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the counterfeit presentiment of the present. The best-known fables may have been known only to the few, but the majority of spectators of the tragic contests were aware that the play was to deal with the ancestry of the race. With each returning spring the Athenian kuew that at the Dionysiac festival he might again behold, in the full splendor and authority of the present, Agamemnon king of men, Priam bereft of so many goodly scns, Helen whose invincible beauty was the spring of desolation; yes the gods themselves, nut mere wraiths, but fashioned into living forms and speaking a language worthy of their high estate.
“The vision of the poet is immediate in proportion to its imaginative quality. Yet in this fictive world of tragedy, where imagination has freest scope, and in every other form of literature, these Greeks, who were possessed by the passion for innovation, restrict the impulse to originality. In motive, scene, and phraseology the Greeks are possessed by the passion for imitation; and their literature is unique in the coextension of spontaneity with a commemorative instinct' that links its various forms by a chain of associative reminiscence. ..."
Reminiscent phraseology is, at least, less the expression of an inevitable perpet uity of artistic perfection in each single detail than an illustration of that imitative character of Greek literature as a whole which is a result of the superlative advantage possessed by that literature - the priority of its masterpiece. For the best came first. It is the reverential regard for Homer that made language courtesy to its sovereign; it is again the sentiment of the past, rather than the intrinsic superiority of each particular phrase, that prompted recourse to the epic. 'Imagi. nation was forever haunted by the types of humanity established in clear outline by Homer.' Homer was the captain and teacher of the charming tragic company' said Plato; and Homer had the power of continually adjusting himself to the spirit of each successive age. It was through the influence of Homer that imitation became organic and literary reminiscence inherent in Greek literature.
The address is printed in full in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, vol. XVII (1906).
THURSDAY MORNING, December 28. The Association was called to order shortly after 9:30 A.M. and resumed the reading of papers.
9. The Terms cyma recta and cyma reversa, by Professor Allan Marquand, of Princeton University.
The Greek words kûua and Kuuátiov, as architectural terms, were presumably selected because of the frequent wave-like form of such mouldings. Greek usage, however, soon disregarded the form and used these terms to designate any form of crowning moulding. The Latin cymatium and the Italian cimatio also signified a crowning moulding, regardless of its form.
The distinction between the regular and the reverse wave moulding was first made by Alberti, de Re Aedificatoria, (Lib. vii, Cap. vii) and was designated gola
diritta and gola reversa by his successors, Vignola, Palladio and Scamozzi. This terminology had some influence on the architectural literature of northern Europe, but a more national terminology has recently prevailed in France and Germany. In England the distinction first appears as cima recta and cima reversa in Leoni's translation of Palladio (1715) and as cyma recta and cyma reversa in Stuart and Revett's Antiquities of Athens (1762). Whether theoretically justifiable or not, the terms cyma recta and cyma reversa have been accepted by the best English and American authorities, and there seems to be no immediate prospect of their being replaced by mure specifically English terms.
See also American Journal of Archaeology, vol. X, p. 85, and 282 ff.
10. Emendation on Caesar, Bellum Gallicum, vi, 30, 4, by Professor Walter Dennison, of the University of Michigan.
The disputed passage is, Sic et ad subeundum periculum et ad vitandum multum fortuna valuit. This is the reading of the a-class. In the manuscripts of the B-class we find in place of multum the unsatisfactory variant, tumultum. Multum in this specific statement is weak and arouses suspicion of its correctness. For this reason and in conformity with Caesarian usage the reading mortem is suggested.
This paper appears in Classical Philology, vol. I, p. 290 f. It was discussed by Professors Sihler, Sanders, Radford, Knapp, Cole, and the author in reply.
II. Ancient Sinope, by Dr. David M. Robinson, of the Johns Hopkins University.
This paper, part of a mɔnograph on Sinope, concerned itself with a description of Sinope and of its environs in the light of a visit there in June, 1903, with a brief résumé of its history, and with its cults.
The southern shore of the Black Sea is like a central mounting billow of the ocean with the hollow trough on each side. The billow and the two hollows, taken together, form the entire southern shore. The outline is symmetrical, so that the crest of this colossal land wave is the middle point of the whole seven hundred miles. The summit of the crest, however, is somewhat flattened, and just at the eastern edge, before it begins to fall away, throws out in a northeasterly direction an altar-shaped promontory which is perhaps a score of miles wide across the top. The projecting easterly horn of this altar is itself a little lofty promontory, upon the low landward neck of which is built Sinope. The Sinopean promontory, called to-day Boz-tepé, is about six hundred feet in height, with precipitous sides and a broad level fertile table-land at the top. Its outline somewhat resembles that of a boar's head, with the highest point at the snout in the extreme east. It is two miles in length from the neck out, and one mile in width. The cretaceous deposits, lying as they do over the volcanic formation, seem to say that the whole promontory was at an early period below the level of
15. Medea's Marriage Problem, by Professor J. E. Harry, of the University of Cincinnati.
Meineke emended Eur. Medea 240 to read omws uálcota xphoetal OUVELVÉTY, translating quibus modis tractandus sit maritus. He is followed by many editors. But Tws xpňoetai is not paralleled in Greek poetry (nor is it very frequent in prose), the normal construction being ol xpħoet al. Moore, in his revision of Allen's edition, retains the Ms reading (87°), and renders xphoetai OUVEUVÉT 7 by manage her husband. But xpño bai does not mean “manage” in any period of the literature. Medea means simply that it is an extremely difficult question to decide who will prove the best man to live with — xpîtai kal ovšin, as Demosthenes says (1. 14). Cf. Plutarch, Dion, 17 y uálcota TWY 'Aonvoi piawv έχρητο και συνδιοτάτο. The problem τω δεί χρήσθαι has presented itself to both sexes in all ages. Ηesiod says μάλιστα γαμείν ήτις σέθεν εγγύθι ναίει. Our old dramatists are full of situations such as Medea says the marriageable maid must sace. Cf. Marston, Antonio and Mellida; Shakspere, Two Gentlemen of Verona (1.2), Merchant of Venice (1. 2). The wife is not supposed to hold the reins (the image in “ manage ") — she is part of the team itself. Cf. Xen. Oec. 7. 18. With Med. 212 compare Plato, Phaedr. 254 A. Alcibiades defines χρωμένων åv@púrwv åvopóros (1 Alcib. 1250) by Koivwvoúvtwv. In Med. 240 the last two words signify yameitas. Cf. 1001 and Plato, 1 Alcib. 129 C. One must possess before one can use (é xortes xpwued' &v), must get before one can possess (KÉKT NOU kal xpô, Xen. Cyrop. 8. 3. 50); but xphobai may include or presuppose é xelv and KeKTno Bau. Many authors use the two verbs almost interchangeably (ποικιλία).
Liddell and Scott quote xpnobai from Xenophon's Symposium (2. 10) as meaning “manage.” This is a mistake. Socrates, in reply to a question of Antisthenes how it comes that he does not train Xanthippe, explains: kåyw on βουλόμενος ανθρώποις χρήσθαι και ομιλείν, ταύτην κέκτημαι (= χρώμαι) ευ ειδώς ότι εί ταύτην υπoίσω (note καθέξω, supra), ραδίως τοις γε άλλοις άπασιν ανθρώπους ouvéo oual. Note particularly that when Antisthenes puts the question, he does not say é xels, nor kékt no a. (the word used later by Socrates), but xpo.
For the combination μάλιστα χρήσεται compare Lys. 19. 18 πολλούς δή μάλλον έχρητο ή το εμώ πατρί, Isoc. 16. 25 μάλιστ' αυτό χρώμενοι, 17. 47 και μάλιστ' ετύγχανον πάντων των εν τη πόλει χρώμενος, Isae. 3. 19 οις αν τυγχάνωμεν χρώμενοι μάλιστα, Hyper. I. 5 χρήται τούτοις πάντων μάλιστα.
The meaning of the verse, then, is (to quote Xen. Oec. 7. 11) Tiv' av kolvw vdy βέλτιστον οίκου τε και τέκνων λάβοιμεν (cf. 953). In the general statement a special application lurks Medea is thinking of herself (cf. 18, 23, 31, 35, 166, 441, 483, 502). Olkodev means precisely what Earle says it means (" at home"), not " from one's own resources," as Liddell and Scott take it. Medea is a γυνή εις Ελληνικά ήθη άφιγμένη, whereas Helen is a γυνή Ελληνίς transported to a barbarian land: πατρίδος θεοί μ αφιδρύσαντο γής | εις βάρβαρ' ήθη (Εur. Ηel.
But Meineke's tractandus sit would be xpn xphoaodai. Cf. Eur. Fr. 901. Wecklein conjectured 87W... xaploetai, which contains as naive an inquiry for a maiden as Meineke's Örws xpňoet al (see Ar. Eq. 517). Conjecturarum plena sunt omnia. But we may say, with Porson, nulla opus est mutatione. Medea means : τινα γάμον είμι ; [ποιός] τις πόσις με δέξεται | νυμφικάς ες ευνάς; (Ει. 1199 f.).
Remarks upon the paper were made by Professors Smyth and Knapp, and the author.
16. Comparisons and Illustrations in the tà após cavrov of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, by Professor Curtis C. Bushnell, of Syracuse University (read by Professor Kellogg, of Princeton University).
These comparisons are variously introduced by some one of twenty-two different words or combinations of words, used singly like ws ως αν woavel ... etc., or correlatively like BOTEP ούτω etc. Special cases are comparison by repetition, as 4. 2, and by uâllov .. À . . . following a question, as 6. 35. In 4. 15 the point of comparison is merely implied.
Words used metaphorically constitute a majority of the cases.
Of Elemental Nature, 51 cases, 18% of all;
Of the cases assigned to Elemental Nature “calm weather” is three times used of serenity of spirit, "extinguishing” nine times of the cessation of some activity or life itself, “ flowing” ten times of change or of Deity as source, the “calm flow” four times of serene existence, the “ fountain-head” seven times, especially of Deity as source, the “river,” the “shifting sand,” the “.
wave,” the "torrent,” each once of change, the “promontory” once of stability of soul.
Of the group belonging to Vegetable Life “ fruit” is three times used to symbolize the acceptable, three times to symbolize production. “Leaves ” as they form and fall are, with a reference to Homer, compared with the succession of generations. The operations of plant life are six times taken as symbolic of what is natural, “ reaping” twice of death, the severed branch once of him who cuts himself off from society (cf. “abiding in the vine,” ]n. 15. 4 ff.).
The illustrations from Animal Life are used especially of what is natural or of what is of small importance.
Of the illustrations which concern Human Life six only are religious, but these are especially striking, as: “A man committed to virtue is indeed a priest and minister of the gods” (cf. “priests unto God,” Rev. I. 6). “He who feels discontent at anything is like a sacrificial pig that kicks and squeals. grains of frankincense on the same altar. One drops sooner, another later; it makes no difference."
Eight cases are medical or pathological, seven physiological, ten athletic or gladiatorial. “The good man must head straight for the goal, casting not a glance
behind," “must run the short way" (cf. “ running the race" of 1 Cor. 9. 24, 26; Heb. 12. 1); and the dywvio ai of 6. 30 reminds us of i Tim. 6. 12 and 2 Tim. 4. 7.
Of the fifteen cases belonging to the spectacular group eight compare the nature controlled by its desires to a puppet controlled by strings. Life is four times compared to a play (cf. “All the world's a stage ” and Cic. de Sen. 5, 64, 70, 85).
Twelve comparisons are military, and in seven of these the “good soldier" is symbolic of loyalty to right.
The weaver's art is ten times used in illustration, but only of the "web" of creation and circumstance, reminding us of the weaving of the Erdgeist in Faust.
The world is seven times compared to a “city.”
Thirty-three cases are of arrival, departure, or travel. Death is called “departure” twelve times, life a "journey” three times, death the “journey's end "
A course of action is twelve times called a "path.” Three comparisons concern the “stranger.”
Six are of child-life, always on its unattractive side. Three are of the “ view from above,” three of “sleep and dreams,” seven of "imprisonment.”
The Geometrical group especially enforce the teaching of the insignificance of human things. Four cases are of the “angle,” four of the “point.”
Of exceptional beauty are: 4. 33. “ I am in harmony with all that is a part of thy harmony, great Uni
For me nothing is early and nothing late, that is in season for thee. All is fruit for me, which thy seasons bear, O Nature! from thee, in thee, and unto thee are all things. 'Dear City of Cecrops !' saith the poet: and wilt not thou say, 'Dear City of God'?”
Serenely greet the journey's end, as an olive falls when it is ripe, blessing the branch that bare it and giving thanks to the tree that gave it life.”
4. 49. “ Be like the headland, on which the billows dash themselves continu. ally; but it stands fast till about its base the boiling breakers are lulled to rest.”
" In this river of existence how can one prize much any of the things that race by, on none of which one can take firm stand? It were like setting one's love on some sparrow that fits past and in an instant is out of sight.”
“Say men kill you, quarter you, pursue you with execrations: what has that to do with your understanding remaining pure, lucid, temperate, just? It is as though a man stood beside some sweet, transparent fountain, abusing it, and it ceased not to well forth draughts of pure water; nay, though he cast in mud and filth, it will speedily disperse them and wash them forth and take no stain.” (Rendall's translation.)
Very extended are 6. 20; 8. 34; 11. 8, 20.
Several comparisons follow in immediate succession in 2. 17; 4. 28, 29; 5.6; 7. 3; 9. 39; 12. 36 (cf. the Homeric multiplication of comparisons at supreme moments, as Il. 2. 455 ff.; 15. 603 ff.). Sometimes the comparisons are extended in the Homeric manner, as 4. I, 43.
The repetition of a word in making his point is a favorite device of our author, as 4. 3, 29; 9. 2.
His favorite subjects for illustration are change, the insignificance of human things, the absence of evil from nature, contentment, discontent, and the unnaturalness of the unsocial disposition.