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tember 9, 1905. Professor Gayley presented to the Philological Association of the Pacific Coast a plea for the coöperation of American Universities in establishing a working model of such a bureau and library as might furnish American scholars, at the lowest possible price, with facsimiles as desired from year to year.

The Philological Association of the Pacific Coast passed the following resolution - the terms of which are similar to one already adopted by the American Library Association :

The Philological Association of the Pacific Coast observes with interest the resolutions passed by the International Congress recently held at Liège for the purpose of furthering the reproduction in facsimile of valuable manuscripts and early printed books. It indorses the plan for an international bureau of republication submitted by Professor Gayley to that Congress and adopted by the Congress; and it hopes that the Association of American Universities, or some other body similarly representative of the interests of American scholarship, may take immediate steps to realize that plan in a working model capable of demonstrating the efficiency of the project, and, so, of securing the endowment necessary to place the institution upon a sufficient and enduring basis.

It was decided to dismiss the Committee on Time and Place of Meeting, and to settle the matter by a postal card vote. Adjourned at 5.40 P.M.



The meeting came to order on Friday, December 29, at 9.45 A.M.

17. Aratus and Theocritus, by Professor A. T. Murray, of the Leland Stanford Jr. University.

The purpose of this paper was to show how strong the reasons are for believo ing that the Aratus of Theoc. Id. vii is identical with the author of the Phae

Since the appearance of Wilamowitz's paper, Aratos von Kos, in 1894, almost all Theocritean scholars in Germany have with singular unanimity given up the identification ; yet the grounds for it are very strong and have only in part been met by Wilamowitz. Among these grounds are:

1. The intrinsic probability that the individual to whom Theocritus addressed his sixth Idyll was a noted person, not an obscure Coan.

2. The quotation from Aratus in Id. xvii. I, an Idyll to be dated but a few years after the appearance of Aratus's poem.

3. The naturalness of assuming that Aratus of Soli (whose work brings him into connection with Cnidos and Eudoxos) visited Cos.

4. The fact that Alexander Aetolus, Leonidas of Tarentum, and Callimachus appear to stand in close connection with Theocritus and also with Aratus.

5. The attitude of Theocritus toward the stars, as shown in the Idylls presumably later than the appearance of the Phaenomena,

Discussion by Professor Clapp.

18. The Decipherment of the Hittite Inscriptions and the Determination of the Language, by Professor W. F. Badè, of the Pacific Theological Seminary.

An investigation of the so-called Hittite inscriptions with special reference to the Hamath Inscr. No. 2. Discussion (1) of the character of the hieroglyphics; (2) significance of the differences between the inscriptions in direction and form as showing development; (3) use of variants in recurring word-groups to determine the meanings of certain phonograms and ideograms; (4) analysis of Jensen's method and conclusions on the basis of Ham. I and II; (5) evidence of words like soapı (Cappadocian coins), together with proper names found in Asia Minor (eg. Þápos, Anab. i, 4, 1), pointing possibly to a pre-Armenian people as the authors of the inscriptions.

Discussion by Professors Schilling, Clapp, and Richardson.

19. Notes on the Birds of Ovid, by Mr. E. W. Martin, of the Leland Stanford Jr. University.

In this paper an attempt was made to show the impressions produced upon Ovid, as revealed through his works by the song of birds. As every study of the Latin birds must begin with the Greek, a summary was given of some of the results obtained in the study of that field by Heldrich, Krüper and Harlaub, Thompson, and Pischinger. The conclusions of the last named in his Der Vogelgesang bei den griechischen Dichtern des klassischen Alterthums - a contribution to the “ Würdigung des Naturgefühls der antiken Poesie ” — were more closely considered.

Pischinger classities the song of birds, as portrayed in the Greek poets, in a category of three divisions :

1. As a sound of nature.
2. As an expression of emotion or thought.

a) Expression of grief.
b) Expression of joy.

c) Expression of thought, i.e. as speech

3. As an expression of music and art. Statistics for birds were then given. He uses 32 definite bird-names (6 more than any other Roman poet) with 176 allusions to them. He has 142 passages in which the general words ales, avis, volucer, occur - of which we can identify with fair exactness four kinds not mentioned by name. All told, in some connection, Ovid mentions birds 318 times, but he refers to their song only 49 times. These passages were then considered in reference to the category of Pischinger for the Greek birds and in relation to the Roman poets, of whose references to the birds complete statistics were presented.

It was found that in the main Ovid was a traditionalist in his bird-lore. Of his 49 references to bird-song, 7 refer to the swallow, 4 each to the nightingale, halcyon, and swan, which are the traditional song.birds in Greek poetry.

1. Nature-sound. Verbs canto and concino most common. None of the picturesque onomatopoetic verbs for bird-song, of which Latin possessed so many, appear. Terms of pleasure, as compared with Greek poets, very limited. In this respect far inferior to Vergil.

2. As an expression of emotion. To ancient feeling the song of birds was the lamentation of souls imprisoned under protest, in forms not their own. This is the metamorphosis idea which flourished with but slight changes throughout the range of both classical literatures. The nightingale, halcyon, swallow, and swan are the prevailing types. Ovid portrays them with grief in their songs 14 times, always influenced by the metamorphosis idea. Vergil, on the other hand, is remarkably free from it.

The modern concept of bird-song as an expression of joy, all but unknown in Greek. It does not occur in Ovid, or in any Roman poet before him.

Bird-song as speech, Ovid by virtue of his subject developed more fully than any other classic poet.

3. Bird-song as art or as music appears very rarely in Greek. The bird in this connection is a divine singer; a servant of the muses, inspired by heaven, therefore divine; hence, bird-names are naturally applied to poets.

This idea occurs only two or three times in the Latin poets. Thus in Propertius, Vergil is referred to as the tuneful swan not to be silenced by the insipid note of Anser.

Ovid did not use this concept. In conclusion the paper tried to show by comparison of data that while Ovid has more references to birds, more varieties, and more references to their song, yet he was far inserior to Vergil as an original observer of bird-life. He was deeply under the sway of the metamorphosis idea, with its usually attendant association of sadness. His allusions are filled with echoes of traditional feeling, yet in no wise did he make a full use of the more beautiful touches that abound in his predecessors, both Greek and Roman.

Discussion by Professors Schilling and Richardson.

20. Notes on Propertius, by Professor B. O. Foster, of the Leland Stanford Jr. University.

Discussion by Professors Nutting and Richardson.

21. Horace' Alcaic Strophe, by Professor Leon J. Richardson, of the University of California.

In this paper an effort was made to discover the feet of the Alcaic strophe as sensed by Horace. To this end, his Alcaic odes were tested by the law of Latin versification hinted at by Quintilian, ix. 4, 90 : plerique enim ex commissuris eorum [i.e. verborum] vel divisione fiunt pedes; ex quo fit ut isdem verbis alii atque alii versus fiant; the law that within the initial portion of a verse the poet avoids filling successive feet each by a single word and does not allow diaereses on the whole to outnumber caesuras. Thus when an initial group of syllables is followed by an identical or equivalent group and it is found that the poet seldom or never allows the two groups to be formed each by a single word, we have data for making out the metrical structure. Similarly, breaks at certain points being

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known to be caesuras by reason of their frequency, and breaks at certain other points being known to be diaereses by reason of their infrequency, we are able to distinguish between the two classes and so to identify the seet. To be sure, the breaks between two syllables are now and then determined by special conditions; however, cases of this kind are not sufficiently numerous to obscure the operation of the law just mentioned. The results of the investigation follow. A. The Eleven-syllable Alcaic. (a) Only three verses begin with a quadrisyllable. (6) No verse begins with two dissyllables. (c) Words end 199 times with the first syllable, 291 times with the second, 308 times with the third, and 53 times with the fourth. Therefore, the third syllable does not conclude a foot. (d) The first four syllables are characteristically a diiamb of the form

(only nineteen verses begin v-u_). (e) The remaining syllables fall consistently into Ionic feet, one pure and one broken, fixed break after the fifth syllable thus being a caesura. (5) This analysis accords with the view of Hephaestion, Ench. xiv. 5. G. - B. The Nine-syllable Alcaic. (a) No verse begins with a quadrisyllable. (6) No verse begins with two dissyllables. (c) Words end 84 times with the first syllable, 83 times with the second, 259 times with the third, and 51 times with the fourth. Therefore, the third syllable does not conclude a foot. (d) The first four syllables are characteristically --U – (only ten verses begin v-u_). (e) The second four syllables also conform to a diiamb. The remaining syllable, it is argued, is hypermetric, making the transition easy from the ascending rhythm of this verse to the descending rhythm of the clausula. C. The Ten-syllable Alcaic. (a) No verse begins with a hexasyllable. (6) No verse begins with two trisyllables. (c) Other grounds are found for taking this verse, with Hephaestion, Ench. vii. 10. G, as logaoedic.

In short, the paper supports the view that verse A is an Epionic Trimeter Catalectic, verse B an Iambic Dimeter Hypercatalectic, and C a logaoedic verse in the shape of a Dactylotrochaic Dimeter.


1- ll Luulluun
A u 1

1 ill Luulluun
By Lu-1-Lu-lv


The paper is printed in full in the Classical Philology series of the University of California Publications, Vol. I (1905–1906), No. 6, p. I72 ff.

Discussion by Professors Clapp and Badè.

22. Plato's Use of attós, by Professor J. Elmore, of the Leland Stanford Jr. University. The

paper is based on a study of atrbs undertaken for the forthcoming Plato Lexicon, in which the results will appear. Owing to the detailed character of the paper the author prefers not to make the usual abstract.

Adjourned 12.15 P.M.

At a meeting of the Executive Committee held on the afternoon of December 29, 1905, the following persons were elected to membership in the Association :

Dr. William Popper, University of California.
Dr. T. Petersson, University of California.
Mr. C. E. Todd, Menlo Park, California.

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