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implico : Plaut. Merc. 14, sed ea ut sim implicitus dicam. The Mss. here read eam. Götz and Schöll follow this, but Leo and Lindsay accept Lambinus's conjecture of ea. In view of the very great frequency of implico with the ablative, ea seems the much more probable reading here ; Varro, Sat. Men. p. 234 (Riese), imber grandine implicatus ; Cic. pro Quinctio, 3, rem controversiis implicatam; id. Verr. II. ii. 44, ipse tua defensione implicabere ; ibid. iii. 82, omnibus legibus implicatum; ibid. v. 150, implicatum severitate iudicum ; id. de Domo Sua, 105, religionibus implicuisses; id. de Har. Resp. 7, exspectatione supplici implicatus ; id. pro Cael. 71, eo maleficio implicati ; id. pro Balbo, 60, nostris familiaritatibus implicantur; id. in Pis. 70, familiaritate implicatus ; ibid. 86, criminibus implicata ; iil. pro Rab. Post. 19, his causis implicati ; id. pro Lig. 1. 3, nullo negotio implicari ; id. Phil. ii. 81, implicata inscientia impudentia; id. Phil. xii. 3, pacificatoria legatione implicatos; in Vatin. I. 3, inconstantia tua cum levitate tum etiam periurio implicata; id. Tusc. Disp. iv. 58, neglecta ratio multis implicatur erroribus; id. Tusc. Disp. v. 3, angoribus et molestiis implicatos ; id. de Nat. Deo. i. 51, occupationibus implicatus; ibid. i. 52, implicatus negotiis ; id. de Fin. ii. 45, se implicet civium societate; id. Ac. i. 11, officiis implicatum ; id. ii. 105, nulla re implicato ; id. de Div. i. 79, quam (vim di) hominum naturis implicant; id. de Off. i. 117, implicatur aliquo certo genere cursuque vivendi; ibid. ii. 40, negotiis implicantur ; Lael. 45, alienis (rebus) implicari ; id. Frag. F. v. 97, implicuerint hominum vitiis et erroribus. Cicero also uses cum with the ablative, e.g. de Imp. Cn. Pomp. 19, haec ratio implicata est cum illis pecuniis. He never uses the dative.' Hence all examples which might seem ambiguous have been classed as ablatives. The first appearance of the dative seems to be in Augustan poets, viz., in Virg. Aen. ii. 724, dextrae se parvus implicuit. Further instances of the ablative are : Caes. B.C. iii. 18. 1, graviore morbo implicitus; Nep. Dion, 1. I, utraque implicatus tyrannide; Virg. Cul. 200, implicuit formidine mentem ; Ov. Ars Am. i. 561, implicitam sinu; id. Her. 9. 94, implicitis angue comis; Vitruv. de Arch. ii. 8. 12, morbo implicare; ibid. iv. I. 9, nuptiis implicata; Val. Max. i. 7. 4, religione implicaret; id. ii. 7. 10, implicatis desperatione vitae ; id. iii. 6. 1, relatione implicer; id. v. 5. 3, labore implicatus ; id. vii. 4. 5, implicavit

1 Pascal, Dizionario dell' uso Ciceroniano, s.v. implico, recognizes the dative for Cicero, but without reason, it seems to me. I have discovered no certain instance of the dative, nor does Pascal cite any.

exercitum suum ignorantia ; Lucan, iii. 432, terrore implicitus ; Celsus, Medic. iii. 21, eo morbo implicitum ; Val. Flacc. Arg. v. 451, implicat igne domus; Sil. Ital. Pun. ix. 629, implicitum nexu ; ibid. xv. 618, implicat errore vias ; Tac. Hist. iii. 77. 9, pari formidine implicabuntur ; Ann. xi. 8. 13, implicatur obsidione ; id. Ger. 45. 21, implicata umore; Pliny, Epp. vii. 19. 2, hoc discrimine implicata est. The regularity of the ablative and extreme rarity of the dative make it practically certain that the following examples also are in the ablative : Virg. Aen. xi. 108, vos fortuna implicuit bello; Hor. A.P. 424, litibus implicitum ; Livy, iii. 2. I, morbo implicitum ; so vii. 23. 2 ; xxiii. 40. 1 ; Lucr. vi. 1232 ; Val. Max. i. 7. 1 ; id. i. 8. Ext. 16, implicabatur febri; id. iii. 1. Ext. 1, implicati finitimo bello; id. ix. 1. Ext. 2, implicarunt urbem cladibus (in Val. Max. ix. 9. ad init. we have apparently a clear case of the dative, implicat se culpae) ; Val. Flacc. Arg. V. 254, spiris nemus implicat; id. iii. 31, erroribus implicet urbem; id. iii. 389, sontes poenis implicat; id. viii. 19, sinus venenis implicat; Tac. Ann. xii. 4. 3, consiliis implicari; ibid. iv. 53. 1, morbo implicata.

intorqueo : Cic. pro Caec. 77, verbo ac littera ius intorqueri ; Sil. Ital. Pun. v. 535, intorquens nubem nigranti turbine. So also probably Hor. Odes, ii. 13. 35, intorti capillis Eumenidum.

involvo : Cic. Phil. vii. 19, pacis nomine bellum involutum ; Val. Max. vii. 3. Ext. 10, involutum benevolentiae simulatione mendacium; Tac. Ann. i. 70. 15, cuncta pari violentia involvebantur. No case of the dative is attested. Hence I should regard as probably ablative the following: Varro, Sat. Men. p. 217, 6 (Riese), adest faxs involuta incendio ; Lucr. vi. 443, ut involvat venti se nubibus vortex; Cic. Ac. Post. i. 15, rebus ipsa natura involuta; Val. Max. i. 7. 5, involvendum silentio; Pliny, Epp. i. 5. 7, me laqueis involveram ; Tac. Ann. xiv. 30. 9, igni suo involvit; ibid. xvi. 32. 14, fraudibus involutos.

irretio : Cic. Tusc. Disp. ii. 20, me irretivit veste, Cicero's own poetic translation of Soph. Trach. 1046 ff. ; id. pro Mil. 54, cum paenula irretitus esset ; id. ad Quir. 11, provinciarum foedere irretiti (Mss. irritati, irinati). No instance of the dative is attested. Hence I should regard as ablatives the following examples also : Cic. Tusc. Disp. v. 62, irretierat erratis ; id. de Har. Resp. 7, irretitus odio bonorum omnium.

obligo: Cic. de Domo Sua, 20, populum Romanum scelere obligasses; ibid. 124, bona Lentuli religione obligavit ; ibid. 106, huius domum religione sempiterna obligare; id. pro Murena, 3, se nexu obligavit; id. de Har. Resp. 27, castissimos ludos omni scelere obligares; id. de Div. i. 7, ne impia fraude aut anili superstitione obligemur ; Hor. Odles, ii. 8. 5, obligasti perfidum votis caput; Ovid, Am. iii. 12. 42, obligat verba fide ('ties not its words to the accuracy of history') ; Suet. Iul. 42, cum se scelere obligarent.

obstringo : Cic. in Verr. II. i. 8, se tot sceleribus obstrinxerit ; id. iv. 71, tanto scelere se obstrictum esse sentiat; id. v. 179, tanto scelere se obstrinxerunt; id. pro Sulla, 6, obstrictum patriae parricidio; id. pro Cael. 47, obstrictus voluptatibus ; id. in Pis. 95, pari scelere obstrictos ; id. Phil. xi. 14, se obstrinxerit parricidiis ; ibid. 29, se patriae parricidio obstrinxerit; id. de Off. iii. 83, se eo (parricidio) obstrinxerit; id. Epp. xi. 10. 5, amicos aere alieno obstrinxerim ; Caesar, B.C. ii. 32. 4, vos scelere obstringere ; Livy, iv. 17. 5, obstringi conscientia tanti sceleris ; id. xxvi. 48. 12, se periurio obstringere ; Tac. Hist. iv. 55. 12, aliquem conscientia obstrinxere ; Ann. xiv. 57. 4, aliquem societate scelerum obstringere ; Suet. Iul. 27, faenore obstrictis.

The following examples of constructions with verbs of entangling and involving are less certain :

illaqueo : Cic. de Har. Resp: 7, illaqueatus periculis. This expression occurs combined with the phrase irretitus odio, where odio is probably ablative; see above under irretio.

teneo : Possibly the following passage belongs under the construction we are considering : Plaut. Pseud. 1110, nisi ut improbis artibus teneant, 'hold to bad ways,''involve themselves in bad ways.'

3. VERBS OF Mixing. These occur combined with the instrumental in Avestan (Hübschmann, Casuslehre, p. 255) and Slavic (Miklosich, Grammatik der slavischen Sprachen, IV. p. 701). In Greek and Gothic we have the dative, which in both those languages has probably inherited instrumental functions. In Latin we have:

admisceo : Lucr. iv. 1247, admiscetur muliebri semine semen; Varro, de Re Rust. i. 9. 3, terra admixta aliqua re; Cic. de Nat. Deo. ii. 27, aer multo calore admixtus ; ibid. ii. 39, neque sidera ulla praeterea sunt admixta natura ; Caes. B.C. iii. 48, genus radicis admixtum lacte?; Pliny, N.H. xxx. 141, lutea admixta pondere. The dative occurs with some frequency from Cicero on; see e.g. de Nat. Deo. ii. 26. We also find cum with the ablative in Cato, de Agr. 115, 2, vites ne admisceas cum cetero vino, and a few times in later writers ; see Thes. Ling. Lat. s.v. p. 746, 12 ff. Yet several of the examples cited by the Thesaurus as ablatives are quite as likely to be datives.

commisceo : Enn. Trag. Frag. 196 (Vahleno), commixta stellis splendidis ; Lucr. iv. 1257, semina seminibus commisceri; id. v. 502, liquidum corpus turbantibus aeris auris commiscet; id. vi. 322, commixta (vis venti) calore; id. vi. 1159, gemitu commixta querella; Virg. Aen. iii. 633, frusta cruento commixta mero; ibid. vi. 762, commixtus sanguine ; ibid. viii. 255, commixtis igne tenebris ; id. Georg. ii. 327, magno commixtus corpore; Hor. Sat. i. 10. 24, Chio nota si commixta Falerni est ; Scrib. Larg. Comp. 32, (croci) aqua pluviali commiscentur ; Vitruv. de Arch. ii. 4. 3, calx palea commixta ; ibid. vii. 1. 2, commisceantur quercu ; Suet. Iul. 81, libellum libellis ceteris commiscent; id. Vit. 2, salivis melle commixtis ; id. Dom. 17, reliquias Phyllidis cineribus Iuliae commixtas; commisceo is construed also with cum and the ablative in Lucr. (e.g. vi. 276, ventus cum eo commiscuit igni), Cato, and Cicero. The dative apparently does not occur.

misceo : Acc. Trag. 83 (Ribbeck), sanguine sanguen miscere suo ; Pac. Trag. 414 (R.), grando mixta imbri largifico; Varro, Sat. Men. p. 151 (Riese), atque Aeneae misceri sanguine sanguen ; ibid. p. 201 (R.), frigus calore atque umore aritudinem miscet; Lucr. ii. 576, miscetur funere vagor ; id. ii. 579, mixtos vagitibus aegris ploratus ; id. iii. 233, mixta vapore ; id. iii. 842, terra mari miscebitur et mare caelo; id. vi. 159, grandine mixti; id. vi. 371, frigore mixtus ; id. vi. 941, mixtum corpus inani; id. vi. 1072, latices aquai fontibus misceri. Lucretius also uses the dative, e.g. iii. 234, nec calor quisquam cui mixtus non siet aer. But this is the only instance. Hence ambiguous forms in the above citations have with some confidence been classed as ablatives.? Cicero, pro Scauro, 13, crudelitate mixtas libidines; id. Tim. 44, voluptate et molestia mixtum amorem ; id. de off. ii. 48, mixta modestia gravitas ; id. Rep. ii. 1, gravitate mixtus lepos ; id. de Nat. Deo. i. 75, candore mixtus rubor ; Cat. 64, 95, curis qui gaudia misces; id. 68. 18, curis miscet amaritiem; Sall. lug. 57, 5, picem sulpure et taeda mixtam ; Auct. Bell. Alex. 56, 2, mixtam dolore voluptatem ; Hor. Sat. ii. 4. 24, miscebat mella Falerno; ibid. ii. 4. 55, Surrentina miscet faece Falerna vina ; Col. de Re Rust. vi. 4, sale miscent pabula ; Phaed. i. 14. 8, antidoto miscere toxicum ; Ov. Am. i. 9. 16, mixtas imbre nives; id. Ars Am. ii. 417, piper urticae semine miscent; id. Her. 6. 76, ira mixtus amor; ibid. 16. 200, nectare miscet aquas ; id. Met. iv. 504, sanguine mixta recenti; ibid. xi. 595, nebulae caligine mixtae ; ibid. ix. 130, mixtus tabe sanguis ; id. Fas. iv. 626, ventus grandine mixtus ; ibid. v. 380, flavi corpore mixtus equi; ibid. v. 405, sanguine Centauri Lernaeae sanguis Echidnae mixtus ; ibid. vi. 566, mixtis sanguine aquis ; id. Trist. iv. 3. 12, spes mixta metu (Ovid also uses cum with the ablative, e.g. Met. xii. 256, mixtos cum sanguine dentes; also sometimes the dative. An example of the latter is Met. iv. 140, fletum cruori miscuit. Hence many examples are ambiguous, c.8. Trist. iii. 10. 28; Ars Am. i. 663; Pont. ii. 10. 26). Virgil, Aen. vi. 727, mens miscet se corpore; ibid. xii. 68, mixta rubent lilia rosa ; ibid. 838, Ausonio mixtum sanguine; Cir. 76, misceret sanguine pontum. Virgil uses the dative in Aen. viii. 431, metum miscebant operi. Hence the case in Aen. vii. 661 and Georg. iii. 516, may be dative. Further instances of the ablative are: Val. Max. i. 6. 5, aquas sanguine mixtas ; Vell. Pat. ii. 98, 3, mores eius vigore et lenitate mixtissimos ; Vitruv. de Arch, vii. 14. I, vaccinium lacte miscentes; Lucan, iv. 679, mixti Garamante Marmaridae ; id. x. 32, miscuit sanguine amnes; Quint. ii. 8. 11, alterum alterius natura miscendum ; Mart. i. 87. 5, mixtum diapasmate virus. Tacitus shows the dative in Hist. v. i. 7 and elsewhere ; cum with the ablative is found in Ann. xvi. 34. 10. Numerous examples in Tacitus are ambiguous, but no certain instance of the ablative appears. Juvenal, i. 69, quae Calenum miscet rubeta; Stat. Theb. i. 208, mixta maiestate ; ibid. v. 197, mixtus caligine ; ibid. vi. 197, Aletu verba miscens; ibid. viii. 609, miscent sermone querelas.

1 The Mss, and editors are divided here between lacte and lacti. Du Pontet, Kübler, and Meusel read lacte; the Thesaurus reads lacti (s.v. admisceo).

2 This accords also with the opinion of Hidén, de Casuum Synt. Lucr. ii. p. 89, and of Landgraf, Beiträge, p. 22.

The dative, though not frequent till the Augustan poets, is found as early as Enn. Epich. 2 (V.2), frigori miscet calorem umori aritudinem.

permisceo : Lucr. iii. 351, animam permixtam corpore toto. Hidén, de Casuum Synt. Lucr. II, p. 88, takes corpore here as a locative ablative; Ebrard, de Abl. Loc. Instr., p. 626, as sociative. I can see no ground whatever for dissociating it from the similar

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