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copulo : Lucr. vi. 1078, denique non auro res aurum copulat una. Landgraf, Beiträge z. hist. Synt. d. lat. Spr., p. 19, suggests that auro here may be ablative. Ebrard, from his silence, though his lists are very incomplete, may be thought to regard it as dative. Cicero repeatedly uses the ablative with cum; the dative only once, viz. de Div. ii. 143, naturae copulatum. The dative is found also in Livy, xxi. 28. 8.

necto: Lucr. v. 1202, votis nectere vota ; Prop. iii. 5. 12, armis nectimus arma nova ; Virg. Aen. iv. 239, pedibus talaria nectit. Cic. uses the dative in de Div. i. 125, causae causa nexa. Landgraf, Beiträge, p. 20, suggests that in the Lucretius passage the case may be ablative.

revincio: Lucr. v. 553, partibus aeriis caeloque revincta ; cf. v. 537, (naturam) coniunctam atque aptam partibus aeriis mundi; see below under aptus.

coeo : Hor. A.P. 12, placidis coeant immitia.

constringo: In Cic. Ac. Post. i. 11, (me) multis officiis implicatum et constrictum, officiis is quite as much dependent upon constrictum as upon implicatum. With the latter word, as will be shown later, the only construction in Cicero (barring prepositional phrases) is the ablative; officiis is therefore here in the ablative case. Hence it is possible that the following also belongs under the sociative head, Hor. Sat. i. 6. 23, fulgente trahit constrictos Gloria curru, “bound to (or tied up with her car.'

aptus : In Plaut. Trin. 658 the Ambrosianus reads otio aptus ; the P Mss. have captus. Of recent editors, Götz-Schöll, Lindsay, and Morris read aptus; Leo, captus. The reading captus is also preferred by the Thes. Ling. Lat. s.v. aptus; aptus seems to me the more likely reading here. Nonius defines aptum as conexum et colligatum; so Festus, p. 18, defines by comprehendere vinculo; Isidore, xix. 30. 5, by ligare. I therefore interpret otio aptus as meaning ' entangled with (or in) indolence.'

In Lucr. v. 537 we read (naturam) coniunctam atque aptam partibus aeriis mundi ; here also the probability seems to me strong that we have the ablative. Cic. de Leg. i. 56, ex natura vivere, id est vita modica et apta virtute perfrui, is doubtful. Does apta virtute mean linked with virtue,' 'combined with virtue '? I believe it does. Merguet in his lexicon to the philosophical works of Cicero seems so to take it. Zumpt and Baiter conjecture e virtute.

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2. VERBS OF EntANGLING AND INVOLVING, alligo : Cic. pro Flacco, 41, ne se scelere alliget; pro Rab. Post. 14, ne qua nova quaestione alligaretur.

astringo : Cic. pro Sest. 108, scelere astringi ; id. de Off. iii. 19, num se astrinxit scelere? id. pro Sulla, 82, tanto scelere astrictis hominibus ; id. Phil. iv. 9, magno scelere se astringeret; Sall. Iug. 60. 6, studio suorum astrictis ; ibid. 70. 2, maioribus (rebus) astricto; Val. Max. iv. 7. 4, vitam suam consilii crimine astrinxit; Fronto, 227, 11, N., cottidiano te mendacio astringi.

devincio : Ter. Haut. 208, ubi animus semel se cupiditate devinxerit mala ; Cic. de Domo Sua, 131, si templum religione Concordiae devinxisset (“should connect the temple with the worship of the goddess Concord '); id. de Har. Resp. 5, quo scelere se devinxerit; pro Cael. 52, eodem se scelere devinxit.

illigo : Cic. Tusc. Disp. ii. 20, ipse illigatus peste interimor textili, Cicero's own poetical translation of Soph. Trach. 1046 ff. ; Hor. Odes, i. 27. 23, illigatum Chimaera; Val. Max. vi. 8. 4, dextram torpore illigavit ; Tac. Ann. iii. 21. 16, illigatus praeda ; xv. 51. 6, conscientia illigare. The dative is nowhere authenticated, and cum occurs in Pliny, N.H. xxviii. 14. 58. 203. Hence I should also regard as ablatives the following: Cic. Ac. ii. 6, sermonibus illigari ; id. de Domo Sua, 40, Caesaris actis illigatus teneretur; Hor. Epodes, i. 25, iuvencis illigata aratra ; Livy, xxxii. 21. 11, illigari bello; Val. Max. ix. 13. 4, duarum matrimonio illigatus; Tac. Hist. iii. 46. 17, bello illigari ; id. Ann. ii. 27. 11, quo pluribus indiciis illigaret (sc. Libonem); ibid. vi. 32. 7, veneno illigaret; ibid. xii. 25. 3, stupro illigatus; ibid. xiii. 40. 2, locis se illigaret ; ibid. xv. i. .

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bellis illigatus ; Min. Fel. Oct. 16. 5, facultatibus illigatos.

impedio: Plaut. Amph. p. 53 of Götz and Schöll, Frag. x, qui domi uxorem meam impudicitia impedivit ('has involved her in shame'); Ter. Phorm. 442, me et se hisce nuptiis impedivit.

implecto : Tac. Ann. xvi. 10. 13, vidua implexa continuo luctu ; Min. Fel. Oct. 20. 3, Centauros equos suis hominibus implexos. In view of the great frequency of the ablative with implicitus and implicatus (see the next rubric), it seems likely that the following examples also belong here: Virg. Georg. iv. 482, implexae crinibus angues Eumenides ; Apul. de Mag. p. 457 (Hild.), hirudines dentibus (crocodili) implectuntur.

implico : Plaut. Merc. 14, sed ea ut sim implicitus dicam. The Mss. here read eam. Götz and Schöll follow this, but Leo and Lindsay accept Lambinus's conjecture of ea. In view of the very great frequency of implico with the ablative, ea seems the much more probable reading here ; Varro, Sat. Men. p. 234 (Riese), imber grandine implicatus; Cic. pro Quinctio, 3, rem controversiis implicatam; id. Verr. II. ii. 44, ipse tua defensione implicabere ; ibid. iii. 82, omnibus legibus implicatum ; ibid. v. 150, implicatum severitate iudicum; id. de Domo Sua, 105, religionibus implicuisses; id. de Har. Resp. 7, exspectatione supplici implicatus ; id. pro Cael. 71, eo maleficio implicati ; id. pro Balbo, 60, nostris familiaritatibus implicantur; id. in Pis. 70, familiaritate implicatus ; ibid. 86, criminibus implicata; id. pro Rab. Post. 19, his causis implicati ; id. pro Lig. 1. 3, nullo negotio implicari; id. Phil. ii. 81, implicata inscientia impudentia; id. Phil. xii. 3, pacificatoria legatione implicatos; in Vatin. I. 3, inconstantia tua cum levitate tum etiam periurio implicata ; id. Tusc. Disp. iv. 58, neglecta ratio multis implicatur erroribus ; id. Tusc. Disp. v. 3, angoribus et molestiis implicatos ; id. de Nat. Deo. i. 51, occupationibus implicatus; ibid. i. 52, implicatus negotiis ; id. de Fin. ii. 45, se implicet civium societate ; id. Ac. i. 11, officiis implicatum ; id. ii. 105, nulla re implicato ; id. de Div. i. 79, quam (vim

; di) hominum naturis implicant; id. de Of. i. 117, implicatur aliquo certo genere cursuque vivendi; ibid. ii. 40, negotiis implicantur ; Lael. 45, alienis (rebus) implicari ; id. Frag. F. v. 97, implicuerint hominum vitiis et erroribus. Cicero also uses cum with the ablative, e.g. de Imp. Cn. Pomp. 19, haec ratio implicata est cum illis pecuniis. He never uses the dative. Hence all examples which might seem ambiguous have been classed as ablatives. The first appearance of the dative seems to be in Augustan poets, viz., in Virg. Aen. ii. 724, dextrae se parvus implicuit. Further instances of the ablative are : Caes. B.C. iii. 18. 1, graviore morbo implicitus; Nep. Dion, 1. 1, utraque implicatus tyrannide; Virg. Cul. 200, implicuit formidine mentem ; Ov. Ars Am. i. 561, implicitam sinu; id. Her. 9. 94, implicitis angue comis; Vitruv. de Arch. ii. 8. 12, morbo implicare ; ibid. iv. 1. 9, nuptiis implicata; Val. Max. i. 7. 4, religione implicaret; id. ii. 7. 10, implicatis desperatione vitae ; id. iii. 6. I, relatione implicer; id. v. 5. 3, labore implicatus; id. vii. 4. 5, implicavit

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Pascal, Dizionario dell' uso Ciceroniano, s.v. implico, recognizes the dative for Cicero, but without reason, it seems to me. I have discovered no certain instance of the dative, nor does Pascal cite any.

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exercitum suum ignorantia ; Lucan, iii. 432, terrore implicitus; Celsus, Medic. iii. 21, eo morbo implicitum ; Val. Flacc. Arg. v. 451, implicat igne domus; Sil. Ital. Pun. ix. 629, implicitum nexu ; ibid. xv. 618, implicat errore vias ; Tac. Hist. iii. 77. 9, pari formidine implicabuntur; Ann. xi. 8. 13, implicatur obsidione; id. Ger. 45. 21, implicata umore; Pliny, Epp. vii. 19. 2, hoc discrimine implicata est. The regularity of the ablative and extreme rarity of the dative make it practically certain that the following examples also are in the ablative : Virg. Aen. xi. 108, vos fortuna implicuit bello; Hor. A.P. 424, litibus implicitum ; Livy, iii. 2. I, morbo implicitum ; so vii. 23. 2 ; xxiii. 40. I ; Lucr. vi. 1232 ; Val. Max. i. 7. 1; id. i. 8. Ext. 16, implicabatur febri; id. iii. 1. Ext. 1, implicati finitimo bello; id. ix. 1. Ext. 2, implicarunt urbem cladibus (in Val. Max. ix. 9. ad init. we have apparently a clear case of the dative, implicat se culpae); Val. Flacc. Arg. v. 254, spiris nemus implicat; id. iii. 31, erroribus implicet urbem ; id. iii. 389, sontes poenis implicat; id. viii. 19, sinus venenis implicat; Tac. Ann. xii. 4. 3, consiliis implicari; ibid. iv. 53. I, morbo implicata.

intorqueo : Cic. pro Caec. 77, verbo ac littera ius intorqueri ; Sil. Ital. Pun. v. 535, intorquens nubem nigranti turbine. So also probably Hor. Odes, ii. 13. 35, intorti capillis Eumenidum.

involvo : Cic. Phil. vii. 19, pacis nomine bellum involutum ; Val. Max. vii. 3. Ext. 1o, involutum benevolentiae simulatione mendacium ; Tac. Ann. i. 70. 15, cuncta pari violentia involvebantur.

No case of the dative is attested. Hence I should regard as probably ablative the following: Varro, Sat. Men. p. 217, 6 (Riese), adest faxs involuta incendio; Lucr. vi. 443, ut involvat venti se nubibus vortex; Cic. Ac. Post. i. 15, rebus ipsa natura involuta; Val. Max. i. 7. 5, involvendum silentio ; Pliny, Epp. i. 5. 7, me laqueis involveram ; Tac. Ann. xiv. 30. 9, igni suo involvit ; ibid. xvi. 32. 14, fraudibus involutos.

irretio : Cic. Tusc. Disp. ii. 20, me irretivit veste, Cicero's own poetic translation of Soph. Trach. 1046 ff. ; id. pro Mil. 54, cum paenula irretitus esset; id. ad Quir. 11, provinciarum foedere irretiti (Mss. irritati, irinati). No instance of the dative is attested. Hence I should regard as ablatives the following examples also : Cic. Tusc. Disp. v. 62, irretierat erratis ; id. de Har. Resp. 7, irretitus odio bonorum omnium.

obligo : Cic. de Domo Sua, 20, populum Romanum scelere obligasses; ibid. 124, bona Lentuli religione obligavit ; ibid. 106, huius

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domum religione sempiterna obligare; id. pro Murena, 3, se nexu obligavit; id. de Har. Resp. 27, castissimos ludos omni scelere obligares; id. de Div. i. 7, ne impia fraude aut anili superstitione obligemur ; Hor. Oiles, ii. 8. 5, obligasti perfidum votis caput; Ovid, Am. iii. 12. 42, obligat verba fide ('ties not its words to the accuracy of history') ; Suet. Iul. 42, cum se scelere obligarent.

obstringo : Cic. in Verr. II. i. 8, se tot sceleribus obstrinxerit; id. iv. 71, tanto scelere se obstrictum esse sentiat; id. v. 179, tanto scelere se obstrinxerunt; id. pro Sulla, 6, obstrictum patriae parricidio; id. pro Cael. 47, obstrictus voluptatibus ; id. in Pis. 95, pari scelere obstrictos; id. Phil. xi. 14, se obstrinxerit parricidiis; ibid. 29, se patriae parricidio obstrinxerit; id. de Off. iii. 83, se eo (parricidio) obstrinxerit; id. Epp. xi. 10. 5, amicos aere alieno obstrinxerim ; Caesar, B.C. ii. 32. 4, vos scelere obstringere ; Livy, iv. 17. 5, obstringi conscientia tanti sceleris ; id. xxvi. 48. 12, se periurio obstringere; Tac. Hist. iv. 55. 12, aliquem conscientia obstrinxere ; Ann. xiv. 57. 4, aliquem societate scelerum obstringere ; Suet. Iul. 27, faenore obstrictis.

The following examples of constructions with verbs of entangling and involving are less certain :

illaqueo : Cic. de Har. Resp: 7, illaqueatus periculis. This expression occurs combined with the phrase irretitus odio, where odio is probably ablative; see above under irretio.

teneo : Possibly the following passage belongs under the construction we are considering : Plaut. Pseud. 1110, nisi ut improbis artibus teneant, 'hold to bad ways,''involve themselves in bad ways.'

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3. VERBS OF MIXING. These occur combined with the instrumental in Avestan (Hübschmann, Casuslehre, p. 255) and Slavic (Miklosich, Grammatik der slavischen Sprachen, IV. p. 701). In Greek and Gothic we have the dative, which in both those languages has probably inherited instrumental functions. In Latin we have :

admisceo : Lucr. iv. 1247, admiscetur muliebri semine semen ; Varro, de Re Rust. i. 9. 3, terra admixta aliqua re; Cic. de Nat. Deo. ii. 27, aer multo calore admixtus ; ibid. ii. 39, neque sidera ulla praeterea sunt admixta natura; Caes. B.C. iii. 48, genus radicis

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