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that under Antichrist. (So that Pareus, like Brightman before him, made a less definite application of this prophecy to the times of the great Lutheran Reformation than some of his Protestant predecessors had done.)-By the Angel's oath it appeared, he says, that but one Trumpet more remained after the Turkish woe to the consummation. Thou must prophesy again," is applied by him to the preachers of truth near the end of the 5th and 6th Trumpets ; also the measuring of the Temple to the Church's reformation, as begun about the time of Huss, continued A.D. 1517. The 1260 days of the Gentiles treading the Holy City, he inclines to reckon as 1260 years, beginning from Boniface's grant of the title of universal Bishop to the Roman Pope, A.D. 606 ; a period ending, says he, A.D. 1866. But he leaves the decision of this point with God. The two Witnesses he understands indefinitely for all true Christian witnesses. Their symbolized slaughter in the great city, and the 31 days' exposure of their dead bodies, had respect to the repeated slaughter, and as repeated revival very speedily of Christ's witnessing servants : Foxe's particular case of Huss and Jerome at Constance, and Brightman's case of the Council of Trent's temporary triumph over Protestantism, and its revival through Prince Maurice, both included. The Witnesses' resurrection he explains of the martyred saints' resurrection literally: and makes the tenth part of the city, that fell, to be the part that fell off from the great city of Papal Christendom at the time of the Reformation.

In Apoc. xii the Woman (as usual) he makes the Church ; the Dragon the Devil ; his seven heads and ten horns symbolizing indefinitely the multitude of earthly powers under him. The battle or war in heaven, is explained ist allegorically, of the conflict of Christ and Satan ; 2nd historically, of Constantine's being advanced to the throne of the Roman Empire.—The waters cast after the Woman are heresies, such as the Arian, &c : and the Woman's 1260 days in the wilderness to be dated from the Papal Antichrist's constitution by Phocas, as before.—In Apoc. xiii the first Beast out of the sea, is the Popedom with reference to the Popes' asserted imperial power and authority ; his deadly wound that of the Papal schism healed at Constance : the second Beast being the Papal Antichrist in his character of a seducing Prelate; the head with the members, or whole crew of

his seducing priests. The Image of the Beast Pareus deems to be one image for many ; meaning the images of saints, which the Papal Beast requires men to worship. The name and number he makes with Irenæus and Foxe, respectively, to be Aateivos and WAY27.-In Apoc. xiv the first preaching Angel is explained as Wicliffe; the second as Luther ; the third all faithful preachers since Luther.-In Apoc. xvi. the seven last plagues are the plagues under the last of the four periods into which the Christian æra is divided : viz. 1, that to Constantine ; 2, that to Phocas; 3, that to Leo and Luther; 4, and last, that after Luther. The 1st Vial is the sore that fell on the Popedom from Luther's Reformation ; the 2nd the deadly decrees of the Council of Trent; the 3rd, the persecuting Papal Bishops and Doctors; the 4th, a fresh heat and light from the Scriptures opened by Christ, yet with the result of only the more enraging the Papists ; the 5th, the darkening of Rome of its former lustre ; the 6th, the drying up of the resources of the Antichristian Babylon or Rome ; the 7th, the smiting of the air or natural atmosphere with pestilence, and the universal destruction then following.

On Apoc. xvii Pareus explains the Beast to designate Antichrist not simply, but as clothed with the skin of the Roman Empire : an Empire which “ was” under the old government of kings, consuls, &c; which “is notbecause of the Roman ecclesiastical hierarchy not having begun in St. John's time; and which " is to ascend out of the bottomless pit” at the time of Phocas. Further the seven kings, answering in the seven hills, are construed by him, after Aretius, Napier, and Brightman,' to signify Kings, Consuls, Dictators, Decemvirs, Military Tribunes, and Emperors, according to the enumeration of Rome's ruling magistrates given in Tacitus ; five having

1 This explanation has been ascribed to James I. (Daubuz on Apoc. xi. 3.) In King James's comment I find the explanation stands thus.“ The seven heads of the Beast signify as well seven material hills, whereupon the seat of this monarchy is situated; as also seven kings, or divers forms of magistrates, that this empire hath had, and is to have hereafter." He is said by the Editor of the Edition of his Works in 1616, the then Bishop of Winchester, to have written this commentary on the Revelations before he was twenty years old ; which would be A. D. 1586. And I see in Watts’ Bibliotheca that 1588 is put down as the date of its first publication. Nox this was the same year that Foxe's Eicasmi was published, giving the same solution ; and giving it as from Peter Artopæus and Dr. Fulke, both some years King James' seniors. See my p. 437 suprà. Fulke published on the Apocalypse A. D. 1573, and died 1589 : Artopæus earlier. And, as I observed at p. 437, Osiander suggested nearly the same yet earlier.

passed away, and the sixth, or Pagan Emperors, holding the rule at the time when St. John saw the vision : the seventh head being the Roman Christian Emperors from Constantine, and the eighth the Popes or Antichrist. And is of the seven,Pareus understands to mean, that this eighth would have the same power as the seven previous. (He notes in passing, that other Protestant Expositors made the eighth to be the French and German Emperors of the West.) With regard to the ten horns symbolized, he supposes them to have sprung out of the 7th head, or that of the Christian Cæsars. The statement that the ten kings, after rising at one and the same time with the Beast, are to strip and make bare the Woman, or Rome, he speaks of as a thing still future.' But they are not, he adds, therewith to destroy the Papal Antichrist : he being destined to survive Rome's destruction, and to be destroyed only by the brightness of Christ's coming

On Apoc. xx the Millennium is explained nearly on the Augustinian principle ; Satan having no power, says Pareus, after Christ's first advent and ministry effectually to maintain Paganism : and his destined post-millennial loosing was at the time of Antichrist's full development in Gregory VII ; i. e. A.D. 1073. Meanwhile the saints and martyrs did all reign with Christ in heaven after death during that earlier part of Antichrist's reign, which lasted from 606 to 1073; in which, although he was not then fully developed, they had yet to encounter and resist him. (Pareus here takes occasion to controvert the Chiliasts ; the first resurrection being spiritual, he says, not corporal.)—Then Gog and Magog are explained as the Turks loosed about the time of Gregory VII; and finally that it was the heavenly glory of the redeemed that was typified under the figure of the New Jerusalem.

By far the most valuable part of Pareus' exposition seems to me to consist in his interpretation of the two Beasts ; distinguishing between them, as he did, to symbolize the Popes in their imperial supremacy, and the Popes in their ecclesiastical and prelatic supremacy. The application of the Papal pretensions as Christ's Vicar, (or Antichrist, on which in fact the Pope's grand supra-imperial supremacy

'On this passage Pareus strongly insists that the right reading is eri to Onprov, and not what Bellarmine would have, και το θηριον. VOL. IV.

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was grounded, was however overlooked by Pareus. Nor was he more successful than his predecessors, as I think, in solving the Beast's seventh head, though clear on the eighth. On certain other points he appears to have retrogressed, rather than advanced.

The reader has now before him, pretty much the state in which Apocalyptic interpretation was left at the close of the æra and century of the Reformation.

$ vi. FROM THE END OF THE CENTURY OF THE REFORMATION TO

THE PRESENT TIME.

Our sixth and last Section of the History of Apocalyptic Interpretation opens naturally with Mede, Pareus' immediate successor ; one whose works have generally been thought to constitute an æra in the science. It then passes to Bossuet, Vitringa, and Daubuz, as the next Expositors of chief repute among Romanists and Protestants: and then, after a brief supplementary addendum, to what may be called modern times.

1. Mede.—It was in 1627 that Mede first published his Clavis Apocalyptica, in 1632 his Commentary. The reputation of these works, especially in England, is well known, He was looked on, and written of, as a man almost inspired for the solution of the Apocalyptic mysteries. And certainly of his learning, as well as of his modesty and worth, there could not be too high an opinion. Yet, if it be permitted to express freely an opinion on so great a man, it seems to me that his success has been over-estimated as an Apocalyptic Expositor. For if on some important points he much advanced the science, on others I conceive him to have very materially caused it to retrogade. This will appear as I proceed.

The Tabular Scheme of his views appended on my next Page, and the observations on them scattered through the Horæ, will do away with the necessity of entering into them so particularly as might otherwise have been desirable. Suffice it to say with reference to the Seals, that the 1st Seal is supposed by Mede to depict the early gospel victories; the 2nd, the wars of Trajan and Hadrian ; the 3rd, the severe justice, and procuration of corn, notable in the

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Temple-court and Altar

measured.

War of Michael and Dragon
about the child-bearing.

SEVEN

become the kingdoms of Christ. VIALS

11 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6171
Outer Court (or Holy City) unmeasured is given to the Gentiles 42 months. Satan bound, and Saints reign with Christ, 1000 years.
Christ's two witnesses prophesy 1260 days in sackcloth.

The Lamb's Wife,
Woman is driven by Dragon into the wilderness ; there to be nourished 1260 days:

NEW JERUSALEM
Seven-headed ten-horned Beast, revived under last head, blasphemes and
domineers 42 months.

descends from heaven:
Two-horned Beast, or False Prophet, exercises all the power of First Beast
before him.

And the nations walk in her light.
The 144,000, that sing the new song, tell of coming judgments.
Harlot Babylon, on ten-horned Beast, under last head, makes drunk the nations

with her poison-cup.

THE

L I T T L E

Ο Ρ Ε Ν Ε D

BO O K.

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