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imputed righteousness of Christ only makes him 'strange country;' for he looked for a better more sensible of his personal uncleanness, and of country, that is, a heavenly,'— for a city which the necessity of the washing of regeneration and hath foundations, whose builder and maker is renewing of the Holy Ghost. How humbling God.' And of Isaac, Jacob, and Sarah, and perthe doctrine! But,
haps of Abel, Enoch, and Noah, as well as of How precious the privilege! What .more Abraham, it is said, “These all died in faith, not precious, during life, than peace to the troubled having received the promises,' &c. Read Heb. conscience, and freedom of access to God in 11th chapter, 13—15, 16, 35 verses. Also, meditation and in prayer? What more precious for David's sentiments respecting a future state, than confidence in God, and a well-founded read Ps. xvii. 15; xlix. 14, 15; and for Asaph's, hope of a blessed immortality when we come to Ps. lxxiii. 24; and for Job's, Job xix. 25—27. die? What more precious than an all-prevailing Again, Abraham's faith had respect to Christ: plea of acquittal, and an irresistible claim of right for said Jesus to the Jews, “Your Father to the heavenly inheritance on the day of final Abraham rejoiced to see my day, and he reckoning? But all this is the preciousness of saw it and was glad. And says Paul, Gal. iii. the privilege of being made the righteousness of 8, “The scripture, foreseeing that God would God. “Their righteousness is of me, saith the justify the heathen through faith, preached before Lord. And, 'Who shall lay any thing to the the gospel unto Abraham, saying, In thee shall charge of God's elect? It is God that justifieth: all nations be blessed.' Nor was this gift of who is he that condemneth.'
faith in spiritual blessings through a coming Messiah, peculiar to believing Abraham. “Ву faith, Moses, when he was come to years, refused
to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter, TWENTY SEVENTH DAY.—EVENING.
esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riched 'For what saith the scripture ? Abraham be- than the treasures of Egypt, for he had respect lieved God, and it was counted unto him for
unto the recompense of the reward. And says righteousness,' Rom. iv. 3.
Jesus, 'many prophets and kings have desired to
see those things which ye see, and to hear those WHAT is faith? It a simple belief of, and things which ye hear.' 'Of which salvation,' reliance on, the divine testimony, whatever the says Peter, the prophets have inquired and subject of that testimony may be; whether searched diligently, who have prophesied of the testimony respecting a temporal or a spiritual grace that should come unto you: searching deliverance. The blessing bestowed upon simple what, or what manner of time the Spirit of belief of, and reliance on the divine testimony, is Christ which was in them did signify, when it a personal experience of the deliverance of which testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the testimony speaks. Christ, when on earth, the glory that should follow. Prophets and testified his power to heal; and when he wished kings are here spoken of, not, however, as though to show the connection between faith in that the knowledge and belief of a coming Messiah power, and its exercise in behalf of any individual, were confined to them. All who knew and He required an explicit avowal of faith in Him- believed their writings had a like faith and hope. self before exerting his power to heal. "Believe Hence we read of the just and devout Simeon ye that I am able to do this ?' was the question. waiting for the consolation of Israel;' of 'Joseph, *Lord, I believe,' was the requisite answer; and the honourable counsellor, who waited for the it never failed to obtain the blessing. Such was kingdom of God; and of “all them that looked the faith through which the patriarchs received for redemption in Jerusalem. Hence also the their recorded temporal deliverances: as is current expression before and at the time of largely illustrated in the eleventh chapter to Messiah's advent, “That prophet that should the Hebrews, “Who through faith subdued king- come into the world.' doms,' &c.
The faith of Abraham, having thus respect to But there is faith in the divine testimony re- Christ, was a justifying faith— it was counted specting spiritual, as well as temporal blessings : to him for righteousness.' Having respect to and this is the faith which is here ascribed Christ, it was identical in character and effect to Abraham.
a faith which looked with that which is required under the Christian beyond the present, to another and happier state dispensation; that is, it was faith in a coming of being. For while 'by faith he sojourned in Saviour, and a faith which justified without the land of promise.' he sojourned there “as in a works. Such too must have been the faith of
Abraham's believing predecessors. Such we are tification by grace. But how? Through the expressly told was the faith of Abel, Enoch, and redemption that is in Christ Jesus. And how Noah-a
—a justifying faith. Such also must have does redemption in Christ Jesus manifest the been the faith of his fellow-patriarchs, and of his righteousness of God in the justification of the believing fellow-countrymen of after ages; for it sinner? By Christ's being set forth to be a prois in general terms declared, that “by it (faith) pitiation. Let this term “propitiation' be clearly the elders (ancients) obtained a good report.' understood, and the 'how' will become apparent. “And these all having obtained a good report There are other terms in our language which through faith, received not the promise.' will express a part, but not the whole of its
Such was their faith; such is our faith—a meaning. Thus, when Christ is said to be our faith counted for righteousness.
propitiation, we might explain the expression by Mark then the oneness of the economy of saying, that He is our peace-maker. This grace in this particular. Justification by faith is explains what he does as our propitiation-makes one of the unbroken, bright threads, running the peace. It explains the "what,' but not the whole length of the otherwise variegated web of how,' in the question. It does not explain the the divine dispensations—from Abel to the new chief idea implied in propitiation. The chief idea born sinner of the present moment; from the is, that in making peace, He, as an atoning sacrinew-born sinner of the present moment to the fice, makes satisfaction to God's justice in behalf sounding of the last trump.
of, and in the room of the sinner. A man may Mark too the presumption of our seeking to make peace between two hostile parties, especially be justified by works. If Enoch, that walked if both have been at fault, by simple reasonwith God, and was translated that he should not ing and remonstrance. He may do this without see death, because he had this testimony that he any sacrifice on his part, and therefore without pleased God; if Abraham, who is called “the becoming in any sense a propitiation. But if the friend of God, and is so highly promoted at the one party has an undoubted claim upon the marriage supper of the Lamb, that to lie with other; if, for example, the cause of the enmity be the head upon his bosom, as is said of Lazarus, a large and most just debt, and if the creditor is to enjoy the highest honour and felicity; if will not, and cannot, from claims otherwise made David, the man after God's own heart, the upon him, forego the debt; in this case, the most gifted, the most devout of scripture writers, peace-maker must satisfy the just demands of and the most experienced of scripture-saints ;—if the creditor, before he can expect to reconcile these most eminent of holy men had nothing of him to the debtor. If he do so at his own which to boast in the sight of God, spoke of the expense, he makes a sacrifice, and becomes, in a blessedness of the man whose iniquities are par- sense, a propitiation : -- but only in a sense ; for doned, and whose sin is covered,' and were justi- the full and proper meaning of the term propitified by faith, which was counted to them for ation can be found only in the work of our redemprighteousness; how shall we, who have no pre- tion. And it is found as follows. God and the tensions to their godliness, and devotion, and sinner are at enmity. The cause of the enmity heavenly-mindedness, presume to arrogate to is, that the sinner owes, but has failed to give to ourselves a righteousness of which they were God what He, as an infinitely righteous Goverdestitute? 'God resisteth the proud, but He nor requires a perfect obedience to his just and giveth grace to the humble.'
unchanging law. The sinner is neither able nor willing to give this perfect obedience. God is unwilling to inflict the penalty. He desires,
determines on his forgiveness. But, in forgiving, TWENTY-Eighth Day.—MORNING. He cannot recede from the demands which his 'Being justified freely by his grace, through the law makes upon the sinner, without such a satis
redemption that is in Christ Jesus ; whom God faction to its claims as shall vindicate its authority hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith
and rectitude. God accordingly sends his Son to in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the make this satisfaction. The Son, for this end, remission of sins that are past
, through the for- voluntarily takes upon himself the nature and the bearance of God,' Rom. iii. 24, 25.
obligations of the sinner-his obligations as sub
ject to the law, and as liable to its penalty. SubGod's righteousness might have been declared in ject to the law, He gives perfect obedience to its the sinner's condemnation. Here it is said to be requirements, that, as perfectly innocent, He declared in the remission of his sins, and his jus-might meritoriously bear its penalty. Its penalty
He bears. He dies the just for the unjust. Had the exacted vindication been made of the
- Whatever coming short of the demands of un- sinner, this could not have been said. The exaction bending justice there may seem to be in Christ's was made not of the sinner, but of a substitutebeing a substitute only, and not the actual trans- of a substitute provided by the Exactor-progressor, is more than made up by Christ's dig- vided by the Exactor in behalf of those who were nity as divine, and by his near relationship to in a state of enmity, and of such an enmity as God as his eternal Son. For what more honour- refuses even to admit the necessity of such a ing to the law; what vindication of its authority substitute. How true then, how emphatic the more appaling, than that the Son of the Lawgiver, statement—justified freely by his grace !' than that the Lawgiver Himself, should, in the Grace is the origin, freeness is the character of room of the sinner, and with the sinner's iniquities the blessing. Grace gave it birth; freeness sends laid upon Him, suffer the penalty ? This did He, it forth in universal offer, and for gratuitous accep'who, being the brightness of his Father's glory, tance. Grace is the fountain-head; freeness is the and the express image of his person, and uphold channel bearing down within its flooded banks to ing all things by the word of his power, when the parched wilderness, the waters of salvation, he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on without money and without price. Ho, every the right hand of the Majesty on high.' Eternal one that thirsteth! come ye to the waters. Justice has been satisfied, and, in testimony of the fact, Christ is set forth to be a propitiation through faith in His blood, to declare God's righteousness for the remission of sins.
TWENTY-EIGHTH DAY.-EVENING. The scripture proof of this view of Christ's
· Do we then make void the law through faith ? atoning work is most abundant. It is to be found in the very term propitiation;' which implies
God forbid : yea, we establish the lau,' Rom.
iii. 31. these four ideas, enmity, reconciliation, a reconciler, and a propitiatory sacrifice as the ground of 'It is of the nature of transgressors and criminals,' the reconciliation. The chief of these ideas is the says an acute divine, “to bear a grudge and prelast, which is often set forth in scripture, espe- judice against the law, because the law is against cially in the sacrifices under the ceremonial law, them. How then does the transgressor and as these are explained in the Epistle to the criminal, in the person of the objector, whom the Hebrews. The text itself exhibits this last idea apostles addresses in the text, come to stand up as the chief; for it is through faith in His blood, for the law? Because he has not seen it to be that He becomes a propitiation to the sinner. against him. He has not been personally conAgain, we have the term redemption in the text, demned by it; or if he has, he thinks that after which, with other ideas, has that of the payment condemning, it may yet, in the end, acquit and of a price as its distinctive meaning. Hence the justify him-a nation not tending much to the expressions, “to give his life a ransom ;' bought honour and establishment of the law. But this with a price;' redeemed not with corruptible answer, besides accounting for their self-contrathings as silver and gold, but with the precious dictory zeal for the law, on the part of the blood of Christ;' “Thou wast slain, and hast legalist, and the unimpressed by a sense of sin, redeemed us to God by thy blood.'
serves to establish the converse of the above Let not the above view be supposed to detract quotation, namely, that it is of the nature of from the mercy of God. His righteousness righteous and justified persons to have a favour required that His law should be vindicated before and love for the law, because the law is for them. the sinner could be saved. Not, however, that The legalist and personally uncondemned by sin, He was unwilling to pardon, but that, as righte- presumptuously think that the law is, or at least ous Governor, He was morally unable to pardon, may, in the end be for them. Hence they can without a vindication of His law. Not that He have a zeal for the law. The justified by faith was unwilling, but most willing; yea, resolved to know that the law is already for them, and canpardon: and, therefore, both the pardon and not be against them; and therefore they cannot requisite vindication originate in, and proceed but be in love with, and be zealous for the law. from Himself. As a God of justice He exacts But while both are zealous for the law, the zeal the vindication; as a God of mercy he provides of the one proceeds upon a virtual making void for its accomplishment. Mercy as well as jus- the law; the zeal of the other has its origin in a tice is thus more illustriously displayed. Hence complete and glorious establishment of the law. we are said to be 'justified freely by his grace.' / Why is it that the legalist and impenitent bear no grudge nor prejudice against the law? Be-| by the most exact requirements and the severest cause they think that it is not so high in its penalties. Such then is the provision made by the demands, nor so inflexible in the infliction of the gospel for securing the obedience of its subjectspenalty, as to be already conclusively against love, gratitude, sense of obligation, delight in them; which is a virtual making void the law. acting conformably to these sentiments, discomFor what greater dishonour can be done to a law, fort in acting contrary to them.
The more a than first to break it, then to withhold its just man is persuaded that has been justified freely vindication, and then to deny that ever it required by the grace of God, the more deeply are these the vindication sought? Faith, on the other hand, sentiments felt, and the more actuating and sancestablishes the law in all its authority, meets all its tifying is their influence upon his heart and condemands, and manifests its unchangeableness. That duct. Besides, consider the nature and consefaith does this for the law in the character of judge, quences of that spiritual change with which justinone who know the objet of that faith can deny. fying faith is uniformly accompanied—a new That object is Christ, dying the just for the birth, a new creation, all old things done away and unjust,' magnifying the law, and making it all things become new, renewal in the spirit of honourable.' By his death he has shown that the mind. Consider too the believer's privileges, the moral Governor of the universe has not hopes, and enjoyments; how quickening, strengthrelaxed, but has rather, if we take into account ening, elevating, animating, and how utterly the dignity of the Substitute, and the sufferings incompatible with the love and practice of sin! he endured, enhanced the demands of the law. Nor is this all. The objection to gratuitous He has shown what the legalist and impenitent justification proceeds upon the supposition that the have to expect, when they are summoned to believer is freed from all fear of penalty. This is answer personally, and on their own footing, at not true. He is indeed freed from fear of the final the law's magnified tribunal.—But it is not so penalty, everlasting condemnation. But when much the authority of the law as judge, as its he falls into sin, he falls into a pit, and mire, and practical influence as the governor of human con- under the power of a hated and much dreaded duct, that is alleged to be made void by the oppressor; his most satisfying joys are turned doctrines of gratuitous justification ; and it is not into bitterness of soul, and he subjects himself to so much of its practical influence on the conduct the rod of an angry Providence. In these there of the impenitent—with respect to them its is a restraining and actuating power, not to be practical influence must be seen to be mightily found by the legalist in the distant and someaugmented--as of its practical influence on the times doubted penalty, however great. conduct of the believer of the doctrine, that the allegation is made. The believer is delivered from the law as a judge, and therefore, it is concluded, he is removed from its restraints as a TWENTY-NINTH DAY.—MORNING. governor of conduct. The conclusion is plausible. But if it be just, what is to be said of angels and
To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness; glorified saints. They are delivered from the
that he might be just, and the justifier of him
which believeth in Jesus,' Rom. iii. 26. law as a judge ; but are they delivered from it as a governor of conduct? And if it be possible God set forth his Son to be a propitiation through for them to honour and obey the governor with faith in his blood, for two ends: First, “To declare out fearing the judge, it follows, that fear of his righteousness for the remission of sins that are punishment is not the only motive fitted to past, -that is, under the former dispensationssecure obedience. Nay, if we contrast the obe- | 'through the forbearance of God.' The sins comdience of heaven with obedience on earth, we will mitted under the former dispensations God forbore be disposed to conclude, that there must be some to punish, in the prospect of Christ's propitiatory other means more effective in securing obedience, sacrifice for sin; and now that Christ, in the than that of the fear of punishment. Let a end of the world hath appeared to put away sin sovereign be loved; let his law be loved, because by the sacrifice of Himself,' it is seen from Christ seen to be holy, just, and good ; let the sovereign set forth as a propitiation for those sins, that be viewed by the subject, not only as a just and God's forbearance was not exercised at the exaffectionate governor, but as a personal friend, as a pense of his justice; but that during the long personal benefactor, as a father, and a more effec- exercise of the mercy of forbearance, respect was tive provision will be made for sincerity, uniform- prospectively had to justice, in the appointed ity, and ardour of obedience, than could be made death of Jesus. How long and how sorely tried was His forbearance! Yet He waited to be in justifying and eternally rewarding the ungracious.
godly. But if Christ, set forth as a propitiatory sacri- We have said just in justifying the ungodly. fice for sin, declares that justice was not de- But that term must be restricted by the phrase, throned during the long reign of forbearance, him which believeth in Jesus;' that is, him that under the patriarchal and Mosaic dispensations, believeth in the necessity, reality, and sufficiency that exhibition no less emphatically declares, of Christ as a sin-atoning Saviour. But why so Secondly, That justice is still enthroned with restricted? Because no satisfaction has been mercy in forgiving sin “at this time, that is, made; no satisfaction can be made to justice in under the present dispensation. To declare at behalf of him, who, after rebelling and after for“this time his righteousness,' &c. Had God for- giveness has been offered, still perseveres in his given the ungodly, and treated them as just per- rebellion. There must be first submission to its sons, without any vindication of His law, He claims before justice can permit the forgiveness would have acted solely as a God of mercy, and of the sinner. And no submission can be fuller from any thing we can see, would have done and more honouring to justice, than is implied in violence to Ilis character as a God of justice. faith in Jesus. It is the submission of the peniBut he cannot at any instant, or in any matter, tent, justice-adoring suppliant—of the suppliant act from the impulse of one attribute so as to confessing personal desert of punishment, humbly, derogate from another. All his attributes must gratefully, and eagerly, laying hold of the justiceharmonize at every instant, and in every act. It honouring-substitute, and founding all his claim is one of the distinguishing peculiarities of the to mercy on the honour done to justice by the gospel, one of those peculiarities which are far death of Jesus. beyond the reach of human discovery, and there- How great the encouragement thus held out fore demonstrative of the gospel's heavenly to come and be reconciled to God! Every origin, that in it mercy and truth meet together, obstacle has been removed. All things are ready. righteousness and peace embrace each other, in God is waiting to be gracious. Fear not. «Fury the salvation of the sinner; that in it God is just is not in me:-Let him take hold of my strength, and the justifier-a just God and a Saviour. that he may make peace with me: and he shall Christ has vindicated the law-magnified it and make peace with me. There is now no conmade it honourable. This he has done more fully demnation to them that are in Christ Jesus.' and strikingly than could have been done by the Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt death of the actual transgressor. Hereby God is be saved.' declared just in pardoning.–But He is declared But how wretched, how hopeless is a state of to be just, not only in pardoning, but in justify- unbelief! Unmitigated, fearfully aggravated ing and eternally rewarding the transgressor. justice, claiming the impenitent and unbelieving Christ died not merely as a solemn warning that as its own! No more sacrifice for sin! Fiery sin shall not escape unpunished, nor merely indignation which shall devour the adversary! that the sinner might be delivered from the What so fitted to alarm! Turn ye, turn ye, why merited reward of his misdeeds. He died as our will be die ? substitute: and not merely as a suffering substitute; nor merely as a vindicatory substitute, like one rebel chosen out of ten to suffer the last
TWENTY-NINTH DAY.-EVENING. penalty of the law, in order to vindicate its authority while forgiving the other nine. He died Bless the Lord, O my soul, and forget not all his as our meritorious substitute, that the pardoned benefits: who forgiveth all thine iniquities; might not only have their guilt removed and the who healeth all thy diseases; who redeemeth penalty remitted, but that they might be invested thy life from destruction; who crowneth thee with His perfect righteousness, and on the with loving-kindness and tender mercies,' Psal. ground of its meritoriousness, have a claim, so to
ciii. 2-4. speak, on the justice of God for the reward wbich | The same words have sometimes a very different that meritoriousness has purchased-eternal life. meaning in the lips of different men. These God hath made Him to be sin for us, who knew words may be used not without an important no sin; not merely that we might not die the meaning, and not without feeling, even by the death of sinners, but that we might be made the unbeliever: but how far short do both the meanrighteousness of God in Him. And made the ing and the feeling come of those of the conrighteousness of God in Him, how just is God sciously reconciled and devout believer!