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means : τινα γάμον ειμι ; [ποιός] τις πόσις με δέξεται | νυμφικάς ες ευνάς; (Ει. 1199 f.).
Remarks upon the paper were made by Professors Smyth and Knapp, and the author.
16. Comparisons and Illustrations in the tà após cavtóy of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, by Professor Curtis C. Bushnell, of Syracuse University (read by Professor Kellogg, of Princeton University).
ws av ...,
These comparisons are variously introduced by some one of twenty-two different words or combinations of words, used singly like us
..., ώσαvel . . . etc., or correlatively like WOTEP ούτω etc. Special cases are comparison by repetition, as 4. 2, and by uâMlov ☆ ... following a question, as 6. 35. In 4. 15 the point of comparison is merely implied.
Words used metaphorically constitute a majority of the cases.
In all 277 comparisons were found which were classified according to subject. matter as:
Of Elemental Nature, 51 cases, 18% of all;
Of the cases assigned to Elemental Nature “calm weather” is three times used of serenity of spirit, “ extinguishing” nine times of the cessation of some activity or life itself, “ Aowing” ten times of change or of Deity as source, the "calm flow” four times of serene existence, the “fountain-head” seven times, especially of Deity as source, the “ river,” the “shifting sand,” the “ wave,” the “torrent,” each once of change, the "promontory” once of stability of soul.
Of the group belonging to Vegetable Life "fruit" is three times used to symbolize the acceptable, three times to symbolize production. “Leaves” as they form and fall are, with a reference to Homer, compared with the succession of generations. The operations of plant life are six times taken as symbolic of what is natural,“ reaping” twice of death, the severed branch once of him who cuts himself off from society (cf. “abiding in the vine,” ]n. 15. 4 ff.).
The illustrations from Animal Life are used especially of what is natural or of what is of small importance.
Of the illustrations which concern Human Life six only are religious, but these are especially striking, as: “A man committed to virtue is indeed a priest and minister of the gods” (cf. "priests unto God," Rev. 1. 6). “He who feels discontent at anything is like a sacrificial pig that kicks and squeals.” “Many grains of frankincense on the same altar. One drops sooner, another later; it makes no difference."
Eight cases are medical or pathological, seven physiological, ten athletic or gladiatorial. “The good man must head straight for the goal, casting not a glance
behind," "must run the short way” (cf.“running the race" of i Cor. 9. 24, 26; Heb. 12. 1); and the dywvloat of 6. 30 reminds us of 1 Tim. 6. 12 and 2 Tim. 4. 7.
Of the fifteen cases belonging to the spectacular group eight compare the nature controlled by its desires to a puppet controlled by strings. Life is four times compared to a play (cf. “All the world's a stage” and Cic. de Sen. 5, 64, 70, 85).
Twelve comparisons are military, and in seven of these the “good soldier" is symbolic of loyalty to right.
The weaver's art is ten times used in illustration, but only of the "web" of creation and circumstance, reminding us of the weaving of the Erdgeist in Faust.
The world is seven times compared to a “city.”
Thirty-three cases are of arrival, departure, or travel. Death is called “departure” twelve times, life a “journey” three times, death the “journey's end”
A course of action is twelve times called a "path.” Three comparisons concern the “
stranger.” Six are of child-life, always on its unattractive side. Three are of the “view from above," three of “ sleep and dreams,” seven of “
"imprisonment." The Geometrical group especially enforce the teaching of the insignificance of human things. Four cases are of the “angle,” four of the “point.”
Of exceptional beauty are: 4. 33. “I am in harmony with all that is a part of thy harmony, great Uni
For nie nothing is early and nothing late, that is in season for thee. All is fruit for me, which thy seasons bear, O Nature! from thee, in thee, and unto thee are all things. 'Dear City of Cecrops !' saith the poet: and wilt not thou say, 'Dear City of God'?”
4. 48. “ Serenely greet the journey's end, as an olive falls when it is ripe, blessing the branch that bare it and giving thanks to the tree that gave it life.”
4. 49. “Be like the headland, on which the billows dash themselves continu. ally; but it stands fast till about its base the boiling breakers are lulled to rest.”
“ In this river of existence how can one prize much any of the things that race by, on none of which one can take firm stand? It were like setting one's love on some sparrow that fits past and in an instant is out of sight."
“Say men kill you, quarter you, pursue you with execrations: what has that to do with your understanding remaining pure, lucid, temperate, just? It is as though a man stood beside some sweet, transparent fountain, abusing it, and it ceased not to well forth draughts of pure water; nay, though he cast in mud and filth, it will speedily disperse them and wash them forth and take no stain." (Rendall's translation.)
Very extended are 6. 20; 8. 34; 11. 8, 20.
Several comparisons follow in immediate succession in 2. 17; 4. 28, 29; 5.6; 7. 3; 9. 39; 12. 36 (cf. the Homeric multiplication of comparisons at supreme moments, as Il. 2. 455 ff.; 15. 603 ff.). Sometimes the comparisons are extended in the Homeric manner, as 4. I, 43.
The repetition of a word in making his point is a favorite device of our author, as 4. 3, 29; 9. 2.
His favorite subjects for illustration are change, the insignificance of human things, the absence of evil from nature, contentment, discontent, and the unnaturalness of the unsocial disposition.
17. On the Personality of Pausanias the Periegete, by Professor E. G. Sihler, of New York University (read by title).
Was Pausanias a mere transcriber? In 1877, Wilamowitz, with the iconoclastic itch of his earlier manhood so stated (Hermes XII). His asseverations were sweeping and made with a defiance which is often found associated with precocious cleverness. Each temperament has its own pathology. Dissentients, actual or potential, were assigned to the limbo of blockheads. More than cocksure was W., particularly of the section in Pausanias dealing with the Acropolis, a mere transcription from Polemon, the writer of an Atthis. That nothing on the Acropolis of which P. chose to take notice is later than Polemon, may or may not be so. Pausanias was under no contract with posterity to bring his data down to his own time. His chief exception was Hadrian, the munificent Philhellene and leader in the Renaissance movement which swept through a great part of the second century A.1)., and of which P. himself was a part, no less than, e.g., Pollux the lexicographer, or even Lucian, who poured real genius into his repristinations of literary forms. P., as Frazer properly points out, was dominated in the main by an antiquarian and religious interest. Lucian, Frazer urges (p. xxxiii), “ perhaps the most refined critic of art in antiquity mentions no artist of later date than the fourth century.” —— To proceed: Christ of Munich (in his Gr. Lit. G. 3d ed. p. 694, n. 3) cites Wilamowitz even now quite fully, is clearly more impressed with W. than with the sane and searching treatment of Frazer. But while we freely admit that every single pair of eyes, that every separate brain, have their limitations, an unprejudiced and accurate perusal of P. in his entirety does leave the impression that we have to do with a genuine traveller — and that Wilamowitz's inferences are imaginary.
Professor Christ has something to say for himself also: "wenn er aus der früheren Zeit auch vieles Unbedeutende und Mittelmässige erwähnt, aus der späteren Zeit aber selbst das kolossale Monument des Agrippa am Aufgange zur Acropolis in Athen mit Stillschweigen übergeht, so muss (sic) das mit den Schriftquellen unseres Autors zusammenhängen, die eben nur bis zu jener Grenzscheide ergiebig flossen.” We see Professor Christ advances the little auxiliary muss as that academic convenience which serves so handily when the scattered and fragmentary data of tradition afford us no sunlight, or at best but gloom or gray dusk, or some kind of chiaroscuro.
The narrow limits of this syllabus permit but a few additions of my own.
1. Is it thinkable that Pausanias should have resorted to books in describing the most familiar and frequented spot in the entire Hellenic world, — a spot infinitely more accessible than Delphi or Olympia, as it lay on the very highway of the great East and West movement of the Mediterranean world? Is it conceivable that P. should have proceeded like a young student in a philological seminar tempted by indolence? I think not.
2. The Herodotean manner of P. is by no means childish, in his age. Even in the Halicarnassian, the latter's Ionism was a concession to time and actual current forms of prose. In the Renaissance writer P. in his turn we have not merely Herodotean phrase and syntax too, but we have the free use of episode, we have aútoyla, and also the local sources of information : as in i. 41, 2 évtelldev ó Tŵr επιχωρίων ημίν εξηγητής ηγείτο. In i. 42, 4 he ignores the εξηγηται of Megara, the counterfeit presentiment of the present. The best-known fables may have been known only to the few, but the majority of spectators of the tragic contests were aware that the play was to deal with the ancestry of the race. With each returning spring the Athenian knew that at the Dionysiac festival he might again behold, in the full splendor and authority of the present, Agamemnon king of men, Priam bereft of so many goodly scns, Helen whose invincible beauty was the spring of desolation; yes the gods themselves, nut mere wraiths, but fashioned into living forms and speaking a language worthy of their high estate.
“The vision of the poet is immediate in proportion to its imaginative quality. Yet in this fictive world of tragedy, where imagination has freest scope, and in every other form of literature, these Greeks, who were possessed by the passion for innovation, restrict the impulse to originality. In motive, scene, and phraseology the Greeks are possessed by the passion for imitation; and their literature is unique in the coextension of spontaneity with a commemorative instinct' that links its various forms by a chain of associative reminiscence. ..."
Reminiscent phraseology is, at least, less the expression of an inevitable perpet uity of artistic perfection in each single detail than an illustration of that imitative character of Greek literature as a whole which is a result of the superlative advantage possessed by that literature — the priority of its masterpiece. For the best came first. It is the reverential regard for Homer that made language courtesy to its sovereign; it is again the sentiment of the past, rather than the intrinsic superiority of each particular phrase, that prompted recourse to the epic. 'Imagination was forever haunted by the types of humanity established in clear outline by Homer.' Homer was the captain and teacher of the charming tragic company' said Plato ; and Homer had the power of continually adjusting himself to the spirit of each successive age. It was through the influence of Homer that imitation became organic and literary reminiscence inherent in Greek literature,
The address is printed in full in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, vol. XVII (1906).
THURSDAY MORNING, December 28. The Association was called to order shortly after 9:30 A.M. and resumed the reading of papers.
9. The Terms cyma recta and cyma reversa, by Professor Allan Marquand, of Princeton University.
The Greek words kûua and KUMátlov, as architectural terms, were presumably selected because of the frequent wave-like form of such mouldings. Greek usage, however, soon disregarded the form and used these terms to designate any form of crowning moulding. The Latin cymatium and the Italian cimatio also signified a crowning moulding, regardless of its form.
The distinction between the regular and the reverse wave moulding was first made by Alberti, de Re Aedificatoria, (Lib. vii, Cap. vii) and was designated gola
diritta and gola reversa by his successors, Vignola, Palladio and Scamozzi. This terminology had some influence on the architectural literature of northern Europe, but a more national terminology has recently prevailed in France and Germany. In England the distinction first appears as cima recta and cima reversa in Leoni's translation of Palladio (1715) and as cyma recta and cyma reversa in Stuart and Revett's Antiquities of Athens (1762). Whether theoretically justifiable or not, the terms cyma recta and cyma reversa have been accepted by the best English and American authorities, and there seems to be no immediate prospect of their being replaced by more specifically English terms.
See also American Journal of Archaeology, vol. X, p. 85, and 282 ff.
10. Emendation on Caesar, Bellum Gallicum, vi, 30, 4, by Professor Walter Dennison, of the University of Michigan.
The disputed passage is, Sic et ad subeundum periculum et ad vitandum multum fortuna valuit. This is the reading of the a-class. In the manuscripts of the B-class we find in place of multum the unsatisfactory variant, tumultum. Multum in this specific statement is weak and arouses suspicion of its correctness. For this reason and in conformity with Caesarian usage the reading mortem is suggested.
This paper appears in Classical Philology, vol. I, p. 290 f. It was discussed by Professors Sihler, Sanders, Radford, Knapp, Cole, and the author in reply.
11. Ancient Sinope, by Dr. David M. Robinson, of the Johns Hopkins University.
This paper, part of a mɔnograph on Sinope, concerned itself with a description of Sinope and of its environs in the light of a visit there in June, 1903, with a brief résumé of its history, and with its cults.
The southern shore of the Black Sea is like a central mounting billow of the ocean with the hollow trough on each side. The billow and the two hollows, taken together, form the entire southern shore. The outline is symmetrical, so that the crest of this colossal land wave is the middle point of the whole seven hundred miles. The summit of the crest, however, is somewhat Aattened, and just at the eastern edge, before it begins to fall away, throws out in a northeasterly direction an altar-shaped promontory which is perhaps a score of miles wide across the top. The projecting easterly horn of this altar is itself a little lofty promontory, upon the low landward neck of which is built Sinope. The Sinopean promontory, called to-day Boz-tepé, is about six hundred feet in height, with precipitous sides and a broad level fertile table-land at the top. Its outline somewhat resembles that of a boar's head, with the highest point at the snout in the extreme east. It is two miles in length from the neck out, and one mile in width. The cretaceous deposits, lying as they do over the volcanic formation, seem to say that the whole promontory was at an early period below the level of