot. We will meet' ; and there we may rehearse more 58 obscenely, and courageously. Take pains'; be perfect';


DEFINITIONS, &c.—Define rehearsal, scrip, (scroll, or catalogue of names,) interlude, duke, duchess, treats on, (treats of,) actors, (play-actors,) lamentable, comedy, merry, (what understood after this word ?) sprcad

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