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constructions with misceo and permisceo and for putting it in the locative category. The following ambiguous example from Lucretius is probably also ablative : ii. 990, seminibus permixta. Cic. pro Planc. 92, fructus acerbitate permixti ; Virg. Aen. xi. 634 reads, permixti caede virorum equi. Hence I should regard Aen. X. 416, cerebro permixta cruento, as illustrating the ablative ; also probably Hor. Odes, i. 1. 23, lituo tubae permixtus sonitus. Sall. Iug. 60. 2, has, clamor permixtus hortatione ; hence in Cat. 22, sanguinem vino permixtum, vino is probably ablative. Val. Max. has the ablative in iv. 6. 2, spiritum luctus acerbitate permixtum. The dative occurs in i. 8. II.

Further instances of the ablative are: Lucan, i. 190, gemitu permixta ; ii. 152, permixta viva sepultis ; iii. 138, permiscent dies summa imis; iii. 577, permixtus sanguine pontus; iii. 658, permixtus viscere sanguis; also probably iv. 196, castris permixtus ; Sil. Ital. iii. 197, hiemem permixtam grandine ; Stat. Theb. viii. 712, permixtus sudore et sanguine ; ibid. x. 312, sanguine permixti latices; id. Silv. ii. 2. 32, permixti pulvere soles. So also probably, Theb. x. 113, vera falsis permixta, and

Silv. v. 3. 170, permixtus ignis aquis. Cum with the ablative also occurs, e.g. Cic. in Vatin. 13, tuas sordes cum splendore permisceas. The dative occurs in Livy, xxi. 14. I, permixtum senatui populi concilium.

remisceo : The following passages are all obviously ambiguous. The case may be dative : Horace, A.P. 151, veris falsa remiscet; Odes, iv. 15, 30, remixto carmine tibiis ; Sen. de Const. 7. 4, venenum remixturn cibo. The. dative is certain for Sen. Ep. 71. 16, animus naturae (natura P) suae remiscebitur.

4. VERBS OF SHARING AND PARTICIPATING.

These occur in Avestan construed with the instrumental (Hübschmann, Casuslehre, p. 255).

communico : Plaut. Mil. Glo. 51, communicabo te mensa mea ; cum with the ablative occurs in Sall. Cat. 56. 5, causam civium cum servis communicasse.

participo: Plaut. Mil. Glo. 261, quin sermone aliquem participaverit; Cic. de Leg. i. 33, sequitur ad participandum alium alio nos esse factos; Apuleius, Met. ix. 33, meum dominum prandio participat. By an extension of this usage we find the ablative with the adjective particeps in Sen. Herc. Fur. 369, particeps regno; cf. Velleius' use of mixtissimus with the ablative in ii. 98. 3, mores eius vigore et lenitate mixtissimos.

socio: As certain ples of the construction under discussion I should regard Virg. Aen. i. 598, quae nos urbe domo socias, 'that makest us partners in thy city and home'; Lucan, i. 314, Pompeium continuo sociabunt (vulgate, satiabunt] regno; Apuleius, Met. viii. 1, factionibus sociatus. Cicero repeatedly uses cum and the ablative in connection with sociare, e.g. de Or. iii. 131, qui vim rerum cognitionemque cum scientia sociaris. The following examples are less certain : Hor. Odes, iv. 9. 4, verba socianda chordis; Ovid, Met. xi. 5, sociantem carmina nervis ; Stat. Theb. iii. 282, me sociare marito. In Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar $ 429. 3, socius is recognized as taking the ablative. The authors cite Sall. Iug. 85. 47, socius periculis, and explain the ablative as locative. Were the reading correct we might recognize a sociative use. But all our Mss. except V give periculi, which seems to be the reading of editors since Dietsch. Lucan, vii. 716, socius cladibus, may, however, illustrate the ablative.

consocio : Pomponius Mela, ii. 7. 16, has consociare se pelago ; pelago here may be ablative, though it is usually taken as dative. In favor of recognizing the ablative in this passage is the frequent use of cum with the ablative in connection with consocio. No instance of the dative is attested.

5. VERBS OF ACCUSTOMING AND Being ACCUSTOMED. assuefacio: Cic. in Cat. ii. 9, assuefactus frigore et fame et siti et vigiliis perferendis. The idea is, made familiar with.' Further examples are: Cic. Brut. 213, puro sermone assuefacta domus ; id. de Or. iii. 39, sermone assuefacti ; Caesar, B.G. iv. 1. 9, nullo officio aut disciplina assuefacti; id. B.C. i. 44. 2, barbaro genere pugnae assuefacti ; Val. Max. viii. 7, Ext. 15, Persico sermone se adsuefecit. The dative also occurs, — first in Livy, then in Pliny, Frontinus, and Tacitus.

assuesco : Cic. de Or. iii. 58, labore assueti ; Virg. Aen. vii. 746, adsueta venatu ; Ovid, Met. xiii. 554, praedae assuetus amore; Livy, xxxi. 35. 3, genus pugnae quo assueverant; Sen. Contr. i. 2. 8, assuetus humano sanguine ; id. Contr. ii. 1, utroque assuevi ; Celsus, de Med. 1 praef. p. 12 (Dar.), uno cibo non prandio quoque assuetus; Col. de Arb. i. 4, ut vitis exiguo assuescat umore; Quint. Curt. vi. 3. 8, tot gentes alterius imperio ac nomine assuetas; Pliny, N.H. 23. 44, assuetas meri potu ; Lucan, v. 776, adsuescis fatis ; Stat. Theb. iv. 655, uvifera Rhodopen assueverat umbra; Florus, i. 1. 7, assuetus sanguine et praeda ; id. ii. 27. 17, barbaros signis et disciplina assueverat; Fronto, p. 206. 20 (N.), ne armatu quidem sustinendo assueti; Apuleius, Plato, 2. 20, assuetus voluptate. The dative is also frequent, beginning with Ovid. Hence many examples are ambiguous.

consuesco : Ter. Adelphoe, 666, qui illa consuevit prior; cf. Plaut. Cist. 86, tu cum quiquam viro consuevisti? Cic. in Verr. II. v. 30, quibuscum iste consueverat. The reading of the Adelphoe passage follows the Bembinus. Interpolated Mss. have cum illa, which is metrically impossible. Donatus knew a variant illam, which Dziatzko suggested might possibly be correct. Fleckeisen in his last edition reads qui cum ea, an unnecessary and, in my judgment, entirely unwarrantable tampering with the text; Columella, de Re Rust. viii. 15, quae (aves) consuevere libero victu; ibid. viii. 13. 1, (aves) magis humo quam stagno consueverunt; ibid. x. 153, sicco ut consuescat pulvere planta ; Livy, i. 40. 5, quibus ferramentis consueti erant; Stat. Theb. ii. 438, consueta luxu; also probably id. ix. 250, (ungula) consueta campo; id. Silv. v. 1. 235 consueta obsequiis. The only sure instance of the dative that I have found is Pliny, Epp. viii. 23. 8, dolori consuescere, where the ablative timore practically necessitated the dative construction for dolori.

insuesco : Col. de Re Rust. vi. 4, aqua pecus insuescere. The dative occurs in Tac. Ann. xi. 29. 11, quarum corpori insueverat.

suetus: I have found the following examples, given as datives in Harper's Dictionary: Virg. Aen. v. 414, his ego suetus ; Tac. Ann. xiv. 27. 7, neque coniugiis suscipiendis neque alendis liberis sueti ; id. Hist. v. 6. 15, suetas aquis volucres ; id. Ann. ii. 52. 3, latrociniis suetos; Lucan, i. 325, suetus civilibus armis. In all these the form is ambiguous, but in view of the construction with assuetus, consuetus, insuetus, it seems far more likely that the case used with suetus is likewise the ablative.

6. VERBS OF ATTENDING AND BEING ATTENDED. In Vedic sak- (Latin sequor, Greek étropai) takes the instrumental, though in classical Sanskrit this verb is transitive. The root hac- in Avestan also takes the instrumental (Hübschmann, Casuslehre, p. 255). In Greek, énomal with the dative is probably a relic of the instrumental usage.

In Latin we have : comitor : Cic. pro Caelio, 34, (mulier) alienis viris comitata; Cat. 63. 32, comitata tympano; Ovid, Met. ii. 441, suo comitata choro; ibid. ii. 845, virginibus Tyriis comitata; ibid. iii. 215, natis comitata duobus ; ibid. ix. 687, pompa comitata suorum ; ibid. x. 9, turba comitata ; id. Am. i. 6. 33, militibus venio comitatus et armis ; Tib. iii. 2. 13, comitata dolore; Pliny, N.H. xxi. 65, gladiolus comitatus hyacintho; Tac. Agr. 40. 19, uno aut altero amicorum comitatus ; id. Ann. xiv. 8. 17, trierarcho et centurione comitatus ; Curtius, vi. 5. 26, trecentis feminarum comitata ; Sen. Phaedra, 19, comitatae gregibus parvis ; Stat. Achill. ii. 309, lacrimis comitata suorum.

stipo : Cic. ad Att. i. 18. 1, stipati gregibus ; Prop. iii. 8. 13, custodum grege circa se stipat euntem ; Vell. Pat. ii. 58. 2, stipati gladiatorum manu ; Lucan, iv. 208, turba stipatus.

7. VERBS OF Piling,

accumulo : Lucr. iii. 71, caedem caede accumulantes. I think the meaning is ‘piling up murder with murder.'

cumulo : Lucr. vi. 1237, cumulabat funere funus ; Cic. de Off. i. 116, Africanus eloquentia cumulavit bellicam gloriam ; id. in Cat. i. 14, nonne alio incredibili scelere hoc scelus cumulasti? id. Sex. Rosc. 30, haec aliis cumulant; Tac. Agr. 40. I, triumphalia ornamenta multo verborum honore cumulata ; id. Ger. 27, 2, struem rogi nec vestibus nec odoribus cumulant.

stipo: Hor. Sat. ii. 3. 11, stipare Platona Menandro, “pack Plato with Menander.'

8. VERBS OF PLAYING.

These occur construed with the instrumental in Vedic (Delbrück, Altindische Syntax, p. 131), and in Slavic (Miklosich, Grammatik der slavischen Sprachen, IV. p. 701). In Latin we have :

ludo : Plaut. Mil. Glo. 324, ludis me :: quidum? :: quia ludo luto; Ter. Adelphoe, 739, quasi quom ludas tesseris ; Cat. 61. 128, satis diu lusisti nucibus ; Cic. Phil. ii. 56, alea ludere; id. de Fato, 34, pila luderem ; Hor. Odes, iii. 24. 56, trocho ludere ; Vitruv. de Arch. vii. 5. 6, pila ludentes; Suet. Aug. 71, 83, talis ludere.

9. VERBS OF CHANGING AND INTERCHANGING.

commuto : Cic. de Rep. i. 69, genera generibus commutantur novis; id. de Lege Agr. i. 14, possessionis invidiam pecunia commutent; Lucr. v. 1105, victum vitamque priorem commutare novis rebus; Caes. B.G. vi. 22. 3, ne studium belli gerendi agricultura commutent; Auct. ad Herenn. iv. 38, commutat (verbum) alio verbo; ibid. ii. 29, leve compendium fraude maxima commutarunt; Ov. Pont. iv. 14, 11, Styx commutabitur Istro ; Col., de Re Rust., xii. 26, mustum aere commutato.

The ablative with cum also occurs, e.g. Cic. Epp. iv. 5. 3, mortem cum vita commutare; id. pro Sest. 37, cum patriae caritate constantiae gloriam commutaret.

muto : Plaut. Capt. 28, si quem reperire posset qui mutet suom; so also 101; Lucilius, xxvi. 17 (M.), uno hoc non muto omnia ; ibid. 15, publicis mutem meos; Sal. Iug. 38. 10, mortis metu mutabantur ; id. Cat. 58. 15, pace bellum mutavit; id. Hist. Frag. i. 77. 7 (Maur.), diurna mercede vitam mutaverit; ibid. i. 87, paludamentum toga mutavit ; Virg. Ed. iv. 44, mutabit vellera luto; id. Georg. i. 8, glandem mutavit arista; ibid. ii. 511, exsilio domos mutant; Hor. Odes, i. 16. 25, mitibus mutare tristia ; ibid. i. 29. 14, Socraticam domum mutare loricis Hiberis; ibid. i. 34. 12, ima summis mutare ; id. Epodes, i. 27, Calabris Lucana mutet pascuis ; ibid. 9. 27, punico lugubre mutavit sagum; id. Sat. ii. 7. 109, uvam furtiva mutat strigili; id. Epp. i. 1. 100, mutat quadrata rotundis ; Ovid., Met. iv. 397, mutantur palmite ; ibid. xi. 741, ambo mutantur alite; id. Fast. iii. 461, periuro mutarat coniuge Bacchum; ibid. iv. 402, mutavit glandes utiliore cibo ; ibid. vi. 665, exsilio mutant urbem ; id. Pont. iii. 3. 97, mutatur nigra pice lacteus umor ; Livy, v. 30. 3, victrice patria victam mutari ; id. ix. 12. 2, victoriae possessionem incerta pace mutasse; Col. de Re Rust. viii. 5. 4, aere mutentur ; ibid. ix. 1. 7, aere mutandi sunt; Val. Max. iv. 8. 2, mutare paupertatem inopia ; id. vii. 4. I, mutavit metum fiducia ; id. v. 4. I, mutavit bellum pace; id. iv. 2. ad init. mutatum bellum pace; Vell. Pat. i. 4. 2, mutat Cumanos Osca vicinia ; Petron. 98, palliolo suo laceratam mutavit vestem; Lucan, x. 202, mutat diem nocte ; Sen. Thy. 298, mutare miserias regno; Sil. Ital. iii. 227, mutare iugum terris ; id. vii. 562, mutare solum sceptris; id. xiv. 214, mutare gemitus mugitibus ; ibid. 464, mutare casas marmore; Pliny, Epp. v. 17. 2, excelsa depressis, exilia plenis, severis iucunda mutabat; Tac. Ann. ii. 75. 12, luctum laeto

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