Page images
PDF
EPUB

23. The Galliambic Rhythm, by Professor Thomas Fitz-Hugh, of the University of Virginia.

Hephaistion (Gaisford, i. 72) refers to the catalectic ionic a minori tetrameter as των εν τω μέτρων μεγεθών το επισημότατον, and quotes from Phrynichos the tragic poet two pure ionics,

Το γε μην ξείνια δούσαις, λόγος ώσπερ λέγεται,

ολέσαι κάποτεμεΐν οξέϊ χαλκό κεφαλάν, , and a third from Phrynichos, the comic poet, who lived some hundred years later,

A δ' ανάγκα 'σθ' ιερεύσιν καθαρεύειν φράσομεν.

foot vu-

The history of the ionic a minori forms shows that variation from the regular

was but sparingly and sporadically indulged in. The only radi. cal modification to which the verse was subjected came through the influence of the Anakreonteion, vu-u-u-

and resulted in the latest and most beautiful ionic variety, the galliambic.

Hephaistion (i. 73) speaks of the poems in this rhythm as those, év ols cal tà τους τρίτους παίωνας έχοντα και τον παλιμβάκχειον και τάς τροχαϊκάς αδιαφόρως παραλαμβάνουσι προς τα καθαρά, ως και τα πολυθρύλλητα ταύτα παραδείγματα δηλοί, ,

Γαλλαι μητρος ορείης φιλόθυρσοι δρομάδες,
αις έντεα παταγείται και χάλκεα κρόταλα. .

It seems clear that Hephaistion regards the first line as td kalapd, and the

[blocks in formation]

as illustrating τα τον παλιμβάκχειον και τας τροχαϊκάς έχοντα: in other words, to Hephaistion these galliambic poems exhibited two sorts of verses, pure ionic tetrameters and tetrameters containing third paeons (or the equivalent palimbacchium) and trochaic dipodies (Trảơ quot, – U –_).

The scholiast (Hephaistion, i. 73, 1) disregarding the second line examines the first in detail and pronounces it pure; coming to the second, he dismisses it with a word as like the first : "Ισως δε περί των εξής ο λόγος. Here is a difference of opinion: Hephaistion considers the second line as a typical galliambic of the anaklastic form, the scholiast as a pure ionic resolved. The history of the ionic rhythms in general and of the galliambic in particular must decide between them. Resolutions of so sweeping a kind seem highly improbable for an ionic rhythm, except through the mediation of the ditrochaeus, which through the influence of Anakreon's dvaklúuevov came to be a constant feature of ionic rhythms. The history of these forms would indicate that such resolutions presuppose a ditrochaic basis and hence the anaklastic beat in all galliambic connections, and thus vindicates the characterization of Hephaistion. At the same time, it is not in lyric usage that the origin of these typical galliambic resolutions is to be sought, but rather in the freedom of dramatic motives. G. Hermann (Elem. Doctr. Metr., p. 459) has identified an interesting type of comic usage in Plautus, Amph. 168– 172:

[merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]

Here we seem to have the sources of our galliambic peculiarities laid bare: the ditrochaeus interchanging with the ionic foot and determining the anaklastic character of the resolutions in II. 169–170.

To the Roman metricians the typical galliambic verse is always anaklastic, and the resolution of the last long of the ionic foot was tantamount to a transfer to the ditrochaic beat: cf. Keil, G.L. VI, p. 95, si tetrametri versus catalectici, qui in huius modi metro (sc. ionico a minori) primi habendi sunt, longas in breves solverint metrum efficient galliambicum; Victorinus then gives a typical example of the galliainbic rhythm,

tremulos quod esse Gallis habiles putant modos

and proceeds : memineris tamen et tribrachyn loco trochaei hoc metrum si necessitas postularit admittere. Maecenas (Baehrens, Frag. Poet. Rom., p. 339) writes: ades et sonante typano quate

flexibile caput Lulu Dulu Lucuul The resolution 'typano'vu occurs only in the stable ionic position, the second foot of the dimeter, and for all known galliambic verses seems wholly excluded from the first foot of either dimeter, where every other conceivable resolution is more or less frequent.

If we put together all the actual varieties of the galliambic verse in Kallimachos, Varro, Catullus, Maecenas, and Diogenes Laertius, we get the following scheme:

wilzuulets w1Zzuul?

The unmistakable ionic resolution, ú ulo occurs only in the pure cen'tral position. It seems highly probable that its exclusion from the other places was due to their anaklastic character, which permitted every resolution except vu-uui The nature of the resolutions to which the galliambic rhythm was amenable points clearly to the conclusion that there was but one sharply felt beat in each of the two anaklastic feet; namely, on the first syllable in each. The subordinate ictus in each was left to take care of itself; so that it was a matter

rate

of indifference if the word-foot happened sometimes to jar against the theoretical verse-foot at these more or less stressless points, as was particularly likely to be the case in Latin with its more conspicuous and immovable word-accent; so, for example, in Catullus, 63. I: super alta vectus Attis celeri

maria vulu cu L-, vulvuvus where the theoretical ictus on the last syllable of rate was too weak to conflict seriously with the word-accent on the first, and hence the frequent admission of such forms side by side with the more natural effect, as in v. 3,

adiitque opaca silvis redimita loca deae

vuru-u-uulu ul where there is no such conflict of word-foot and verse-foot.

To sum up: The history of ionic rhythms from Alkman, Alkaios, Sappho, and Anakreon, down the ages through the Greek drama to Plautus himself shows a clear tendency to maintain the unmistakable purity of the ionic foot. On the other hand, the name itself of the galliambic, the typical association of the ditrochaeus with every phase of it from Kallimachos to the citation of Diogenes Laer. tius, the testimony of Hephaistion and the Roman metricians, and the remarkable fact that with all the freedom of resolution in the first foot of each dimeter, the only undebatable ionic resolution buluu is confined to the pure ionic place, the end of the first dimeter, — all these considerations point to the truth of the thesis, that the resolution of the final long of the ionic foot in a galliambic connection amounts to rhythmic anaklasis for all known remains of this latest and most artistic creation of Greek metric.

24. Notes on the Bucolic Diaeresis, by Professor Samuel E. Bassett, of the University of Vermont.

This contribution, which was read by Dr. Weller, of Yale University, will be found in the TRANSACTIONS.

On motion of Professor Elmer Truesdell Merrill, of Trinity College, it was

Voted, that the Secretary send to Professor Francis A. March, Sr., the greetings of the Association as follows:

The American Philological Association, assembled in its annual meeting, sends affectionate greetings to its absent ex-President, Professor Francis A. March, whose four-score years of life, recently completed, have not been years of labor and sorrow, but of labor sweetened by manifold successful achievement.

Serus in caelum redeas, diuque
Laetus intersis populo!

25. The Ablative of Association, by Professor Charles E. Bennett, of Cornell University.

This paper will also be found in the TRANSACTIONS.

The Committee on the Place of Meeting in 1906 reported by its chairman, Professor Rolfe, of the University of Pennsylvania. It was recommended that the Association accept the kind invitation of the George Washington University, Washington, D.C.

The report of the Committee was accepted and adopted.

The question of a change in the mode of publication was raised and discussed in detail by Messrs. Scott, Radford, Harrington, Smyth, Merrill, Sanders, and Hempl.

Voted, that the matter of a change in the method of publication be referred back to the Executive Committee, to consider, and, after conference with the American Oriental Society, and the Modern Language Association, to report at the beginning of the next meeting.

Voted, to refer to the Executive Committee with power the suggestion of Professor Radford that the next volume of the TRANSACTIONS be so published that the publishers keep on hand a sufficient number of off-prints of the several articles to meet possible demands of purchasers.

26. The Classification of Latin Conditional Sentences, by Professor Karl P. Harrington, of Wesleyan University.

It cannot be denied that there is sufficient cause to search for a new classification of Latin conditional sentences. The present confusion in terms and methods of classification is bewildering and frequently results in misstatement, unpractical diffuseness, or meaningless conciseness. Professor Rolfe's paper before the New York Latin Club about a year ago led me to attempt a new classification which should include all the common types of conditions without relegating any to the hopeless limbo of fine-print exceptions, yet should state the facts as they appear, without reading into them any theories as to their origin or development.

It is not safe, for example, to lump all Indicative conditions together in such a way as this: “Indicative conditions. Conditions in any tense, with nothing implied as to their fulfilment and expressed positively (or vividly).” For frequently, on the contrary, the actual fulfilment of the Indicative condition is very definitely implied. So, when Cicero (in Cat. i. 16), addressing the arch-conspirator, and taunting him with the fact that none of his friends gave him the customary greetings when shortly before he entered the senate house, adds, Si hoc post hominum memoriam contigit nemini, vocis exspectas contumeliam, cum sis gravissimo iudicio taciturnitatis oppressus ? Catiline himself and every auditor in the temple understood perfectly that the condition was stated as a well-recognized fact, and actually as the reason for the ironical question which follows it.

Further, while, if the tense of the Indicative be future, the conceivable case may be felt as stated more vividly than if the mood (referring to the same time) were Subjunctive, we cannot always, if we can ever, speak of a present or past Indicative condition as being especially “ vivid.” For example, when Pliny (Ep. vi. 20), in describing his own experiences during the great eruption of Vesuvius, quotes the exhortation of his uncle's Spanish friend, si frater tuus, tuus avunculus vivit, vult esse vos salvos; si periit, superstites voluit, it is difficult to conceive of any possibility of putting the dilemma in any other form. It is neither a more nor a less vivid statement; it is absolutely colorless so far as any implication about the facts is concerned.

Again, suppose we examine the proposed category, “Indeterminate conditions: (a) Conditions in any time with nothing implied as to their fulfilment, expressed positively (vividly) in the Indicative.” Now, in the first place, of course the examples quoted above can be fairly cited as a reasonable ground of objection to this classification as a whole. But, besides this, may it not be doubted whether it is consistent to speak of a condition with “nothing implied as to its fulfilment as being expressed “positively” ? How can we speak “positively” and yet convey no hint of the truth or falsity of our words? In referring to future time, to be sure, one may have a choice of moods, and thus express or imply a feeling on his own part of a greater or less degree of probability that the condition will be fulfilled. In cases, however, where present or past time is expressed in the assumption no such variation in the degree of probability can be expressed by any variation of mood.

Now it would be highly satisfactory if we could make such a classification as

this:

I. Probable conditions: Indicative mood.
II. Possible conditions : Subjunctive mood, primary tenses.
III. Impossible conditions: Subjunctive mood, secondary tenses.

But without multiplying objections, it is sufficient to say that (1) while a large proportion of Indicative conditions do imply probability, from the standpoint of the speaker, or of the person addressed, or of the world in general, that is not always the case; (2) sometimes primary tenses of the Subjunctive are used to imply non-fulfilment of a condition; and (3) secondary tenses of the Subjunctive do not always imply a supposition contrary to fact.

It seems, therefore, wiser to make a modal classification, with such subdivisions according to general signification as are warranted by the facts. The proposed classification is according to protases, which are the rational basis of such classification, and no attempt is made to include any abnormal types, but to give due recognition to all the regularly occurring types, as follows:

I. INDICATIVE CONDITIONS.

(a) Suppositions implying actual fulfilment. Si hoc post hominum memoriam contigit nemini, vocis exspectas contumeliam, cum sis gravissimo iudicio taciturnitatis oppressus ? Cic. in Cat. i. 16.

(6) Suppositions implying probable fulfilment. Si damnatus eris, atque adeo cum damnatus eris (nam dubitatio damnationis, illis recuperatoribus, quae potest esse ?) virgis te ad necem caede necesse erit. Cic. in Verr. II. iii. 70.

(c) Suppositions implying possible fulfilment (in future time). Si patriam prodere conabitur pater, silebitne filius ? Cic. de Off. iii. 90.

(d) Suppositions implying nothing as to fulfilment. Si frater tuus, tuus avunculus vivit, vult esse vos salvos ; si periit, superstites voluit. Pliny, Ep. vi. 20, io.

« PreviousContinue »