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in regard of some of the pronouns personal ;' with a view to the solution of which obscurities we have consulted the history supposed to be referred to, and affixed a meaning accordingly. In such particulars the parallelism exhibited between the prophecy and the history can have but little weight, towards establishing the truth of our general explanation. But there is so much of the prophecy that is in its grammatical sense clear, and in the particulars thus clearly predicted characteristic and distinctive,' and on these points, or rather this series of points, the agreement with it of the Ptolemæan and Seleucidean history is so striking, that I conceive we may rest in the persuasion of its having been certainly thus far fulfilled, so as explained, with full and well-grounded satisfaction.

word 772 in verse 16: a word rendered in our English translation consumed ; in other versions, as we have seen, perfected : -a sense almost the reverse. Another example is connected with the word 175777 of verse 6: which the English translation explains as her father ; Wintle and Boothroyd as her son; the Septuagint as the young woman ; Aben Ezra as her mother. But here the different meanings arise out of the differences of punctuation; or, as in Wintle and Boothroyd's translation, a difference of reading.

1 Viz. verse 6, “Neither shall he stand;" a pronoun grammatically applicable either to the King of the North or King of the South :-verse 11, “And he shall set forth a great multitude, and the multitude shall be given into his hand;" where the sense requires different persons to be understood by the he and his : but who the one, and who the other, is only to be inferred from the history : verse 24, “Scatter among them,or “Scatter what is belonging to them;" where the pronoun them may be referred either to Syrians or Egyptians :-verse 25, “But he shall stand."

2 Such is the series of particulars following ;-—the reconcilement of the primary difference between the two kingdoms by the marriage of the King of the South's daughter to the King of the North ;—the failure of this expedient from the circumstance of her abandonment in the new country of her adoption, and apparently her murder; the avenging of her wrongs by her brother, the next King of the South, his triumphant invasion of the Northern King's territory, and deportation into Egypt not only of other spoil, but of sundry gods also of the people of the land ;—the attempts of the next King of the North, and the next but one, at the recovery of their territory and honour; the total defeat of this latter in the first instance, and success in the second; and thereupon his making up the quarrel with the Southern King by some marriage-scheme, and turning his face to the isles of the Mediterranean, and capturing them, until sternly repulsed by some prince or general, on whom that attack was deemed an indignity, and dying soon after ingloriously ;- then the reign of a mere raiser of taxes, as the next King of the North ;-then his being followed by a king contemptible, and the very reverse of riparns (illustrious), and this last invading Egypt with more success than any of his predecessors, once and again, until stopped by the very singular intervention of ships of Chittim : then, finally, his venting his rage against the Jews and their religion, in alliance with certain apostates to heathen. ism from out of their own body. All these points seem to be unambiguous, alike in the prediction and the historical fulfilment.

The word “For," beginning verse 13 in our translation, does not help to determine the ambiguity : its original Hebrew being simply 1, usually rendered and.


In this second part (including from chapter xi. 31 to the end of chapter xii,) the prophecy naturally arranges itself under five sectional subdivisions : Ist, the prediction of the setting-up of the abomination of desolation, contained in verse 31 ;-2nd, the sketch of events following thereupon, until the rise of the wilful or apostate King, given in verses 31—36 ;—3rd, the description of this apostate King, in verses 36-39 inclusive;—4th, the resumed notice of the Kings of the South and North, and their enterprizes, in connection with the apostate King's time and reign, verses 40—45 ;-5thly, and finally, the sketch of the concluding catastrophe, issuing in the grand consummation, and the deliverance and blessedness of Daniel's people, contained in chap. xii.

). Now with regard to the first of these sectional subdivisions, were we simply to follow the course of history, we might naturally suppose the prediction it contains to have reference to that same Antiochus Epi

' 31. “And arms shall stand t on his part : 1 and they shall pollute & the sanc

by Bpaxıoves, as before. + tay the same verb as in verse 3, &c. 19, from 7?, properly from, out of. So verse 7, Out of a branch from her roots :" Dan. viii. 9, Out of one of them came forth a little horn :" &c. But it also indicates chronologically succession after. So Gen. xxxviii. 24, “Three months after ; ” Deut. xv. 1, At the end of every seven years," &c: also in verse 33 of this chapter, “ After they have made agreement;' and 2 Sam. xxiii. 4, “ After rain.” And such I conceive to be the meaning here; understanding him, viz. the King of the North previously spoken of, as the noun after the preposition.-Wintle translates, “from these," viz. the ships of Chittim. But how will the Hebrew allow of this? The view of the Jewish interpreters mentioned by Jerome will be seen in Note 3, p. 144.

Our English translation seems to me not happy in its rendering of this preposition; for it gives no idea of the various possible meanings of the phrase.

$95?n? The verb is one of general application in the Piel, in the sense of profaning or defiling anything sacred, such as the priests, sanctuary, sabbath, name of God, &c; Lev. xix. 8, xxi. 9, Mal. ii. 11, Exod. xxxi. 14, Lev. xviii. 21, &c.

phanes that was the subject of the verses preceding, and his setting up of what might well be called an abomintion of desolation in Jerusalem. For history tells us, that after the repulse of this Syrian King from Egypt by the stern mandate of the Roman ambassadors, he did not only showindignation against the holy covenant," by attacking the still holy city Jerusalem, breaking down in part its walls and houses, and massacring many of its inhabitants,- but that he also by a decree abrogated the Jewish worship, enjoined conformity on pain of death to the Greek heathen religion, defiled the temple by the blood of the Jewish worshippers, set up the statue there of Jupiter Olympius, and at the same time, placing a garrison in a strong fort built in the City of David, fell on all that might come up to worship after the Mosaic ritual, and thereby made the temple and the city desolate. —Yet, on more careful consideration, strong reasons will I think strike the careful inquirer against this historical application of the passage. For, 1st, it will be found most difficult, if not impossible, to explain the sequel of the prophecy consistently with it. With regard to the people spoken of immediately after as knowing their God,"? antithetically to certain that are styled covenant-transgressors, they must on this hypothesis of interpretation be supposed the Maccabean patriots, that rose up in insurrection against Antiochus and his heathenish ordinance.

But, as Bishop Newton observes,

tuary of strength ;* and shall take away the daily sacrifice : and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.” | See the history in the first chapter of i Maccab.

2 Verse 32. Or the sanctuary;" the fortress. So Psalm xcvi. 6; Beauty and strength are in his sanctuary : strength not, I conceive, as some would have it, because of the temple being fortified, and therefore strong, but as implying the presence and protection of Him in whom is everlasting strength.

+ So Dan. xii. 11 and viii. 11. Greek tov evdede Xionov. Compare Exod. xxix. 42, Numb. xxviii. 6, Ezra iii. 5, Nehem. x. 33, &c.

i bawa papun. The same occurs again in chap. xii. 11 ; only without the article prefixed to the first word, and with the second in the Kal conj. not the Piel. In ix. 27 we have also the same phrase, but with the word abomina. tions in the plural.—The former word (translated in the Greek Bdeluyua) applies generally to things unclean (as garments, food, &c, Nahum iii. 6, Zech. ix. 7); but is used specially and most frequently of idols.

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neither could it be said of them that “ they instructed many, for there is no record of any grand accession of proselytes to the Jews' religion through their teaching : nor again could it be said of them that “they fell by the sword, and flame, and spoil, and captivity many days :" the fact being that (except in the case of some that would not resist when attacked on the Sabbath-day) they were from the very commencement successful in their patriotic enterprizes, at first in more petty guerilla warfare, then soon after in a decisive battle with Antiochus' chief general, Lysias ; 4 the result of which, besides probably precipitating the horrible death of Antiochus, was the cleansing of the Temple just three years from the setting up of Jupiter's image within it by Apollonius, restoration of the Mosaic ritual, and establishment of the high priesthood and sovereignty over the Jewish people in the Maccabean family, where it continued thenceforward for several generations.”—Moreover in what follows after this, about the wilful King, and the Kings of the South and the North pushing at him, the historical interpretation fails still as palpably as before : forasmuch as Antiochus Epiphanes, the supposed wilful King on this hypothesis, instead of not worshipping the God of his fathers, like Daniel's wilful King, was as much given to the worship of Jupiter as his Greek ancestors before him ; and neither was pushed at by Egypt's now prostrate king, nor (being himself in this prophecy the King of the North) could have had the King of the North come against him.—2. There are two expressions in the verse under consideration, designative alike of the desolating power and the desolation itself, which seem to me to give intimation that the history of Antiochus Epiphanes is here broken off from, and another and different enemy of Daniel's people referred to. For the former is spoken of thus; “And arms shall stand up from, or after, him :" a phrase only to be interpreted, I believe, agreeably with the precedents of other analogous Hebrew phrases in the prophecy, of some new prince or power, arising after in respect of time, or from him, in respect of origin, that was before the subject of description. And the latter has the definite article prefixed to it, “ The abomination making desolate: ” as if to designate either one particular desolating abomination previously made known to Daniel, (Dan. ix. 27,) or that which was to be emphatically the grand abomination of desolation : ? on neither of which grounds could that spoken of in the passage before us mean the idol set up in the Temple by Antiochus Epiphanes ; there having been no previous prediction of it, and the desolation it caused being one of very short duration.

1 Verse 33. ? Applying the “ they,as these interpreters do, to the faithful and understanding ones of the former part of the verse. I shall observe under the next head on its possible, or rather probable, reference to a different class of persons.

3 1 Mac. ii. 32–38.
* See the history in the chapters ii, iii, and iv of 1 Macc.

• Ibid. vi. 5–16. His death is said to have occurred, A.S. 149. 6 Compare 1 Macc. i. 57 and iv. 52. From the former passage it appears that it was on the 15th of the month Chisleu, (the ninth of the Jewish months, or January) in the year of the Greeks, i. e. of the Seleucidean Æra, 145, that the idol abomination was set up by Apollonius : from the latter that it was on the 25th of the same month A.S. 148 that the temple was cleansed, and the altar rededicated. ? See the Maccabean History in the Apocrypha, as before; or Josephus. 8 Dan. xi. 36, 40.

3 Verse 37.

And in fact, while thus excluding the abomination set up by Antiochus, this little but very significant particle in the prophetic language seems to me very strikingly to point out that which was afterwards set up by the Romans, as the one intended : both as being that which introduced the longest and greatest desolation of the Jewish temple and city, and that which alike other previous prophecies, and more especially the one commu

See my Note I on the Hebrew preposition, p. 139 suprà ; also those on yin, Bpaxıwv, and TOY, to stand or stand up, pp. 124, 121.

Compare too, as to the figure, a somewhat different one in Vol. I, p. 138 Note 4; where we read that another neck growing out behind from his own, was understood by Domitian to signify a new and different line of emperors.

See Note I p. 140. 8 In Dan. viii. 13 a transgression of desolation is spoken of, not an abomination of desolation. And in proof of its meaning something very different from the abomination set up in Jerusalem by Antiochus Epiphanes, see my explanation of that prophecy, Vol. iii. p. 374, &c.

* A desolation of Judah is often predicted, which was to last up to the time

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