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1. Primary Tenses.


(a) Suppositions implying actual or probable fulfilment (in general conditions). Nam vita humana prope uti ferrum est: si exerceas, conteritur; si non exerceas, tamen robigo interficit. Cato, de Mor.

(6) Suppositions implying possible fulfilment in future time. Si, inquis, deus te interroget, . . . quid respondeas. Cic. Ac. ii. 80.

Eos non

(c) Suppositions implying non-fulfilment (comparatively rare). curare opinor, quid agat humanum genus: Nam si curent, bene bonis sit, male malis, quod nunc abest. Ennius, Tel.

2. Secondary Tenses. — (a) Suppositions implying customary fulfilment (past general conditions). Accusatores si facultas incideret, poenis adficiebantur. Tac. Ann. vi. 30.

(b) Suppositions implying non-fulfilment. Nam nisi Ilias illa exstitisset idem tumulus, qui corpus eius contexerat, nomen etiam obruisset. Cic. pro Arch.


27. Types of Sentence Structure in Latin Prose Writers, by Professor Clarence Linton Meader, of the University of Michigan. This paper is printed in the TRANSACTIONS.

Adjourned at 12.50 P.M.


The Association met in the usual place at 3 P.M.

Professor Thomas Day Seymour, of Yale University, reported the following list of officers for the year 1905-1906, as proposed by the Nominating Committee:

President, Professor Elmer Truesdell Merrill, Trinity College.
Vice-Presidents, Professor Edward D. Perry, Columbia University.

Professor Francis W. Kelsey, University of Michigan.

Secretary and Treasurer, Professor Frank Gardner Moore, Dartmouth College.
Assistant Secretary, Professor William Kelly Prentice, Princeton University.
Executive Committee, The above-named officers, and

Professor Charles E. Bennett, Cornell University.
Professor Edward B. Clapp, University of California.
Professor Thomas Fitz-Hugh, University of Virginia.
Professor John C. Rolfe, University of Pennsylvania.
Professor Paul Shorey, University of Chicago.

The Nominating Committee also presented the name of Professor Herbert Weir Smyth for the vacancy in its membership created by the expiration of Professor William Gardner Hale's term.

The report of the Nominating Committee having been accepted and adopted, the President declared the officers elected.

The present membership of the Standing Committee to Nominate Officers is as follows:

To serve for one year, Professor T. D. Seymour, Chairman.

To serve for two years, Professor Samuel Hart.

To serve for three years, Professor M. W. Humphreys.
To serve for four years, Professor M. L. D'Ooge.

To serve for five years, Professor H. W. Smyth.

28. Gemination in Terence, by Professor Eva Johnston, of the University of Missouri.

The term gemination is adopted to denote the repetition of a word without change in form or meaning. Terence's use of gemination corresponds to that of other writers in that he oftenest doubles vocatives, imperatives, interjections. He furnishes six examples of the gemination of a vocative, four of them. used in address, two in calling to some one. All of them are found in passages where intense feeling is shown.

There are five examples of the gemination of an imperative; excitement is regularly back of this repetition.

Age age with interjectional force is found five times. Terence regularly puts the words into the mouth of some one who has decided to pursue a certain course of action against his better judgment. Five times we have heus heus. In three of the examples the word is repeated in calling to some one, in two when knocking at a door. Au au is used once and denotes distress on the part of the speaker.

In the gemination of vocatives, imperatives, interjections, Terence's use stands close to that of Plautus, but it is to be noted that Plautus occasionally trebles such words, while Terence never does.

In one or two cases the repetition of a word indicates doubt and uncertainty on the part of the speaker, and occasionally rhetorical effect is gained by such repetition, but in most cases gemination is found in passages in which deep emotion, such as joy, sorrow, or anger, is shown.

The paper was discussed by Professor Meader, of the University of Michigan.

On motion of Professor Merrill the following minute was adopted: The American Philological Association desires to express its grateful appreciation of the hospitality extended to it during its session now drawing to a close. Its warmest thanks are extended to ex-President White, to President Schurman, and the other authorities of Cornell University, and to individual representatives thereof, for their exceptionally generous and thoughtful kindness; to Professor Elmer for arrangements that have left nothing undone that could be devised for the comfort and convenience of his fellow-members; and to the Town and Gown Club for courtesies that have added much to the enjoyment of the meeting. The Association will remember the present session among the most delightful that it has held.

29. Donatus's Version of the Terence Didascaliae, by Dr. John C. Watson, of Cornell University.

This paper is published in full in the TRANSACTIONS.

30. The Oxyrhynchus Epitome of Livy and Reinhold's Lost Chronicon, by Professor Henry A. Sanders, of the University of Michigan.

This paper also appears in the TRANSACTIONS.

Professor Hempl presented the report of the Joint Committee representing the National Educational Association, the American Philological Association, and the Modern Language Association of America.

Voted, that the Association sanction the alphabet proposed by the Joint Committee, and recommend its use to the makers of dictionaries; also that the report of the Committee be printed in the PROCEEDINGS.

31. The Meaning of Aeschylus, Prometheus 435, by Professor J. E. Harry, of the University of Cincinnati (read by title).

The interpretation that naturally suggests itself to the reader, is the one given by Wecklein : στένουσιν ἄλγος οἰκτρόν = στένουσιν ἀλγεινὸν στόνον, στένουσιν ἀλγοῦσαι. But στένειν is always used either absolutely or with a direct object. Cf. 397, 409 f., 432, while στένω ἄλγος in the sense of στένω στόνον has no parallel in Greek literature. But examples in the sense of στένουσιν αὐτὸν τοῦ ἄλγους can be cited from both Sophocles and Euripides: Medea 996 μeтaorévoμai dè σὸν ἄλγος, Soph. Phil. 339 f. οἶμαι μὲν ἀρκεῖν σοί γε καὶ τά σ ̓, ὦ τάλας, | ἀλγήμαθ', ὥστε μὴ τὰ τῶν πέλας στένειν. Cf. Aesch. Eum. 58 f. μetaσtéVELY TÓvov (the very substantive used so frequently throughout the Prometheus to designate the Titan's ἄλγος οικτρόν) and Lucian, Poseidon and Nereid I οἴκτιστα ὑπὸ τῆς μητρυιᾶς πεπονθυίαν with Aesch. Prom. 238 πάσχειν μὲν ἀλγειναῖσιν, οἰκτραῖσιν d' ldeîv (πημovaîoi). For other examples of this use of aλyos cf. Soph. Phil. 734, Ai. 259, 1397, El. 1176, Eur. Ion 798, Phoen. 371. In Plato's Laws (727 C) we find a collateral form associated with πόνοι and λύπαι (ἀλγηδόνας). From the first sentence in the Iliad down to the passage in the Frogs (221), where Dionysus complains that he is getting sore from zealous rowing (ἀλγεῖν ἄρχομαι τὸν ὄρρον), the physical signification of dλyos is never lost sight of. The actual bodily pain (dolor) is expressed by aλyos as well as the mental anguish (maeror) : M 305, Eur. Med. 486, Androm. 304. Cf. Dem. 54. 11.

The word ayos is frequently combined with ouμpopά and its synonyms; e.g. Eur. Οr. 180 f. ὑπὸ γὰρ ἄλγεων ὑπό τε συμφορᾶς | διοιχόμεθ (α), Androm. 980 ἤλγουν μὲν ἤλγουν, συμφορὰς δ' ἠνειχόμην. The word ἄλγος is a species of the genus σvμopá (cf. Prom. 974), and both, with their synonyms, are favorite objects of σrévw. Cf. Eur. Tro. 578, Phoen. 378, Hec. 589, Hel. 463, El. 505, H. F. 1141; Soph. El. 140, 788 f.; Aesch. Prom. 98, Pers. 471, Suppl. 18, Cho. 931. The cog

nate accusative and the absolute constructions are also frequent. If the dative had been employed in the Aeschylean passage, the meaning would have been unmistakable, but that would have produced hiatus. Cf. Eur. Alc. 199, 652. In Hel. 186 we find a dative of manner (aláyμaoi oтévovσa). The ode under discussion begins with στένω σε οὐλομένας τύχας (which is a constantly recurring thought in the song) and ends with στένουσιν ἄλγος οἰκτρόν. Cf. Eur. Alc. 1038 f. Not only Prometheus, but the other characters constantly advert to the Titan's dynμaта: 267, 268, 298, 302, 306, 326, 375, 397, 413, 471, 512, 525, 541. Cf. esp. 615 and 695 ff., and 934.

32. Notes on Plautus and Terence, by Professor Charles Knapp, of Columbia University (read by title).

Among the fifteen passages discussed were the following from the Adelphoe: (1) 20, 21. Proof was offered that sine superbia must be interpreted of the predicate of its clause, not, as recent editors have held, of the subject.

(2) 137. It was argued that the phrase si obsto is not, as editors seem to think, transparent, but that we must supply with it Aeschini factis or the like. The spirit of the remark Demea was about to make can best be got by comparing 989 ff., especially 992 ff. The latter passage, too, was discussed; the author held that sense demands that secundare, “give a favorable turn to," "bring to a happy issue," not obsecundare, "support," "further" (so Mss), shall be read.

(3) 160, 161. It was argued that at ita ut usquam fuit fide quisquam optuma can be explained only as due to a fusion of (1) at ita (leno sum = talis leno sum) ut ille fuit qui optuma fide fuit and (2) at optuma fide (leno sum) si usquam quisquam ita fuit. Mode 1 is essentially affirmative, mode 2 is essentially negative in spirit. Other passages from Greek and Latin writers showing similar fusion of different syntactical elements were cited and discussed.

(4) 163-166. The author sought to determine the bearing of the quom-clause in 166. It cannot give the reason for dabitur. . . hac. Nor can it be easily or naturally associated with those words in adversative force. He proposed, therefore, to remove the period commonly set after feceris, 164, to set a dash there, and another after hac, 166; then the quom-clause can be joined directly with ego meum. . . feceris, 164, as causal in force, giving the reason for the threat contained in those words. In this view nollem factum . . . iniuria hac is an excited parenthetical commentary on vostra haec. Here, as so often elsewhere, emotional exaltation is attended by syntactical dislocation. All this throws important light on the text in 165, 166. The Mss text gives here a trochaic octonarius followed by an iambic octonarius. Bentley condemned the change of rhythm, and editors in general have followed him, emending in various ways in 165, 166 to make 166 also trochaic. The author held that all such alterations are futile. The Ms text, reënforced by the proposed punctuation, is extremely effective; it throws out into such sharp relief the vital part of the quoted words, indignum iniuria hac. The author thus arrived, quite independently, at the conclusions previously reached by Kauer; that scholar, in his revision of Dziatzko's annotated edition, had argued strongly for the retention of the Ms reading, though he gave no heed to the difficulty of interpreting the quom-clause if the ordinary punctuation is retained.

Ad. 202, 574-575, 770, were considered, besides passages in the Eunuchus and the Andria, and in various plays of Plautus.

33. Travel in Ancient Times as seen in Plautus and Terence, by Professor Charles Knapp (read by title).

The purpose of this paper is to gather together all the information supplied by the plays of Plautus and Terence concerning travel. Such an investigation has much interest; that it has value is a fact emphasized afresh to the author's mind by the following passage in Kroll's Die Altertumswissenschaft im letzten Vierteljahrhundert (1905): “Was uns gleichfalls noch immer fehlt, ist eine Geschichte des Reisens im Altertum (für die Kaiserzeit liegt da freilich die treffliche Behandlung in Friedländers Darstellungen aus der Sittengeschichte vor) und in Zusammenhang damit eine neue Arbeit über die Fuhrwerke der Alten " (so Blümner, p. 370).

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The plays give abundant evidence of the freest movement from place to place in the Greek world (most of the places mentioned in Plautus are parts of the Greek rather than of the Roman world; all those mentioned in Terence are Greek). We have here an interesting and instructive illustration of the wellknown dependence of the Roman comic writers on Greek models.

Travel is undertaken regularly, it may be said, in connection with business; there are very few references to travel undertaken for the mere love of travelling, animi causa. Illustrations of travel for business, in the narrower sense of the term, are afforded by the long trading trips (lasting two or even three years) frequently mentioned. A good deal of travelling was done in connection with warfare; one realizes to what an extent the citizen soldiery of Athens, for example, became acquainted through wars with the outer world. Akin to such journeying is the travelling of persons who were legati publice missi. The amours of the miles gloriosus and others involve much travel, either on the part of these personages themselves or on that of their messengers and the meretrices. Another chapter can be written on the travels of persons stolen in childhood by runaway slaves or pirates; they often undergo remarkable experiences. Much travelling is done also by their kinsmen as they seek to find those lost years before.

The paper, in its final form, will contain remarks on the geography of the plays, on the costume worn by travellers, the baggage carried by them, etc.

34. When did Aristophanes die? by Dr. Roland G. Kent, of the University of Pennsylvania (read by title).

The year 385 seems to be agreed upon as the approximate date of A.'s death (so Croiset, Hist. Litt. Gr. III.2 531; Christ, Gr. Litt.-Gesch.2 292; Kaibel in Pauly-Wissowa, Real-En. II. 972). This is based on Hyp. iv, Ar. Plut.; Anon. Vita Ar. § 12; Schol. ad Plat. Apol. 19 C; Suid. s.v. 'Apapús; and the fact that A. appears as a character in Plato's Symposium. It is certain that after the Plutus (388) A. composed only the Cocalus and the Aeolosicon, and that he gave them to his son Araros for presentation to commend him to the favor of the public. Now the ordinary interpretation of Suidas (l.c.) in regard to Araros didáĝas

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