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to be expressed. Stems of different parts of speech alter their vowels differently under the stimulation of phonetically similar suffixes. Two suffixes of identical form but diverse morphological function produce different vowel mutations in the same stem. This system of vowel mutations is therefore conditioned psychologically rather than physiologically. It is due more to grammatical consciousness than to purely phonetic tendencies.
Discussion by Professors Schilling and Senger.
10. A Criticism of Texts offered for the Reading of Advanced German in our Colleges and Universities, by Professor J. H. Senger, of the University of California.
As the study of the languages of the Greek and Roman peoples has for its final object the realization of the spirit of those who used them, the same object is justly claimed for the study of the German language in the upper divisions of our colleges and universities. The spirit of a people is most sensibly realized by its art, and of all arts most lastingly by its literature, inasmuch as literature is a presentation of the beautiful. With this in mind the paper considers works of modern authors offered for advanced reading, especially those of Freytag, Keller, Scheffel, and Sudermann.
Of his two great novels, an abridged edition of Soll und Haben will hardly present Freytag's theme, i.e. the German people at work, so that the American stu. dent will be lastingly impressed by it; German commerce portrayed in it has an aspect of Gemütlichkeit quite unintelligible at the present time. More impressive might be Die verlorene Handschrift, although the work loses considerably in its abridged form.
The contents of Gottfried Keller's Romeo und Julie auf dem Lande may be quoted in Keller's own words: “A young man and a young woman, the children of two very poor, ruined families, who were irreconcilable enemies, conimitted suicide by drowning themselves after having participated with evident enjoyment in the kermess festival of the previous day.” One of the characteristic traits of Keller's prose writings is his irony, a quality which especially on account of its peculiar subtlety is certain to make a wrong impression on the youthful reader.
This applies likewise to Scheffel's writings. While fully appreciating the many excellent points of Ekkehard, the ironical tone prevailing in all Scheffel's writings can hardly be called characteristic of the German mind, whose salient trait is seriousness.
More dangerous still must be called the influence of Sudermann. In both his novels, Der Katzensteg as well as Frau Sorge, the themes ignore the justice of ordinary common-sense morals.
In claiming for the study of German a place similar to that of the classics we shall never lose sight of Goethe's saying: Das Klassische ist das Gesunde. We shall do our best to contribute to the undisturbed development of a sound taste in matters of art by conscientiously and rigorously eliminating from serious consideration by the scholar anything which is not saturated with beauty, by which we mean that which always has been, is, and will be good and true.
By this method we shall not fail to obtain the best result of the study by rousing in our students that lasting enthusiasm which is based upon a sympathetic appreciation of the great achievements of the entire German nation in science and art, and in their choice fruit, humanity.
Discussion by Professors Clapp, Matzke, Putnam, and Schilling. Adjourned at 12.35 P.M.
The meeting was called to order at 2.35 P.M. Following upon the report of the Committee on Nominations, the Association elected its officers for the year 1905-1906 :
President, E. B. Clapp, University of California.
H. K. Schilling, University of California.
A. F. Lange, University of California.
The presentation of papers was resumed.
11. The Composition of the Old French Roman de Galeran, by Professor J. E. Matzke, of the Leland Stanford Jr. University.
The paper tested Foerster's belief that the Roman de Galeran owes its variations from the Lai du Fraisne of Marie de France, its central source, to influences of Gautier d'Arras' poem Ille et Galeron. A detailed comparison of the two poems fails to confirm this theory. Proof was then presented that the author of the Roman de Galeran knew the Roman de l'Escoufle, and that this story in the main is responsible for the alterations of the Frai plot which he introduced.
Discussion by Professors Clapp and Johnston.
12. The lunula worn on the Roman Shoe, by Dr. C. J. O'Connor, of the University of California.
Recent authorities fail to find on statues any example of the luna or lunula, which Romans who had held patrician magistracies wore on their shoes as a mark of rank. The example figured in Rich, Dict. Ant. under lunula, came originally from ius, De urbis ac Romani imperii splendore, p. 258. In the latter place the illustration is not taken from a statue, but is an ideal restoration. This conception of the form and position of the lunula is probably derived from a bronze lamp — or one like it — figured in Baumeister, Denk. I, p. 575, fig. 619. The two crescents on the lamp are either handles or amulets. The only passages
- so far as the writer can find — referring to this kind of lunula, and written by men who had first-hand information, are Statius, Silvae, v, 2, 28; Martial, i, 49, 31 and ii, 29, 7; Juvenal, 7, 192 (and Scholiast on same); Plutarch, Quaestiones Romanae, 76; Philostratus, itae Sophistarum (or Vita Herodis Attici), ii, 1, & (555). These afford no information as to what part of the shoe the lunula wa worn on, and about its form they tell us merely that it was moon-shaped. Th attempts to describe it as having the form of the letter C and to explain its origin are mere conjectures, and do not antedate the sixth century. The words luni lunula, lunatus, could be applied to a button-shaped ornament such as is repr sented on the instep of a shoe in the British Museum, and which is figured Harper's Class. Dict. calceus, p. 252. They can also be applied to a heartshaped or tongue-shaped ornament which serves to join the straps of a sandal to the sole. Examples of this are given in Becker, Gallus, III, p. 230, Eng. ed. p. 425, figs. a and b; Weiss, Kostümkunde, I, p. 440, fig. 314 h; Hope, Costume of the Ancients, II, plates 256, 269, 288. This object may have been called also lingula. lunatus was applied by Latin poets to the shields of the Amazons, although these in works of art were seldom simple crescents; sometimes they were nearly heart-shaped. The lunula worn on the shoe was probably an amulet as were those put about the necks of children and horses, and those which formed a part of military standards. lunula may have been a general term for amulets of various forms. Bulla, a specific term for one form of amulet, was used of objects of different forms. The bulla sometimes had the form of a heart, or at any rate had a heart represented on it (Macrobius, Sat. i, 6, 17). The writer has found, so far, no clear cases of heart-shaped charms in the books and collections to which he has had access, although in the strings of amulets, crepundia, are cones and acorns and objects which approach this form, as in the atlas to Müller's Handbuch, VI, taf. 7 f. n. 14 C. It seems from the information at hand that the wearing of the lunula was in part a passing fad of those who dressed elegantly, in part an attempt to mark class distinction by arbitrary means, confined to a brief period at the end of the first century A.D., with sporadic cases somewhat later. It appears, too, that the lunula was not restricted to one particular style of shoe, and that it was not an important nor strictly observed distinction, and could be easily usurped.
Discussion by Professors Ferguson and Badè.
13. Epigraphical Notes, by Professor W. S. Ferguson, of the University of California.
Ι. Γραμματεύς κατά πρυτανείαν τeplaced γραμματεύς της βουλής as the title of the chief secretary at Athens because in the early fourth century B.C. this officer ceased to be a senator. Γραμματεύς των πρυτανών was never used to designate the secretary, because he was at no time a member of the prytany. I pauuateus katd mput avelav calls attention to the fact that, in the fourth century and later, the secretary was an outsider attached, not to the senate as a whole, but to each of the prytanies, as these in turn took charge of the senate's business. Katà puravelav means not "one each prytany,” as is most natural (hence kaloúmerov in Arist. Pol. Ath. 54, 3), but “during each and every prytany”. - a use paralleled in Professor Dittenberger's Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones Selectae, II, 480, where
ένα τιθήνται (εικόνες) κατ' εκκλησίαν εν τω θεάτρω επί των βάσεων is translated into Latin ita ut omni ecclesia supra bases ponerentur.
ΙΙ. “Υπέρ βασιλέως Ευμένου Φιλαδέλφου θεού και ευεργέτου Δημήτριος Ποσειδωvlov, Dittenberger op. cit. II, 302.
Three things are noteworthy in this inscription. 1. If set up in 172 B.C., as Professor Dittenberger assumes, Queen Stratonike should have been included. 2. Philadelphos is the crown name of Attalos II, not of Eumenes II. 3. 'TÉP is invariably used to connect a dedication with a living person, while Beoù in an Attalid inscription invariably means that the ruler to whose name it is attached is already dead.
The explanation demanded is that the dedication was made in 172 B.C., shortly after the false report of Eumenes's death had been corrected, but before Attalos, who had seized the crown and married the widow, had relinquished his control of the kingdom. At that time Eumenes, though alive, was officially a god still, and it seems that Attalos had applied to him, upon his apotheosis, the title which he assumed himself as his crown name " loving his brother."
III. The difficulty found by M. Dürrbach (Bull. de Cor. Hell. XXIX (1905) p. 190) in the date assigned by me (Cornell Studies, X (1899), p. 60) to the archon Tychandros (172/1 B.c.) is imaginary; for the failure of the Athenians to ask the permission of the Delians to dedicate statues in their sacred precinct does not warrant the presumption that the island was already under Attic control (167 B.C. ff.). In a contemporary document Eumenes of Pergamon binds himself to erect a slab at Delos with a similar disregard of the natives (Dittenberger, op. cit. I, p. 437), and in general it was esteemed a privilege for cities to get statues to erect in their public places (ibid. II, 763).
Part II of this paper appears in Classical Philology, Vol. I, pp. 231234.
Discussion by Professors Matzke, Clapp, and Fairclough.
14. The Latin Indirect Object governed by Verbs signifying“ favor, help, injure, please, displease, trust, distrust, command, obey, serve, resist, indulge, spare, pardon, envy, threaten, believe, and persuade,” by Mr. H. B. Dewing of the Berkeley High School.
I. The question at issue : why was the dative used with these verbs ?
(a) Study of the original meaning of the dative case.
namely, the actual uses of the verbs in Latin. III. The three classes of verbs included :
(a) Verbs originally intransitive; of which the following typical cases
were considered : servio, irascor, and placeo. (6) Agglutinate verbs: the cases discussed were morigeror, opitulor, and
maledico. (c) Verbs originally transitive: the cases discussed were ignosco, suadeo,
credo, and impero,
With many of these verbs, and possibly with all, the dative object was
required by the exact meaning of the verbs as used by the Romans in historical times. Just how much influence the matter of inheritance had remains to be determined.
Discussion by Professors Bradley, Noyes, Fairclough, and Nutting.
15. Sources of the Lay of the Two Lovers, by Professor O. M. Johnston, of the Leland Stanford Jr. University.
This lay is derived from three different legends.
The death of the king's wife and his peculiar attachment to his daughter constitute the principal motifs of the well-known legend of the father who, after the death of his wife, desires to marry his own daughter.
The task imposed on the suitor in the second part of the lay is derived from the legend of the father who consents to the marriage of his daughter on condition that her lover perform some difficult task. The version of this tale used by the author of the Lay of the Two Lovers was similar to that found in the German legend of the nobleman who agreed to the marriage of his daughter on condition that her suitor should carry her in his arms to the top of a mountain.
In the lay of Marie de France both of the lovers die on the summit of the mountain, while in the German version only the young man dies. The tragic end of the two lovers in the lay is due to the influence of the tradition, according to which the priory of the two lovers established on the Norman mountain bear. ing the same name was regarded as the burial place of Injuriosus and Scholastica, two lovers well known in religious literature. Our lay took its name from this tradition, and, in order to preserve this church legend in the lay, it was necessary that the two lovers should be buried on the top of the mountain.
Discussion by Professors Matzke, Searles, Murray, and Clapp.
16. The Necessity for an American Bureau for the Facsimile Reproduction of Manuscripts, by Professor C. M. Gayley, of the University of California.
Professor Gayley read an account of the proceedings of the International Con. gress which met at Liège, August 21 to 23, 1905, to consider met hods for the systematic republication in facsimile of the historical, literary, and scientific manuscripts necessary for the promotion of original research. This Congress approved the plan for a coöperative bureau and a central library of facsimiles as proposed by Professor Gayley in 1898, and published by the New York Evening Post, November 19, 1904. It also appointed a permanent international executive committee of twelve for the purpose of promoting this project. A detailed account of the proceedings of the Congress is to be found in the Actes du Congrès, Misch et Thron, Bruxelles, 1905 ; and a history of the movement for republication will appear in the forthcoming Annual Report of the U. S. Commissioner of Education to the Secretary of the Interior, Washington. A summary of the arrangements made by the Congress was printed in the Evening Post, Sep.