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so far as the writer can find — referring to this kind of lunula, and written by men who had first-hand information, are Statius, Silvae, v, 2, 28; Martial, i, 49, 31 and ii, 29, 7; Juvenal, 7, 192 (and Scholiast on same); Plutarch, Quaestiones Romanae, 76; Philostratus, Vitae Sophistarum (or Vita Herodis Attici), ii, 1, &$ (555). These afford no information as to what part of the shoe the lunula wa s worn on, and about its form they tell us merely that it was moon-shaped. The attempts to describe it as having the form of the letter C and to explain its origila are mere conjectures, and do not antedate the sixth century. The words luna, lunula, lunatus, could be applied to a button-shaped ornament such as is represented on the instep of a shoe in the British Museum, and which is figured in Harper's Class. Dict. calceus, p. 252. They can also be applied to a heartshaped or tongue-shaped ornament which serves to join the straps of a sandal to the sole. Examples of this are given in Becker, Gallus, III, p. 230, Eng. ed. p. 425, figs. a and b; Weiss, Kostümkunde, I, p. 440, fig. 314 h; Hope, Costume of the Ancients, II, plates 256, 269, 288. This object may have been called also lingula. lunatus was applied by Latin poets to the shields of the Amazons, although these in works of art were seldom simple crescents; sometimes they were nearly heart-shaped. The lunula worn on the shoe was probably an amulet as were those put about the necks of children and horses, and those which formed a part of military standards. lunula may have been a general term for amulets of vari. ous forms. Bulla, a specific term for one form of amulet, was used of objects of different forms. The bulla sometimes had the form of a heart, or at any rate had a heart represented on it (Macrobius, Sat. I, 6, 17). The writer has found, so far, no clear cases of heart-shaped charms in the books and collections to which he has had access, although in the strings of amulets, crepundia, are cones and acorns and objects which approach this form, as in the atlas to Müller's Handbuch, VI, taf. 7 f. n. 14 c. It seems from the information at hand that the wearing of the lunula was in part a passing fad of those who dressed elegantly, in part an attempt to mark class distinction by arbitrary means, confined to a brief period at the end of the first century A.D., with sporadic cases somewhat later. It appears, too, that the lunula was not restricted to one particular style of shoe, and that it was not an important nor strictly observed distinction, and could be easily usurped.
Discussion by Professors Ferguson and Badè.
13. Epigraphical Notes, by Professor W. S. Ferguson, of the University of California.
Ι. Γραμματεύς κατά πρυτανείαν replaced γραμματεύς της βουλής as the title of the chief secretary at Athens because in the early fourth century B.C. this officer ceased to be a senator. Γραμματεύς των πρυτανών was never used to designate the secretary, because he was at no time a member of the prytany. I'pajuateus katà a putavelav calls attention to the fact that, in the fourth century and later, the secretary was an outsider attached, not to the senate as a whole, but to each of the prytanies, as these in turn took charge of the senate's business. Katà Putavelav means not “one each prytany," as is most natural (hence kaloóuevov in Arist. Pol. Ath. 54, 3), but " during each and every prytany”. - a use paralleled in Professor Dittenberger's Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones Selectae, II, 480, where
ένα τιθήνται (εικόνες και κατ' εκκλησίαν εν τω θεάτρω επί των βάσεων is translated into Latin ita ut omni ecclesia supra bases ponerentur.
ΙΙ. “Υπέρ βασιλέως Ευμένου Φιλαδέλφου θεού και ευεργέτου Δημήτριος Ποσειδωvlov, Dit berger op. cit. II, 302.
Three things are noteworthy in this inscription. 1. If set up in 172 B.C., as Professor Dittenberger assumes, Queen Stratonike should have been included. 2. Philadelphos is the crown name of Attalos II, not of Eumenes II. 3. 'Thép is invariably used to connect a dedication with a living person, while deoû in an Attalid inscription invariably means that the ruler to whose name it is attached is already dead.
The explanation demanded is that the dedication was made in 172 B.C., shortly after the false report of Eumenes's death had been corrected, but before Attalos, who had seized the crown and married the widow, had relinquished his control of the kin om. At that time Eumenes, though alive, was officially a god still, and it seems that Attalos had applied to him, upon his apotheosis, the title which he assumed himself as his crown name — " loving his brother."
III. The difficulty found by M. Dürrbach (Bull. de Cor. Hell. XXIX (1905) p. 190) in the date assigned by me (Cornell Studies, X (1899), p. 60) to the archon Tychandros (172/1 B.c.) is imaginary; for the failure of the Athenians to ask the permission of the Delians to dedicate statues in their sacred precinct does not warrant the presumption that the island was already under Attic control (167 B.C. ff.). In a contemporary document Eumenes of Pergamon binds him. self to erect a slab at Delos with a similar disregard of the natives (Dittenberger, op. cit. I, p. 437), and in general it was esteemed a privilege for cities to get statues to erect in their public places (ibid. II, 763).
Part II of this paper appears in Classical Philology, Vol. I, pp. 231234.
Discussion by Professors Matzke, Clapp, and Fairclough.
14. The Latin Indirect Object governed by Verbs signifying " favor, help, injure, please, displease, trust, distrust, command, obey, serve, resist, indulge, spare, pardon, envy, threaten, believe, and persuade," by Mr. H. B. Dewing of the Berkeley High School.
I. The question at issue : why was the dative used with these verbs ?
(a) Study of the original meaning of the dative case.
namely, the actual uses of the verbs in Latin. III. The three classes of verbs included :
(a) Verbs originally intransitive; of which the following typical cases
were considered : servio, irascor, and placeo. (6) Agglutinate verbs: the cases discussed were morigeror, opitulor, and
maledico. (c) Verbs originally transitive: the cases discussed were ignosco, suadeo,
credo, and impero,
With many of these verbs, and possibly with all, the dative object was
required by the exact meaning of the verbs as used by the Romans in historical times. Just how much influence the matter of inheritance had remains to be determined.
Discussion by Professors Bradley, Noyes, Fairclough, and Nutting.
15. Sources of the Lay of the Two Lovers, by Professor O. M. Johnston, of the Leland Stanford Jr. University.
This lay is derived from three different legends.
The death of the king's wife and his peculiar attachment to his daughter constitute the principal motifs of the well-known legend of the father who, after death of his wife, desires to marry his own daughter.
The task imposed on the suitor in the second part of the lay is derived from the legend of the father who consents to the marriage of his daughter on condition that her lover perform some difficult task. The version of this tale used by the author of the Lay of the Two Lovers was similar to that found in the German legend of the nobleman who agreed to the marriage of his daughter on condition that her suitor should carry her in his arms to the top of a mountain.
In the lay of Marie de France both of the lovers die on the summit of the mountain, while in the German version only the young man dies. The tragic end of the two lovers in the lay is due to the influence of the tradition, according to which the priory of the two lovers established on the Norman mountain bearing the same name was regarded as the burial place of Injuriosus and Scholastica, two lovers well known in religious literature. Our lay took its name from this tradition, and, in order to preserve this church legend in the lay, it was necessary that the two lovers should be buried on the top of the mountain.
Discussion by Professors Matzke, Searles, Murray, and Clapp.
16. The Necessity for an American Bureau for the Facsimile Reproduction of Manuscripts, by Professor C. M. Gayley, of the University of California.
Professor Gayley read an account of the proceedings of the International Con. gress which met at Liège, August 21 to 23, 1905, to consider met hods for the systematic republication in facsimile of the historical, literary, and scientific manuscripts necessary for the promotion of original research. This Congress approved the plan for a coöperative bureau and a central library of facsimiles as proposed by Professor Gayley in 1898, and published by the New York Evening Post, November 19, 1904. It also appointed a permanent international executive committee of twelve for the purpose of promoting this project. A detailed account of the proceedings of the Congress is to be found in the Actes du Congrès, Misch et Thron, Bruxelles, 1905; and a history of the movement for republication will appear in the forthcoming Annual Report of the U. S. Commissioner of Education to the Secretary of the Interior, Washington. A summary of the arrangements made by the Congress was printed in the Evening Post, Sep. tember 9, 1905. Professor Gayley presented to the Philological Association of the Pacific Coast a plea for the coöperation of American Universities in establishing a working model of such a bureau and library as might furnish American scholars, at the lowest possible price, with facsimiles as desired from year to year.
The Philological Association of the Pacific Coast passed the following resolution the terms of which are similar to one already adopted by the American Library Association :
The Philological Association of the Pacific Coast observes with interest the resolutions passed by the International Congress recently held at Liège for the purpose of furthering the reproduction in facsimile of valuable manuscripts and early printed books. It indorses the plan for an international bureau of republication submitted by Professor Gayley to that Congress and adopted by the Congress; and it hopes that the Association of American Universities, or some other body similarly representative of the interests of American scholarship, may take immediate steps to realize that plan in a working model capable of demonstrating the efficiency of the project, and, so, of securing the endowment necessary to place the institution upon a sufficient and enduring basis.
It was decided to dismiss the Committee on Time and Place of Meeting, and to settle the matter by a postal card vote. Adjourned at 5.40 P.M.
The meeting came to order on Friday, December 29, at 9.45 A.M.
17. Aratus and Theocritus, by Professor A. T. Murray, of the Leland Stanford Jr. University.
The purpose of this paper was to show how strong the reasons are for believo ing that the Aratus of Theoc. Id. vii is identical with the author of the Phae
Since the appearance of Wilamowitz's paper, Aratos von Kos, in 1894, almost all Theocritean scholars in Germany have with singular unanimity given up the identification ; yet the grounds for it are very strong and have only in part been met by Wilamowitz. Among these grounds are:
1. The intrinsic probability that the individual to whom Theocritus addressed his sixth Idyll was a noted person, not an obscure Coan.
2. The quotation from Aratus in Id. xvii. 1, an Idyll to be dated but a few years after the appearance of Aratus's poem.
3. The naturalness of assuming that Aratus of Soli (whose work brings him into connection with Cnidos and Eudoxos) visited Cos.
4. The fact that Alexander Aetolus, Leonidas of Tarentum, and Callimachus appear to stand in close connection with Theocritus and also with Aratus.
5. The attitude of Theocritus toward the stars, as shown in the Idylls presumably later than the appearance of the Phaenomena.
Discussion by Professor Clapp.
18. The Decipherment of the Hittite Inscriptions and the Determination of the Language, by Professor W. F. Badė, of the Pacific Theological Seminary.
An investigation of the so-called Hittite inscriptions with special reference to the Hamath Inscr. No. 2. Discussion (1) of the character of the hieroglyphics; (2) significance of the differences between the inscriptions in direction and form as showing development; (3) use of variants in recurring word-groups to determine the meanings of certain phonograms and ideograms; (4) analysis of Jensen's method and conclusions on the basis of Ham. I and II; (5) evidence of words like soapı (Cappadocian coins), together with proper names found in Asia Minor (eg. ¥ápos, Anab. i, 4, 1), pointing possibly to a pre-Armenian people as the authors of the inscriptions.
Discussion by Professors Schilling, Clapp, and Richardson.
19. Notes on the Birds of Ovid, by Mr. E. W. Martin, of the Leland Stanford Jr. University.
In this paper an attempt was made to show the impressions produced upon Ovid, as revealed through his works by the song of birds. As every study of the Latin birds must begin with the Greek, a summary was given of some of the results obtained in the study of that field by Heldrich, Krüper and Harlaub, Thompson, and Pischinger. The conclusions of the last named in his Der Vogelgesang bei den griechischen Dichtern des klassischen Alterthums - a contribution to the “ Würdigung des Naturgefühls der antiken Poesie ” — were more closely considered.
Pischinger classifies the song of birds, as portrayed in the Greek poets, in a category of three divisions :
1. As a sound of nature.
a) Expression of grief.
c) Expression of thought, i.e. as speech
3. As an expression of music and art. Statistics for birds were then given. He uses 32 definite bird-names (6 more than any other Roman poet) with 176 allusions to them. He has 142 passages in which the general words ales, avis, volucer, occur — of which we can identify with fair exactness four kinds not mentioned by name. All told, in some connection, Ovid mentions birds 318 times, but he refers to their song only 49 times. These passages were then considered in reference to the category of Pischinger for the Greek birds and in relation to the Roman poets, of whose references to the birds complete statistics were presented.
It was found that in the main Ovid was a traditionalist in his bird-lore. Or his 49 references to bird-song, 7 refer to the swallow, 4 each to the nightingale, halcyon, and swan, which are the traditional song-birds in Greek poetry.
1. Nature-sound. Verbs canto and concino most common. None of the pic