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turesque onomatopoetic verbs for bird-song, of which Latin possessed so many, appear. Terms of pleasure, as compared with Greek poets, very limited. In this respect far inferior to Vergil.
2. As an expression of emotion. To ancient feeling the song of birds was the lamentation of souls imprisoned under protest, in forms not their own. This is the metamorphosis idea which flourished with but slight changes throughout the range of both classical literatures. The nightingale, halcyon, swallow, and swan are the prevailing types. Ovid portrays them with grief in their songs 14 times, always influenced by the metamorphosis idea. Vergil, on the other hand, is remarkably free from it.
The modern concept of bird-song as an expression of joy, all but unknown in Greek. It does not occur in Ovid, or in any Roman poet before him.
Bird-song as speech, Ovid by virtue of his subject developed more fully than any other classic poet.
3. Bird-song as art or as music appears very rarely in Greek. The bird in this connection is a divine singer; a servant of the muses, inspired by heaven, therefore divine; hence, bird-names are naturally applied to poets.
This idea occurs only two or three times in the Latin poets. Thus in Proper. tius, Vergil is referred to as the tuneful swan - not to be silenced by the insipid note of Anser.
Ovid did not use this concept. In conclusion the paper tried to show by comparison of data that while Ovid has more references to birds, more varieties, and more references to their song, yet he was far inserior to Vergil as an original observer of bird-life. He was deeply under the sway of the metamorphosis idea, with its usually attendant association of sadness. His allusions are filled with echoes of traditional feeling, yet in no wise did he make a full use of the more beautiful touches that abound in his predecessors, both Greek and Roman.
Discussion by Professors Schilling and Richardson.
20. Notes on Propertius, by Professor B. O. Foster, of the Leland Stanford Jr. University.
Discussion by Professors Nutting and Richardson.
21. Horace' Alcaic Strophe, by Professor Leon J. Richardson, of the University of California.
In this paper an effort was made to discover the feet of the Alcaic strophe as sensed by Horace. To this end, his Alcaic odes were tested by the law of Latin versification hinted at by Quintilian, ix. 4, 90 : plerique enim ex commissuris eorum [i.e. verborum] vel divisione fiunt pedes; ex quo fit ut isdem verbis alii atque alii versus fiant; the law that within the initial portion of a verse the poet avoids filling successive feet each by a single word and does not allow diaereses on the whole to outnumber caesuras. Thus when an initial group of syllables is followed by an identical or equivalent group and it is found that the poet seldom or never allows the two groups to be formed each by a single word, we have data for making out the metrical structure. Similarly, breaks at certain points being known to be caesuras by reason of their frequency, and breaks at certain other points being known to be diaereses by reason of their infrequency, we are able to distinguish between the two classes and so to identify the feet. To be sure, the breaks between two syllables are now and then determined by special conditions; however, cases of this kind are not sufficiently numerous to obscure the operation of the law just mentioned. The results of the investigation follow. A. The Eleven-syllable Alcaic. (a) Only three verses begin with a quadrisyllable. (6) No verse begins with two dissyllables. (c) Words end 199 times with the first syllable, 291 times with the second, 308 times with the third, and 53 times with the fourth. Therefore, the third syllable does not conclude a foot. (d) The first four syllables are characteristically a diiamb of the form
(only nineteen verses begin u-u_). (e) The remaining syllables fall consistently into Ionic feet, one pure and one broken, the fixed break after the fifth syllable thus being a caesura. (5) This analysis accords with the view of Hephaestion, Ench. xiv. 5. G.-B. The Nine-syllable Alcaic.
(a) No verse begins with a quadrisyllable. (6) No verse begins with two dissyllables. (c) Words end 84 times with the first syllable, 83 times with the second, 259 times with the third, and 51 times with the fourth. Therefore, the third syllable does not conclude a foot. (d) The first four syllables are characteristically --U_ (only ten verses begin ucu_). (e) The second four syllables also conform to a diiamb. () The remaining syllable, it is argued, is hypermetric, making the transition easy from the ascending rhythm of this verse to the descending rhythm of the clausula. — C. The Ten-syllable Alcaic. (a) No verse begins with a hexasyllable. (6) No verse begins with two trisyllables. (c) Other grounds are found for taking this verse, with Hephaestion, Ench. vii. 10. G, as logaoedic.
In short, the paper supports the view that verse A is an Epionic Trimeter Catalectic, verse B an Iambic Dimeter Hypercatalectic, and C a logaoedic verse in the shape of a Dactylotrochaic Dimeter.
1 . ll Luulluun A v 2
ll Luulluun By
Lucy © 20 0-0 U17 U – The paper is printed in full in the Classical Philology series of the University of California Publications, Vol. I (1905-1906), No. 6,
P. 172 ff.
Discussion by Professors Clapp and Bade.
22. Plato's Use of aúrós, by Professor J. Elmore, of the Leland Stanford Jr. University.
The paper is based on a study of aúrós undertaken for the forthcoming Plato Lexicon, in which the results will appear. Owing to the detailed character of the paper the author prefers not to make the usual abstract.
Adjourned 12.15 P.M.
At a meeting of the Executive Committee held on the afternoon of December 29, 1905, the following persons were elected to membership in the Association :
Dr. William Popper, University of California.
Arabic numerals indicate pages of the Transactions ; Roman numerals indicate pages of the
Ablative of association : 64 ff.
Diaeresis, bucolic: 111 ff.
dies natalis, relation to inscriptions on
Donatus and the Terence didascaliae :
Ecbatana, inscription at: xxxii f.
Euripides, Medea, 240: xxviii.
Filelfo, in his letters: vi ff.
Futures in -bo in Hindu dialects: xi ff.
Galliambic rhythm: xxxviii ff.
Greek conservatism, aspects of: xx ff.
Havelok Ms: liv.
date of B.C. : 234 f.; date of B.G.: Hittite inscriptions and language: lxvi.
Iliad, ii. 408, note on : xix f. ; religion
in, study of: xlviji f.
i. 3. 1-8: lv ff.
Humanists, Filelfo: vi ff.
Indirect object (Latin) with verbs of
Lay of the Two Lovers, sources of: lxiv.
Livy, Oxyrhynchus epitome: 5 ff.
of: xlix ff.
lunula : lxi f.
Medea's Marriage Problem: xxviii. Seneca, style of: 45 ff.
Sinope, ancient : xxv ff.
Syllables of diminishing value: 164 ff.
Terence, didascaliae, Donatus's version
thought to verse: liii; synizesis in: notes on Adelphoe : xlvi f. ; order of
plays: 151 f.; text tradition, new
Theocritus (and Aratus): Ixv.
Time relations, errors in: xxxiii f.
early Roman, abstracts in: xxxiv f. in: liji.
Vergil, Ciris: lii ; Aen. ii. 559–621 :
Yokuts Indian language: lix f.