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his mouth speaking great things, as of one boasting himself to be the Son of God; his blasphemies, as denying Jesus Christ's godhead, asserting the worthlessness of the Christian religion, and inability of martyrs and saints to profit men : also as arguing from the fact of men's passions being implanted by God, in proof that they might abandon themselves to licentiousness. (This is, I think, the earliest suggestion I have noticed of Antichrist being in any way an avowed infidel, and open advocate of licentiousness.)—The second Beast he interprets as the Preachers of Antichrist : its two lamb-like horns signifying his constituency of Jews and Gentile reprobates ; as the Lamb's seven horns figured all the elect: and the Beast's Image, images of Antichrist, which Antichrist's priests will make men worship.—As to his name and number, says Berengaud, I know it not: for any one might at baptism have a name of that number given him.
—Then passing to the vision of Apoc. xvii, the Beast-riding-Harlot is explained (besides her general signification as the world) to be specially Rome ; and her predicated burning and spoiling by the ten kings, as the destruction of ancient Rome by the Gothic barbarians : (with reference however, as Rome was professedly Christian at that time, to the reprobate in her :) also the Beast, (here the Devil,) ridden by her, as that which “ was” during his unquestioned sovereignty of the world before Christ's coming; which “is not,” i. e. in the same power as before, since Christ's overthrow of Satan ; and which“ is to be" again, on Antichrist's revelation. As to the Beast's heads, they meant the same as the Dragon's in Apoc. xii. Of these the first five had passed away when John had the Apocalypse revealed to him ; the fifth being the Jews just then destroyed by the Romans: the sixth signifying the then existing Roman Pagan persecutors; and the seventh, Antichrist. The eighth, or Beast itself of Apoc. xvii 1 was, as just before observed, the Devil.
On other lesser points I have only to add, that Berengaud makes the 144,000 of Apoc. xiv to be the elect in heaven, while the 144,000 of Apoc. vii were the elect alive on earth ; explains the earth's
He seems to make the Beast of Apoc. xiii Antichrist ; of Apoc. xvii the Devil. ? Without spot, says Berengaud, because of the pollution contracted from the world having been washed away by penitence and tears, or by works of charity, or per flagella, by scourging, or at any rate“ post mortem igni purgatorio."--Purgatory was now established.
harvest of the good, as its vintage of the bad ; in Apoc. xv reads robov for novoy, like Andreas, of the dress of the seven Vial-Angels ; and explains the Angels themselves as preachers of the same seven æras as before. In Apoc. xvi he makes the Euphrates drying up to mean the drying up of persecution, that so the way may be opened to the Gentiles to believe ; explains the millennium as Augustine , and, on the Angel's showing St. John the New Jerusalem, notes very distinctly John's representative character ; " Johannes typum gerit cæterorum fidelium.”
On the whole, we see in this Commentary by Berengaud, and its seven successive æras, (however unskilfully and unsuccessfully applied to the solution of the prophecy,) an illustration of the natural tendency of expositors’ minds, then already acting, towards the adoption of some chronologically consecutive scheme of Apocalyptic interpretation, in place of that so long prevalent in Christendom, which explained it as mainly significant of general and constant Christian truths or doctrines :-some one more consonant in this respect alike with common sense, and also with the precedent of Daniel's prophecies, as expounded in great part by inspiration itself.'
? Before passing to the next Section, let me briefly notice a curious sentiment in a Treatise on Antichrist by Adso, a monk of the Monastery of Derve in Champagne ; dedicated to Gerberga, Queen of Louis D'Outremer, and consequently of about the date of 950 A. D. Having spoken of Babylon as Antichrist's birth-place, of bis being educated by sorcerers at Bethsaida and Chorazin, then coming to Jerusalem, proclaiming himself the Son of God, by gifts miracles or terror converting kings and people to acknowledge him, and then at length persecuting the saints, and commencing the great tribulation of 3years,— Adso proceeds to state that the precise time for his manifestation would be marked by the discessio' of its constituent kingdoms from the Roman Empire ; (so, like some of the early fathers, he explained the arosaDIA of St. Paul :) which time bad not then as yet come : because, says Adso, though the Roman Empire bas been in chief part destroyed, yet, so long as the Frank Kings last, to whom belongs the Empire, so long the Roman dignity will not altogether perish. And then he adds ; Some of our doctors affirm that there shall arise in the last times a king of the Franks, who shall again re-unite under his rule all the Roman Empire; and after a prosperous reign shall go to Jerusalem, and lay down his sceptre and crown at Mount Olivet:—that this will be the end of the Roman Empire, and then immediately will follow Antichrist.” (This tradition is noted in the Encyclopedie Methodique : and it may perhaps remind some of the French Chief Bonaparte's mighty empire, and Syrian expedition, in these latter days; as also of certain prophetic speculations propounded thereon, by expositors that deened him to be Daniel's Wilful King).--Adso further observes, that the Antichrist would sit either in the Jewish temple, rebuilt by him, and there receive worship; or perhaps in the Christian Church : § 4. FROM A. D. 1000 TO THE REFORMATION.
In this fourth Period it is my purpose to sketch most prominently the partially contrasted, and partially accordant views of the Apocalyptic prophecy, propounded very influentially by Joachim Abbas and his followers, on the one hand, and the early pioneers of the Reformation on the other. A briefer notice will suffice of Anselm of Havilburg, Albertus Magnus, and Thomas Aquinas. At the commencement of this period, the tenth century having ended without the appearance of that Antichrist, whom the Latins at least had expected at that time for 31 years to oppress Christendom, in realization of the Gog and Magog predicted as to arise at the close of the Apocalyptic millennium, (a point already illustrated in my first Volume,') it could bardly be but that fact should exercise a certain influence on subsequent Apocalyptic interpretation. As the period progressed, and the twelfth century opened, the human mind in Western Europe began to make decided advances to independent thought and vigour, Hence an increased interest in some of the Apocalyptic Commentaries that now appeared : the rather, as in the progress of time, new and important facts had occurred in the history of Christendom, with which to compare the prophecy. Germs of thought now arose that were to receive afterwards a fuller development; and prophetic views destined, in the course of time, to help towards producing great and unexpected results.
Let me premise that I would fain have begun my list of the Apocalyptic expositors of this period with some notice of a Comment on the Book by the celebrated Berenger, soon after the middle of the eleventh century ; for it is stated, says Bishop Hurd, that he wrote such a Commentary. But no such writing of his is, I believe, at present extant. It must suffice us, therefore, to repeat what I have remarked elsewhere in my sketch of the Middle-Age Witnesses for
also that after killing the two witnesses, Enoch and Elias, he would be slain on Mount Olivet by Michael, or Christ, with the breath of his mouth. Soon after which (not immediately) would follow the last judgment.
This Treatise is given in the 9th Volume of the late Paris Benedictine Edition of Augustine, col. 1647--1652. It is the same that has been incorrectly ascribed by some to Alcuin, by others to Rabanus Maurus.
* p. 446. VOL. IV.
Christ, that he declared the Roman See to be not the apostolic seat, but the seat of Satan ;-a remarkable assertion certainly at that early period: and which so exactly corresponds with the language used in Apoc. xiii. 2, of the Beast which was afterwards (Apoc. xvii. 3, 9) exhibited as in connexion with the City on the seven hills, viz. that the Dragon “ gave him his power and seat and great authority,” that it may well seem to us not without reason that Bishop Hurd refers these anti-Romish sentiments of Berenger to this origin.2
1. And now, before proceeding to Joachim Abbas, I must first briefly notice a short Treatise on the Apocalyptic Seals by Anselm, Bishop of Havilburg, in the Magdeburgensian Diocese : 3 a Treatise composed a.d. 1145, as appears on the face of the document; and on the following occasion. It seems that Anselm (who had been previously Secretary to the Emperor Lotharius the Second) having been sent on an embassy to the Greek Emperor Manuel at Constantinople, was challenged by some Greek bishops there, publicly to discuss the points of difference between the Latin and the Greek Churches ; with which request he complied : and that having successfully defended, as was thought, the Latin cause, he was desired by Pope Eugenius to write an abstract of the discussion ; which he did, in the form of dialogue. By way of introduction to this discussion, and with a view to answer difficulties on religion, which must arise in some minds, from the circumstance of so many different forms of religion existing in different countries and different ages, he prefixed to the Dialogues a preliminary book, showing that there had been from the first one body of the Church, governed by one Spirit : that in the Old Testament times, from Abel even to Christ, the Church had ever held the rite of sacrifice, though with ceremonies often varied; and been under the influence of faith, though with imperfect knowledge of the arti. cles of Christian faith : also, with reference to New Testament times, that various different successive states of the Church had been expressly foreshown, indeed seven different states from Christ to the consummation; the prefiguration of them having been given in the Apocalyptic Seals. In this curious manner it is that Anselm's views on this prophecy are given us. It may perhaps be called the earliest 1 Vol. ii. p. 259, Note ?.
? Ib. p. 260, Note. 3 It is given in D'Achery's Spicilegium, Vol. i. 161.
Church-Scheme, properly speaking, of the Apocalyptic Seals ; and is, in brief, as follows:
1. The White Horse typifies the earliest state of the Church, while in the beauty of miraculous gifts :) the rider Christ, with the bow of evangelic doctrine, humbling the proud, and conquering opposers; so that the Church (Acts v. 14) was then daily increased.
2. The Red Horse is the next state of the Church, red with the blood of martyrdom; from Stephen the proto-martyr to the martyrs under Diocletian.
3. The Black Horse depicts the Church's third state, blackened after Constantine's time with heresies, such as of Arius, Sabellius, Nestorius, Eutyches, Donatus, Photinus, Manes; men pretending to hold the balance of justice in their discussions, but falsely weighing words and arguments : a while, on the other hand, Church Councils laid down what are rightly called Canons, (so Anselm seems some way to have understood the voice from among the Cherubim in the Apocalyptic vision,) by which the faith was defined.
4. The Pale Horse signified the Church's fourth state, coloured with the hue of hypocrisy too generally prevalent afterwards ; " as pale is neither white nor black, but either falsely.” And so, adds Anselm, has the Church laboured with these, that the Rider
well be called Death, Death the slayer of souls.—This state he makes to have commenced from the beginning of the fifth century, and to have continued even to his own time: nor will it terminate, he asserts, till the time when the tares shall be separated from the wheat in judgment; and the saints follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth.
5. Souls under the altar. Here is the Church's fifth state. Then the souls of the saints which will have shed their blood for Christ, considering the infinite miseries of the Church in its three previous states, moved with compassion will cry out, “How long, O Lord, dost thou not avenge our blood ? ”
6. The sixth state of the Church is when there shall arise the most vehement persecution in the times of Antichrist, answering to
Equus albus primus status est ecclesiæ, candore miraculorum nitidus et pulcherrimus."
2 “ Hæretici, qui dum in manu suâ dolosam stateram trutinantes habent, æquitatem de fide disputando proponunt; sed minùs cautos levissimo unius vel minimi yerbi pondere fallunt, et in partem erroris sui pertrahunt."