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though it might have to be effected in the garb of penitence, speaking of his See as the Saviour's Holy Home, 2 lauding its ritual and its missal, in contrast with the formularies and rites of the English Church, as the very spirit of devotion,3 and warding off from it and him, with the earnest and blind partiality of filial devotedness, all application to them of those too applicable prophecies of the Beast Antichrist, and his Harlot Church on the seven hills.
4 5. It lays claim, just like the False Prophet, to the power of working miracles on the souls of men : 5 in such manner indeed as actually to furnish a comment, not only on the text now before us, but on a previous Apocalyptic statement also about the False Prophet's working miracles ; in that case “ before," or under authority from, the Papal Beast his principal.?—
own private wills make a faith for ourselves, in this our small corner of the earth. We cannot have the success among the heathen of St. Boniface or St. Augustine, unless like them we go forth with the apostolical benediction," i. e. the Pope's blessing.
So Palmer's Aids to Reflection : “ I should like to see the Patriarch of Constantinople and our Archbishop of Canterbury go barefoot to Rome, and fall upon the Pope's neck, and kiss him, and never let him go till they had persuaded him to be reasonable.” Quoted by Goode, p. 33.
2 So in the poetry of the Tractators.—And the prose rivals the poetry. “Rome is your mother," says Dr. Pusey, “ through whom you were born to Christ.” “ We trust that active and visible union with the See of Rome is not of the essence of a Church : at the same time we are deeply conscious that in lacking it, far from asserting a right, we forego a great privilege. Rome has imperish. able claims on our gratitude; and, were it so ordered, on our deference.- We are estranged from him in presence, not in heart.” Contrast the Bishop of London's statements respecting the Romish Church in his Charge, pp. 19, 59: “ that idolatrous Church, in a state of schism, if not apostacy; defiled with superstition and idolatry; and which has framed a system that deserves to be described as having embodied the very mystery of iniquity."
3 “ The Church of Rome alone has given free scope to the feelings of awe, mystery, tenderness, reverence, devotedness, and other feelings which may especially be called Catholic.” Newman's Letter to Jelf; quoted by Goode, 38. Again; “ Our Reformers in not adopting the Canon of the Mass, which is a sacred and most precious monument of the apostles, mutilated the tradition of 1500 years.” “I can see no claim which the Prayer Book has on a layman's deference, as the teaching of the Church, which the Breviary and the Missal have not in a far greater degree.” Froude ap. Goode, 35, 36.-See the Bishop of London's observations on this point; Charge, p. 50.
4 See my Analysis of the Tract on Antichrist, in a Paper on the Futurist System of Apocalyptic interpretation given in my Appendix.
5 “If baptism be the cleansing and quickening of the dead soul, to say nothing of the Lord's Supper, they, Christ's ministers, do work miracles." Tract 85, p. 95 : quoted by Goode, p. 23.
6 “ These are the spirits of dæmons working miracles." 7 Apoc. xiii. 14. See my Vol. iii. p. 179.-It is really curiously eonfirmatory
6. It avows its allegiance to Ecumenic General Councils, (not exclusively of that of Trent,)' even as to that which speaks the voice of God's Spirit, and possesses the Spirit's infallibility,– wresting the words of the Article of our Church, which was drawn up expressly against it, in order to force on them a sense not necessarily unaccordant with this doctrine ;2 just as the False Prophet was the prime and firm adherent to the Image of the Beast ::—nay, and both excusing, and expressing desire for the re-enactment of, those penalties of excommunication and death, with a view to the enforcement of the Church's decrees, which the False Prophet, described
of the explanation there given of the prophetic verse : given, I need not say, without any thought of the passage in the Tract above quoted. Add the Promethean creative view of fire from heaven to that in the comment referred to; and it will give a complete notion of the Tractator's priestly miracles.
* At least, not now. Originally Mr. N. made this Council to mark the time of the Popes becoming Antichrist. See p. 54, Note 7 infrà.
? The 21st Article of our Church says; “ Forasmuch as they (General Councils) be an assembly of men, whereof all be not governed with the Spirit and word of God, they may err, and sometimes have erred, in things pertaining to God.” Against this Mr. Newman says; “ The words only mean that General Councils may err as such; may err, unless in any case it is promised, as a matter of express supernatural privilege, they may not err. And such a promise does exist, where General Councils are not only gathered together according to the commandment and will of princes, but in the name of Christ, according to our Lord's promise.” When they are a thing of hearen, their deliberations are overruled, and their decrees authoritative; and, as he adds also, infallible. “In such cases they are Catholic Councils. Thus Catholic, or Ecumenical Councils, are General Councils, and something more."-Tract No. 90, p. 21.
3 See my Part iv, Chap. vii ; Vol. iii. p. 190, &c. 4 So Mr. Faber (not the Rev. G. S. Faber, but one who less worthily bears the name)* in his ' Sights and Thoughts' advocates “ the most dire weapon of the Church, excommunication; whereby she cuts off the offender from the fountains of life in this world, and makes him over from her own judgment to that of heaven in the world to come. Surely it is the duty of Christian States to deprive such an excommunicate person of every social right and privilege ; to lay on him such pains and penalties as may seem good to the wisdom of the law; or even, if they so judge, to sweep him from the earth ; in other words, to put him to death." In a similar spirit Gregory VII, Innocent III, and Beckett are extolled as the lights of the Church in the middle ages, and ranked in the same class with Elijah and St. John the Baptist :-Innocent (not to speak of the others) being the bloody ruthless persecutor and murderer of the excommunicate Waldenses.- Bickersteth, ib. p. 27. See my Vol. ii. p. 19, &c; also the Bishop of London's indignant notice of this point in his late Charge, p. 57.—Mr. Marks in his animated Pamphlet or Protest lately published, says, not without reason, p. 21, that the Star-Chamber, with its old deeds of cruelty, is what the Tractarians would fain call again into existence, had they the power : and he refers to Milford Malvoisin, declaring that the reign of Queen Mary was a great and positive
• He has since joined the Romish Church. 3rd Edition.
in Apoc. xiii, inspired the Beast's Image to enact against all recusants or disobedient, in enforcement of its dogmas.'—7. It professes its bitter enmity against the anti-Papal witnessing of Protestantism, and the Reformation of the 16th century;2—that act which, in a manner too clear to be mistaken, the Apocalyptic vision notes as done with Christ's direction and blessing, to the horror of the Beast's adherents, specially of his False Prophet: avows “the unprotestantizing of the national Church to be its object, and one worthy of all hazards, as a matter of life and death : 4 unchurches the foreign Protestant Churches : and, as to the new song of the Reformation, —the holy and glorious doctrine of justification by faith alone, -shews that it not only does not understand, but above all things abhors and rejects it ; counting it (awful to say) as a Nehushtan,—an idol of the evangelic doctrinists, worthy only of being broken to pieces.
In all these points the character and theological doctrine of the new Oxford School agrees, we see, as at present developed, very completely with that of the False Prophet of the Apocalypse. In truth the remarkable history of its ten short years of progress to its present doctrinal position,' is on main points very much a recapitulation in brief of that of the False Prophet of the
advantage to the Chureh of England, p. 8. Has not even Archdeacon Robert Wilberforce referred to her as not the bloody but the blessed Queen Mary?
Apoc, xiii. 14, 15. See Vol. iii. pp. 192, 200. ? See quotations on the point in Mr. Goode, p. 37. For example Mr. Froude; "I hate the Reformation and the Reformers more and more." And the British Critic for July 1841; “ Protestantism in its essence, and in all its bearings, is characteristically the religion of corrupt human nature :” and again; “ The Protestant tone of doctrine and thought is essentially Antichrist.”
3 Apoc. xi. 11. See Vol. ii. p. 404. 4 So the British Critic for July 1841, p. 44, quoted by Goode, p. 38. 5 “And no man could understand that new song but the 144,000 that were redeemed from the earth.” Apoc. xiv. 3.
6 I have already referred to the first of the Tractarian Sermons for the Times, bearing that title. In the same spirit the British Critic of April 1842, p. 446, (quoted by Goode, p. 24) writes : “ To speak as if this latter scheme of doctrine (viz. of Lutheran doctrine of justification) were in itself otherwise than radically and fundamentally monstrous, immoral, heretical, and antichristian, shows but an inadequate grasp of its antagonist truth.” Mr. Goode adds, in proof how the Tractators identify the Lutheran doctrine and that of our Reformers on this point, that the author of Tract No. 86 says, It was “the object” of the latter "to Lutheranize our Church, to introduce justification without works,” &c.
7i. e. from 1833 to 1843. Compare Mr. Perceval's account of the beginning of the movement, with the progress indicated in the Tractarian extracts that I have given, in the series of Notes on the five or six pages preceding.
Apostacy, from its early youth in the 4th century, to its preparedness in the West ere the end of the 6th century for spiritual subjection to Rome. As to the fact of the Tractarian body having not yet formally joined Rome, or assumed the same covering-dress which in Apoc. xiii. 11 is assigned to the False Prophet, -viz. the sheep-skin with its two horns, signifying (we saw reason to conclude) the Romish hierarchy regular as well as secular, -it arises from no want of complacency in the same : Rome's monastic institutions and clerical celibacy, as well as Rome herself, being the theme of its praise ;3 and the principles even of the worst of those monastic orders, the Jesuits, rather, I fear, the object of its imitation than abhorrence." Meanwhile it serves to mark to us
With regard to one point, the movement towards Rome, there was this difference between the early apostatizing Church and the Oxford School,—that the latter, as professed members of the Anglican Church, had to deal with (which the former had not) a notorious hostility of their Church to Rome and the Papacy. And for some time this hostility was expressed by its writers : and it did the movement good service; as evidence open to all against the charge urged against them of Popish predilections. Mr. Newman especially, its chief head, in Tracts 15, 20, 38, &c, and other writings, published from 1833 to 1838, called the Romish Church lost, heretical, blasphemous, apostate, at least from the time of the Trent Council, &c. In 1834 a friend remonstrated against statements like these as grossly uncharitable : saying, “How mistaken may we be ourselves, on many points that are only gradually opening on us." And on this monition he withdrew, he tells us, some statements; but still spoke of the Church of Rome, or at least Rome itself, as a dæmoniac possessed with an evil spirit, -the same that had previously animated Rome Pagan. He has since, however, in a very remarkable Letter, published in the Oxford Herald of Feb. 18, 1843, retracted these reprobatory statements : saying that he followed but the consensus of Anglican divines in so writing ; (how anti-Anglican does he thereby confess his present views !) and published the same as deeming it requisite to the Tractarians' then position, and to repel the charge of Romanism !! | See my Vol. i. pp. 384-386.
? See Vol.iii. pp. 172, 173. 3 Marks, Danger and Duty, p. 7.-Among other desires expressed by the Tractarians is that for the revival of the seven canonical hours, and their monastic septenary of services, instead of the daily service which they celebrate in our Church. I beg to refer on this subject to my observations, Vol. ii. p. 154.
On clerical celibacy Mr. Newman, in Tract No. 90, rules that the Convocation would have the right at any time to oblige the clergy to it. Auricular confession is also inculcated. So the fornications, as well as sorceries, idolatries, and murders, noted in Apoc. ix. 18, would be soon revived by the Tractarians, if dominant. See Vol. ii. pp. 12, 13, 27.
4 I must say that Mr. Newman's Tract No. 90 seems to me, as to Mr. Bickersteth (Homily Sermon, p. 20, Protestant Sermon, p. 26), to have the very spirit of Jesuitism in it. And, as the consequence of his teaching, Mr. Golightly in one of his letters quoted by Mr. Marks, p. 10, has drawn a fearful picture of the multitudes of Jesuitical young men sent forth each year from Oxford, to enter, though with more than semi-Popish predilections, into the English Church.Strange to say, Dr. Pusey seems to approve the Tract; and even Mr. Gladstone appears to have spoken without reprobation of a person so acting, and, though of anti-Protestant principles, remaining officially in the English Protestant Church ;-I allude to his notice of Bishop Goodman. (Goode, 65)-It has been stated in a late number of the Midland Monitor, and the statement confirmed on good authority, that in the contemplated probability of many cases occurring of English clergymen becoming aroured Papists, a legal opinion has been taken as to the power of the law to eject such persons from their livings, and the answers given in the negative. Can this be so ?
more clearly than otherwise could have been done, agreeably with the prophecy of the text, the distinct spirit of the False Prophet of the Apostacy, in its own proper and generic peculiarity of character :- I mean as distinct from the spirit of that, which it yet strongly affects as its friend and head, the Beast, or Papal Antichrist.'
But we were also to compare the circumstantials of the late issuing forth of the spirit of Oxford Tractarianism, with those of the issuing forth of the spirit from the mouth of the False Prophet, as described in the text.
And 1st, the correspondence in respect of time is on the face of the thing most exact. It was when the drying up of the mystic Euphrates had made a certain progress, that the spirit from the False Prophet was in the Apocalyptic figurations seen to issue forth. It was in the year 1833, after the Turkman power had dried up in Greece, Moldavia, Wallachia, Algiers, and other countries for years overflowed by it, that the first of the Oxford Tracts issued from the press.—2nd. The correspondence in respect of a certain accompaniment of other spirits is obviously as exact. The emission of the False Prophet's spirit in the Apocalypse was cotemporary with that of spirits also from the mouths of the Dragon and of the Beast:—that of Oxford Tractarianism has been
It is refreshing to see the Bishop of London's indignant remarks on the system of so construing the Articles; pp. 16, 17, 19 of his late Charge. Both he (p. 19) and Mr. Bickersteth (ubi suprà) note the fact of Papists (as Davenport, and the one mentioned by Bishop Stillingfleet) having in other times advised or acted on Mr. Newman's very plan. Compare the well-known case of the Jesuit Commin, in 1568. Strype's Elizabeth, p. 484.
Mr. Bickersteth at the Protestant Association Meeting, 1843, said that the then reigning Pope had thus accurately described the Tractarians, “That they wanted Popery without the Pope." How well answering to the separate yet associated Apocalyptic Symbol of the False Prophet !