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dena z va sent the años mentioned in Yan Liz ve alted The third hand rate ater repacing a longer word, perhaps con#24 avere the former taking the place wer & year the symmetrical arrangement upon the stone; cf. at Tell a Cornelia Phengis, upon the death of Taa keve a aussonet in a genealogical table of the persons named in the im the home and ber civil status changed.


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Sue sager smey discussed the Latinity of the inscription touching upon 2, in the masculine gender, as shown by iunctus ng lives to box back to the beginning of the inscription, used the customary 10, for magister; the writer of the second hand, havcan-cative; an ad Marte 1 10; cf. apud lovem Statorem, Orelli, 2155); and upon other minor points.

In dating the inscription from its palaeography, only such inscriptions were , used as came from the same geographical division of Italy, viz. Latium. They are found in Hübner's Exempla Scripturae Epigraphicae, Nos. 303, 477, 1021, 527, 471, and 526, the dates of which are respectively 172, 181, 192, 193, 198, and 200 A.D). Inasmuch as the later inscriptions are more like the Calpurnius Chius inscriptions, we are led to believe that the inscription was set up about

200 A.D.

Since there were several colleges of Silvanus at Ostia, some defining terms were necessary. In the first place, maius serves to distinguish this college from its smaller contemporaries; secondly, quod est Hilarionis, that is Hank's' is added, Hilario probably being a public-spirited freedman of werki wir mea being chosen sevir Augustalis, showed his gratitude, as was customer, 24 E FILIÜK benefaction. In this case a shrine or temple to Silvanus Augustus was erected, to which his name was attached; see Orelli, 2414 and 4938. The chairt s supported by an inscription (Wilmanns, 1742) which was set ur n hour of T. Flavius Hilario, who in the 17th lustrum was magister quinquennal:um zilige

fabrum (carpenters). The worship of Silvanus was held especially sacred by the carpenters, Silvanus being sometimes called dendrophorus, 'the carpenter.' In the Calpurnius Chius inscription we see that Hilario was very closely associated with the worship of Silvanus. In this respect the inscriptions support each other, and lead to the belief that they both refer to the same Hilario.

Furthermore, the date of the Flavius Hilario inscription corroborates this hypothesis. These lustra belonged to the new series of lustra instituted by Domitian in 86 A.D. and occurred at intervals of four years (see Suet. Dom. 4; Censorinus, 18; Statius, S. iv, 2, 60 ff.; and Pliny, N.H. ii, 47). Accordingly Flavius Hilario held office from 146 to 178 A.D. and had not passed away when the inscription was set up by his wife and daughter. It is reasonable to suppose that he lived to the close of the second century A.D., which confirms the belief that the Calpurnius Chius inscription referring to Hilario was erected at that time.

The third defining clause is iunctus sacomari (for sarcomario), 'hard by the public scales,' misread and so misunderstood by both Mommsen and Dessau, who read functus (C.I.L. XIV, 309 and XIV, 51). For this use of iunctus, cf. Wilmanns, 1724; and for like expressions see Orelli, 2389 and 2417. For the use of collegius as masculine see Orelli, 2413, 4101, 4123, 4978, and 7186. genealogical table was added.

Discussion by Professor Richardson.

To the paper a

Report of the Auditing Committee adopted. Adjourned at 5 P.M.


The meeting was called to order on Thursday, December 28, at 9.30 A.M. The reading of papers was continued.

6. Old Problems in Horace (continued), by Professor J. E. Church, Jr., of the Nevada State University.

On Horace, Carmina, i, 3, 1–8.

In his interpretation of this passage, PAPA. XXXIV (1903), xxii, in which he suggests the insertion of ut after Vergilium, the late Professor Earle raises two objections to the generally accepted theory that this passage is a benediction and a prayer upon which the former is conditioned, on the ground that if this interpretation be the correct one, there is no reason why the first stanza should have been the first and the second the second, "indeed, it would be a great improvement if the two stanzas were to change places,”. nor is it to be supposed that Horace wrote arrant nonsense here.

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We should raise no question against the first objection if these stanzas were the product of the English mind and language. But several examples of Roman benedictions followed by prayers strikingly similar in arrangement and language to the above stanzas cast much doubt upon the tenability of the position taken. These examples, moreover, occur in formal inscriptions as well as in literature. Such are Bücheler, Carm. Lat. Epigr.:

197 Ita levis incumbat terra defuncto tibi...

rogo ne sepulcri umbras violare audeas;

of indifference if the word-foot happened sometimes to jar against the theoretical verse-foot at these more or less stressless points, as was particularly likely to be the case in Latin with its more conspicuous and immovable word-accent; so, for example, in Catullus, 63. 1:

super alta vectus Attis celeri rate maria

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where the theoretical ictus on the last syllable of rate was too weak to conflict seriously with the word-accent on the first, and hence the frequent admission of such forms side by side with the more natural effect, as in v. 3,

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where there is no such conflict of word-foot and verse-foot.

To sum up: The history of ionic rhythms from Alkman, Alkaios, Sappho, and Anakreon, down the ages through the Greek drama to Plautus himself shows a clear tendency to maintain the unmistakable purity of the ionic foot. On the other hand, the name itself of the galliambic, the typical association of the ditrochaeus with every phase of it from Kallimachos to the citation of Diogenes Laertius, the testimony of Hephaistion and the Roman metricians, and the remarkable fact that with all the freedom of resolution in the first foot of each dimeter, the only undebatable ionic resolution ☺☺☺ is confined to the pure ionic place, the end of the first dimeter, - all these considerations point to the truth of the thesis, that the resolution of the final long of the ionic foot in a galliambic connection amounts to rhythmic anaklasis for all known remains of this latest and most artistic creation of Greek metric.

24. Notes on the Bucolic Diaeresis, by Professor Samuel E. Bassett, of the University of Vermont.

This contribution, which was read by Dr. Weller, of Yale University, will be found in the TRANSACTIONS.

On motion of Professor Elmer Truesdell Merrill, of Trinity College, it was

Voted, that the Secretary send to Professor Francis A. March, Sr., the greetings of the Association as follows:

The American Philological Association, assembled in its annual meeting, sends affectionate greetings to its absent ex-President, Professor Francis A. March, whose four-score years of life, recently completed, have not been years of labor and sorrow, but of labor sweetened by manifold successful achievement.

Serus in caelum redeas, diuque

Laetus intersis populo!

25. The Ablative of Association, by Professor Charles E. Bennett, of Cornell University.

This paper will also be found in the TRANSACTIONS.

The Committee on the Place of Meeting in 1906 reported by its chairman, Professor Rolfe, of the University of Pennsylvania. It was recommended that the Association accept the kind invitation of the George Washington University, Washington, D.C.

The report of the Committee was accepted and adopted.

The question of a change in the mode of publication was raised and discussed in detail by Messrs. Scott, Radford, Harrington, Smyth, Merrill, Sanders, and Hempl.

Voted, that the matter of a change in the method of publication be referred back to the Executive Committee, to consider, and, after conference with the American Oriental Society, and the Modern Language Association, to report at the beginning of the next meeting.

Voted, to refer to the Executive Committee with power the suggestion of Professor Radford that the next volume of the TRANSACTIONS be so published that the publishers keep on hand a sufficient number of off-prints of the several articles to meet possible demands of purchasers.

26. The Classification of Latin Conditional Sentences, by Professor Karl P. Harrington, of Wesleyan University.

It cannot be denied that there is sufficient cause to search for a new classification of Latin conditional sentences. The present confusion in terms and methods of classification is bewildering and frequently results in misstatement, unpractical diffuseness, or meaningless conciseness. Professor Rolfe's paper before the New York Latin Club about a year ago led me to attempt a new classification which should include all the common types of conditions without relegating any to the hopeless limbo of fine-print exceptions, yet should state the facts as they appear, without reading into them any theories as to their origin or development.

It is not safe, for example, to lump all Indicative conditions together in such a way as this: "Indicative conditions. Conditions in any tense, with nothing implied as to their fulfilment and expressed positively (or vividly)." For frequently, on the contrary, the actual fulfilment of the Indicative condition is very definitely implied. So, when Cicero (in Cat. i. 16), addressing the arch-conspirator, and taunting him with the fact that none of his friends gave him the customary greetings when shortly before he entered the senate house, adds, Si hoc post hominum memoriam contigit nemini, vocis exspectas contumeliam, cum sis gravissimo iudicio taciturnitatis oppressus? Catiline himself and every auditor in the temple understood perfectly that the condition was stated as a well-recognized fact, and actually as the reason for the ironical question which follows it.

Further, while, if the tense of the Indicative be future, the conceivable case may be felt as stated more vividly than if the mood (referring to the same time) were Subjunctive, we cannot always, if we can ever, speak of a present or past Indicative condition as being especially "vivid." For example, when Pliny (Ep. vi. 20), in describing his own experiences during the great eruption of Vesuvius, quotes the exhortation of his uncle's Spanish friend, si frater tuus,

tuus avunculus vivit, vult esse vos salvos; si periit, superstites voluit, it is difficult to conceive of any possibility of putting the dilemma in any other form. It is neither a more nor a less vivid statement; it is absolutely colorless so far as any implication about the facts is concerned.

Again, suppose we examine the proposed category, "Indeterminate conditions: (a) Conditions in any time with nothing implied as to their fulfilment, expressed positively (vividly) in the Indicative." Now, in the first place, of course the examples quoted above can be fairly cited as a reasonable ground of objection to this classification as a whole. But, besides this, may it not be doubted whether it is consistent to speak of a condition with " nothing implied as to its fulfilment " as being expressed "positively"? How can we speak "positively" and yet convey no hint of the truth or falsity of our words? In referring to future time, to be sure, one may have a choice of moods, and thus express or imply a feeling on his own part of a greater or less degree of probability that the condition will be fulfilled. In cases, however, where present or past time is expressed in the assumption no such variation in the degree of probability can be expressed by any variation of mood.

Now it would be highly satisfactory if we could make such a classification as this:

I. Probable conditions: Indicative mood.

II. Possible conditions: Subjunctive mood, primary tenses.

III. Impossible conditions: Subjunctive mood, secondary tenses.

But without multiplying objections, it is sufficient to say that (1) while a large proportion of Indicative conditions do imply probability, from the standpoint of the speaker, or of the person addressed, or of the world in general, that is not always the case; (2) sometimes primary tenses of the Subjunctive are used to imply non-fulfilment of a condition; and (3) secondary tenses of the Subjunctive do not always imply a supposition contrary to fact.

It seems, therefore, wiser to make a modal classification, with such subdivisions according to general signification as are warranted by the facts. The proposed classification is according to protases, which are the rational basis of such classification, and no attempt is made to include any abnormal types, but to give due recognition to all the regularly occurring types, as follows:


(a) Suppositions implying actual fulfilment. Si hoc post hominum memoriam contigit nemini, vocis exspectas contumeliam, cum sis gravissimo iudicio taciturnitatis oppressus? Cic. in Cat. i. 16.

(b) Suppositions implying probable fulfilment. Si damnatus eris, atque adeo cum damnatus eris (nam dubitatio damnationis, illis recuperatoribus, quae potest esse?) virgis te ad necem caede necesse erit. Cic. in Verr. II. iii. 70.

(c) Suppositions implying possible fulfilment (in future time). Si patriam prodere conabitur pater, silebitne filius? Cic. de Off. iii. 90.

(d) Suppositions implying nothing as to fulfilment. Si frater tuus, tuus avunculus vivit, vult esse vos salvos; si periit, superstites voluit. Pliny, Ep. vi. 20, 10.

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