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1. Whereas the King of the South was to be strong,' and the King of the North, (another of the great Greek King's princes or governors,) though later apparently in assuming the royal title, to become stronger than the
B.C. B.c. 1. Ptolemy Soter, (son of Ptolemy 323 323 Lagus) Governor of Egypt ..
312 takes the title as King of Egypt
306 2. Ptolemy Philadelphus
284 (It was under him that the Sep- 280 tuagint Greek translation of 261 the Old Testament was made.)
The Seleucidce. 1. Seleucus Nicator, Governor of Babylon.
.recovers Babylon : and the Æra of the Seleucidæ begins.
2. Antiochus Soter.
3. Ptolemy Euergetes.
246 246| 4. Seleucus Callinicus.
226 5. Seleucus Ceraunus.
225 6. Antiochus Magnus. 4. Ptolemy Philopator
221 5. Ptolemy Epiphanes.
187 7. Seleucus Philopator. 6. Ptolemy Philometor.
175 8. Antiochus Epiphanes.
the Romans assume the guar
dianship. After this fourteen more Syrian kings reigned, in reigns of short and uncertain power, till Syria was occupied and formed into a Roman province under Pompey ; (at which time the Æra of the Seleucidæ properly ends !)* and six more Egyptian princes, to the death of Ptolemy Auletes; who dying, B.C. 51, left his kingdom and children to Roman guardianship; one of these children being the Cleopatra so famous in the histories of Cæsar and Antony.
15. " And the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his princes : 1 and he shall be strong above him, I and have dominion : his dominion shall be a great dominion. 6. And in the end of years& they shall join themselves toge
* It was, however, sometimes used many centuries later by both Greeks and Syrians; e.g. by the Nestorians as late as A.D. 781. See my Vol. i. p. 35.
† The Septuagint translates, “And one of his princes shall be strong above him,” without the connecting 1, or and. And Bishop Newton thinks that there is manifestly either this redundance, by error of transcription, in the Hebrew text, or an omission of “the king of the north ” after the and. But this seems to me not necessary. It only needs that we understand "shall be strong," from the clause preceding, after “one of the princes.” Which last phrase means evidently one of Alexander's generals; (so Wintle, and Boothroyd from Houbigant;) and is an early example of Daniel's use of pronouns, in reference not to the next immediately preceding noun, but the one before. It is to be remembered that Ptolemy became King of the South ere Seleucus assumed the royal title; and consequently while he was yet professedly only a governor; governor of Babylon.
#Mark the he and him, in the sense of, " the latter above the former.” § Sept. meta ta etn avrs' reading 9999 ;-i. e. after Seleucus' death.
King of the South, then contentions (as it is implied) to arise and continue between them, until composed by the expedient of a family alliance through the marriage of a daughter of the King of the South to the King of the North,- so Ptolemy the First became strong as King of Egypt, and Seleucus, the Macedonian governor of Babylon, on subsequently assuming the title of King, much greater and stronger :' and, a quarrel having soon arisen between the immediate successors of these two kings, war continued until composed by the second Ptolemy giving his daughter Berenice in marriage to the third of the Seleucidean dynasty.—2. Whereas this scheme of family alliance was prophesied of as to fail,2 and both the South King's married daughter, and the ther: * for the king's daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement." +
| So Arrian apud Bishop Newton. In fact Seleucus' empire extended from the Indus to the Ægean.-At this time lived Megasthenes and Berosus.
? 6. “But she shall not retain the power of the arm, ß neither shall he stand,
* The Hebrew word (the Hithpael form of 729 to join) is used also 2 Chron. xx. 35, 37 ; " Jehoshaphat did join himself with Ahaziah :" i. e. in the partnership and alliance of a joint undertaking.
+ Hebr. Dypin niy?. Literally, “To do or make rectitudes.” Lee translates it, to make things straight; Gesenius, to make peace. The latter compares verse 17, where the root 703, occurs, and where the Septuagint render it (more correctly probably than our English translation) ευθεια παντα μετ' αυτου ποιησει ; very much as Prof. Lee here. The Greek rendering here is, TOU TOITOAI ovvonkas Mer' avrov.-Let me add the passage 2 Kings x. 15, “Is thy heart right, as my heart is with thy heart,” where the same Hebrew word jy occurs, in proof that it is used to express friendliness, as well as moral rectitude. So Aben Ezra explains the present passage,“ to make peace between them ;" as also the Rabbi Saadiah.
The same Hebrew word occurs in Dan. x. 8; “I retained no strength.” § yint, Bpaxıw, is a word frequent in the Old Testament, both in the singular and plural, to signify strength, pouer, whether of an individual or host. So piw'N, Job xxii. 8, “a man of arm orstrength ;” and Gen. xlix. 24, "The arms (i.e. power) of his hands were made strong by the God of Jacob." -In Isa. li. 9 and lxii. 8, the double phrase, “strength of the arm,” (coxus Bpaxlovos, Sept.) is used conjointly, as here.- In subsequent verses of this chapter it is used with verbs thus ; (I quote from the Septuagint to avoid the ambiguity of the word arm in English :-) xi. 15; Και οι βραχιονες του βασιλεως του νοτου ου σησονται" xi. 22, βραχιονες του κατακλύζοντος κατακλυσθήσονται. xi. 31, και βραχιονες και σπερματα εξ αντου ανασησονται.- Compare Ezek. ΧΧΧ. 25 ; Και ενισχυσω τους βραχιονας βασιλεως Βαβυλωνος, οι δε βραχιονες Φαραω TECOUVTAL.-Wintle makes this word the nominative ; “The arm shall not retain strength.”
King her husband, and her son too by the marriage,' and her attendants to fall,—so both Berenice, and her husband Antiochus, and her son too by him, and her attendants, were actually murdered by the arts of Antiochus' original but repudiated wife, Laodice.2 —3. Whereas "out of a branch of her roots,” one was to stand up to avenge nor his arm : * but she shall be given up; and they that brought her, and he that begat her,t and he that strengthened her in these times.Š
Taking the Septuagint reading »?, seed. See Univ. Hist. ix. 197. 37. “ But out of a branch of her roots || shall one stand up in his estate, which shall come with ** an army, and shall enter into the fortresstt of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail; 8. and shall also carry captive into Egypt their gods, with their princes, II and with their precious
• The Septuagint translates, Kai 8 SNOETAI TO OTEPuA auto; reading with a different punctuation from that of our translators, , seed, or children: which I conceive to be the right reading; since otherwise in the phrase “Neither shall he stand, nor his arm,” or power, the last clause is tautologous. So Wintle. Boothroyd too translates, “Neither shall she stand, nor her seed :" where mark the gender; she.
+ Bishop Newton and Wintle translate, "he whom she brought forth,” follow
: והילדה ,instead of the received reading ,והילדה ing the marginal reading
and so Boothroyd, “Her son." The Sept. omits the Mappik; translating ý veavis, the young woman : Aben Ezra translates, her mother; as without points.
Literally, the times. Aben Ezra explains this to mean astrologers; an explanation curious and worth observing. In Esther i. 13 and 1 Chron. xii. 32, they who understand times, Diny Y?', is a periphrasis for astrologers ; "times” meaning in some places men's destinies. So Psalm xxxi. 15, “My times are in thy hand;" also I Chron. xxix. 30, Job xxiv. 1.-Else he that strengthened her must be taken (one for many) to mean the party that supported Berenice against Laodice, at the time of her being in Syria, including especially her husband. So Wintle.
II Or, “from the stem of her roots ;” a remarkable and distinctive phrase. Compare Isa. xi. 1; "There shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of his roots." Her roots mean her parentage or ancestry; and a person is indicated who should be of a common stock with her; i. e. a brother, if taken most strictly. So Saadiah makes the person here meant to be the brother of the king's daughter before spoken of.
10 without the preposition, for 1 Sy in his place, or stead. So Gesenius. With 5y the phrase is used in this sense in verses 20, 21, 38. The word 72, a place, is used Gen. xl. 13, “In three days Pharaoh shall restore thee to thy place ; ” and again Gen. xli. 13, “to my office.”
** -58, usually to. So the Sept. ütel apos TNV Suvapiv. If the sense of with (which however Wintle adopts) be not warranted, then the meaning, may either be, "shall come to the power," i. e. to the power of the kingdom ; for sin means power, as well as a host or army: or else, "shall come to the fortification, or fortified town, (so as in Isa. xxvi. I, &c.) of the Northern king.
tt riya: a word which occurs also in verse 10, “stirred up to his fortress :" and is the same that by its use in verse 38 in the plural has given rise to Mede's famous criticism on the Mahuzzim.
1 The Septuagint has it, ueta Twv XWVEUTUV Autwv, with their molten images :
the ill-treatment of the daughter of the King of the South, then this Southern King to invade the Northern King's territories, take his fortresses, capture his treasures and princes, and (as it is singularly added) their gods, and return triumphantly with them into his own country and kingdom, Egypt, --so the third Ptolemy, forthwith on coming to the kingdom, invaded Syria, (then under the rule of the fourth Seleucidean king, Seleucus Callinicus, son to Laodice,) overran the whole kingdom to the Euphrates, indeed beyond it almost to the Indus, plundered it of 40,000 talents of silver and of 2,500 images of gods, including among them the Egyptian idol-gods, carried out of Egypt two centuries and a half before by the Persian king Cambyses ; and with these, and numerous captives, returned triumphantly back into Egypt. —4. Whereas the sons of the King of the North (sons in the plural) were to be stirred up,? and assemble great forces, as if with a view to the re
vessels * of silver and gold : and he shall continue more years than the king of the north. 9. So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land." +
1 In 1631 an inscription on an ancient marble in honour of this action of Euergetes was published by Allatius; “Sacris quæ ab Egypto Persæ abstulerant receptis, ac cùm reliquâ congestà gazâ in Egyptum relatis.”—Wintle.
2 10. “But his sons I shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of a meaning very different from our English rendering, princes, but which attaches also to the Hebrew word '??. For the root of the word is 7op, to pour out : and it thus applies alike to images melted in fusion, (as the cognate word in Isa. xli. 29,) and to princes poured upon with the anointing oil, (Josh. xiii. 21 &c.)-Probably the Septuagint rendering, molten images, is the more correct : as it so well carries on the idea of their gods in the clause preceding; and was also so striking a point in the historical fulfilment.
A word used also of the sacred Jewish vessels carried off to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, 2 Chron. xxxvi. 10.
+ This verse seems recapitulatory.—It is to be observed that there is no his prefixed to kingdom in the Hebrew. So that the translation might be; “ And he (viz. the King of the North) shall enter into the kingdom of the King of the South, and return to his own land," i. e. without effecting anything. But there is nothing in the history to suit the verse so translated.
That is the sons of the King of the North, though not the last mentioned : because the King of the North, spoken of in the next verse as the southern King's antagonist, was apparently one of these two sons. So Aben Ezra and Saadiah.—The affix prevents the expression of dualism in the word for sons.
$ The Hebrew is gan, the same verb that occurs again, and in the same Hithpahel form, at the end of this verse, and also in verse 25; and quite a different one from that in verse 2. Its root is 779: a verb not used in Kal; but which in Piel signifies stirring up contention, as Prov. xv. 18, “A wrathful man
covery of their losses and to revenge, and one out of them (one only) to overflow, (whether over his own recaptured territory, or over that of his enemy the King of the South,) and the King of the South to meet him in battle, and utterly overthrow him,—so did Seleucus Ceraunus, and, on his speedy death a year or two after, his brother and successor Antiochus, called the Great," assemble great forces to recover their father's dominions, and the latter achieve the object, recover Seleucia and Syria, and proceed to invade Egypt with a mighty army ; whereupon ensued the (to him) disastrous battle of Raphia, on the Egyptian frontier, in which he suffered a total defeat from Philopator, the then reigning Ptolemy. -5. Whereas the King of the South was not eventugreat forces; and one shall certainly come,* and overflow, and pass through, then shall he return,t and be stirred up, I even to his fortress. 11. And the king of the south shall be moved with choler, and shall come forth, and fight with him, even with the king of the north : and he shall set forth § a great multitude; but the multitude shall be given|| into his hand."
1 So Justin xxx. 1; “ Antiochus rex Syriæ, veteri inter se regnorum odio stimulante, repentino bello multas urbes ejus (Ptolemæi) oppressit, ipsamque Ægyptum aggreditur.”
The following dates will be useful towards the illustration of this prophetic sketch of Antiochus the Great's history.
B.C. 225 Antiochus succeeds to the Syrian throne. 217 Is defeated in the battle of Raphia. 198 Defeats Scopas in the battle of Panias, on returning from his Eastern
conquests; and recovers Judea and Jerusalem. 192 War with the Romans begins, and lasts three years. 190 Battle and defeat of Magnesia.
187 | Antiochus killed. 2 Polybius describes the army and its amount ; 62,000 foot, 6000 horse, and 102 elephants. Newton.
3 12. “And when he hath taken aways the multitude, his heart shall be lifted stirreth up strife ;' and in its Hithpahel form (as here) is used, 1st, says Gesenius, in the sense to be excited, as to anger, 2nd, to contend, to engage in var. So Deut. ii. 5, 19, “Meddle not with them in war ;” and Jer. 1. 24.
* The change from plural to singular is as marked in the Hebrew as the English.—The clause is literally, “And coming he shall come.”
+ The Hebrew verb za w is the same that is used in verses 18 and 19 subsequently withụ, in the sense of to turn one's face towards a place. It often means to do a thing again. So here it may perhaps mean, after his first acting out of his anger, and overflowing, he shall be again excited to urge the war.
Gesenius supplies “and march" even to his fortress; i. e. the fortress of the Southern King.
& Or, make to stand. So verse 13. || Lit." he shall give," or, 'some one shall give.”-The he and his refer evidently. to different persons.
s nima?; a word used not unfrequently of taking away with violence, so