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IV. - The Ablative of Association.
BY PROF. CHARLES E. BENNETT,
PRACTICALLY all recent investigators in the field of IndoEuropean case syntax agree in attributing to the Indo-European instrumental a sociative force, and in regarding the idea of means, which is so frequent a use of this case in most Indo-European languages, as developed from the idea of association. Those who reject these conclusions differ not in attributing another primitive ‘Grundbegriff' to the IndoEuropean instrumental, but rather in refusing to attach to it any 'Grundbegriff' whatever.
The object of this paper cannot be to discuss the relative merits of these two views. Any such consideration, involving, as it does, fundamental principles of method in syntactical investigation, would, of necessity, take us far beyond the field of our present topic. I must therefore content myself with stating that my own conviction is at present firm that we are justified in attaching Grundbegriffe' to the chief inflectional forms of Indo-European, and that I am further in agreement with those who regard the Indo-European instrumental as having primarily a sociative force. My present purpose is to show that the range and frequency of the primitive sociative functions of the instrumental are much more extensive in Latin than is at present recognized. According to my observations it appears with verbs of joining, entangling, mixing, sharing, being attended, keeping company with, being accustomed, wedding, mating, piling, playing, changing and interchanging, agreeing, wrestling; also with adjectives of equality. Several, in fact most, of these categories, as will be indicated
1 This investigation has had regard to the literature down to the time of Apuleius. While the lists of examples are quite full, it is not claimed that they are absolutely complete for all authors.
more fully later, unquestionably go back to the 'Ursprache.' I take the different categories up in order :
1. VERBS OF Joining AND Being Joined. These appear construed with the instrumental in Vedic (see Delbrück, Altindische Syntax, p. 131) and in Avestan (Hübschmann, Casuslehre, p. 255). The material in Latin is as follows:
iungo : Leg. xii Tab., tignum iunctum aedibus vineave e concapi ne solvito; Cic. de Or. i. 243, dicendi vis egregia summa festivitate et venustate coniuncta; ibid. ii. 237, improbitas scelere iuncta; ibid. iii. 55, quae vis est probitate iungenda summaque prudentia ; id. Brut. 162, defensione iuncta laudatio; id. ad Att. ix. 10. 4, bellum iunctum miserrima fuga ; Vell. Pat. ii. 65. 3, consularem praetextam iungentem praetoria. In Cicero, Tusc. Disp. v. 96, the Mss. read exspectatio speratarum voluptatum perceptarum memoria iungeretur. Madvig inserted cum before perceptarum, and most — possibly all — subsequent editors have followed him. The change seems to be unnecessary. Ebrard, de Ablativi Locativi Instrumentali etc. Usu, p. 618, cites Lex. Iul. Munic., plostra bubus iumentisve iuncta, as an instance of this ablative, but bubus here may be dative. The dative is authenticated for Lucretius i. 713, iungentes terram liquori. The ablative with cum is also an alternative construction found as early as Lucretius, e.g. v. 438; vi. 1075.
coniungo: Lucr. ii. 743, nullo coniuncta colore; Cic. pro Cluentio, 12, libido non solum dedecore verum etiam scelere coniuncta ; id. pro Sest. 132, civis coniunxit eodem periculo et crimine ; id. Phil. ii. 35, summa miseria est summo dedecore coniuncta; ps.-Virg. Ciris, 40, coniunctum carmine nomen ; Virg. Aen. X. 653, ratis coniuncta crepidine saxi; Vitruv. de Arch. x. 20. 2, tignum quo capreoli coniungantur. Besides the simple ablative, we find also the ablative with cum, e.g. Lucr. iii. 159; iv. 493. The dative also occurs, e.g. Cic. de Of. ii. 34, intellegentiae iustitia coniuncta. Hence numerous examples are ambiguous. Doubtless some of them are ablatives.
confundo : Cic. de Div. i. 118, quae (vis sentiens) est toto confusa mundo; ibid. ii. 35, quae (vis divina) toto confusa mundo sit ; Col. de Re Rustica, x. 260, ingenuo confusa rubore rosa. The construction with cum appears as early as Cicero, e.g. Timaeus, 49, cum ignis oculorum cum eo igni se confudit. The dative occurs in Ovid, de Med. Fac. 61, cornua pulvereae confusa farinae, and elsewhere. Hence passages like Horace, Sat. ii. 4. 67, Ep. ii. 1. 195, and others are ambiguous.
contineo : Lex. Iul. Munic. 53, semitam eo aedificio perpetuo continentem. I should also bring under this head Cic. pro Marcelio, 22, tua salute contineri, “is bound up with your safety.' But Cic. pro Caecina, 11, huic fundo continentia praedia, shows the dative, and assures the character of pro Caec. 15, fundo antiquo continens, and of in Pis. 11, continentis his funeribus dies.
haereo : Virg. Aen. x. 361, haeret pede pes; Hor. Sat. ii. 3. 205, haerentes litore ; Ovid, Met. vi. 236, haeret cervice summa sagitta; 290, haerentia viscere tela ; ibid. ix. 351, haerent radice pedes ; ibid. xii. 184, haereat pectore res ; Lucan, i. 507, limine haesit; id. vi. 210, haerentis cute hastas ; 567, haerentem gutture ; Sen. Thy. 548, haerere fratris aspectu ; id. Phaedra, 1101, haesere biiuges vulnere; id. Oct. 744, haerens amplexu mariti. But the dative also occurs, e.g. in Virg. Aen. iv. 73, haeret lateri letalis harundo; so often in poetry.
cohaereo : Ovid, Am. i. 4. 43, nec crure cohaere. The construction with cum also occurs as early as Cic. Top. 53, id cohaeret cum re; also the dative, e.g. Quint. iv. 2. 89, verae alicui rei cohaereat. Hence many passages are ambiguous, including those cited in Harper's Dict., s.v. II. A. I, as datives, all of which may be ablatives.
apto : Stat. Theb. x. 309, aptatam cava testudine dextram percutit, gives us a sure instance of the ablative. Horace also has three examples which, though ambiguous, may belong here, viz. Epodes, 7. 1, cur dexteris aptantur enses conditi? Odes, ii. 12. 4, aptari citharae modis; Epp. i. 3. 12, fidibusne Latinis Thebanos aptare modos ; and Propertius one, iii. 3. 35, haec carmina nervis aptat. The Thes. Ling. Lat. classifies all these as datives, but in view of the Statius passage they may possibly be ablatives.
inhaereo : Virg. Aen. X. 845, corpore inhaeret; Cic. Tusc. Disp. ii. 20, latere inhaerens, a poetical translation by Cicero himself of Soph. Trach. 1046 ff. So also in the same paragraph just before the beginning of the poetical translation we have, inhaesisset ea visceribus.
The case in the following examples of verbs of joining is more or less doubtful :
copulo : Lucr. vi. 1078, denique non auro res aurum copulat una. Landgraf, Beiträge z. hist. Synt. d. lat. Spr., p. 19, suggests that auro here may be ablative. Ebrard, from his silence, though his lists are very incomplete, may be thought to regard it as dative. Cicero repeatedly uses the ablative with cum; the dative only once, viz. de Div. ii. 143, naturae copulatum. The dative is found also in Livy, xxi. 28. 8.
necto : Lucr. v. 1202, votis nectere vota ; Prop. iii. 5. 12, armis nectimus arma nova ; Virg. Aen. iv. 239, pedibus talaria nectit. Cic. uses the dative in de Div. i. 125, causae causa nexa. Landgraf, Beiträge, p. 20, suggests that in the Lucretius passage the case may be ablative.
revincio: Lucr. v. 553, partibus aeriis caeloque revincta ; cf. v. 537, (naturam) coniunctam atque aptam partibus aeriis mundi; see below under aptus.
coeo : Hor. A.P. 12, placidis coeant immitia.
constringo : In Cic. Ac. Post. i. 11, (me) multis officiis implicatum et constrictum, officiis is quite as much dependent upon constrictum as upon implicatum. With the latter word, as will be shown later, the only construction in Cicero (barring prepositional phrases) is the ablative; officiis is therefore here in the ablative case. Hence it is possible that the following also belongs under the sociative head, Hor. Sat. i. 6. 23, fulgente trahit constrictos Gloria curru, 'bound to (or tied up with her car.'
aptus : In Plaut. Trin. 658 the Ambrosianus reads otio aptus; the P Mss. have captus. Of recent editors, Götz-Schöll, Lindsay, and Morris read aptus; Leo, captus. The reading captus is also preferred by the Thes. Ling. Lat. s.v. aptus; aptus seems to me the more likely reading here. Nonius defines aptum as conexum et colligatum ; so Festus, p. 18, defines by comprehenilere vinculo; Isidore, xix. 30. 5, by ligare. I therefore interpret otio aptus as meaning ' entangled with (or in) indolence.'
In Lucr. v. 537 we read (naturam) coniunctam atque aptam partibus aeriis mundi ; here also the probability seems to me strong that we have the ablative. Cic. de Leg. i. 56, ex natura vivere, id est vita modica et apta virtute perfrui, is doubtful. Does apta virtute mean 'linked with virtue,' 'combined with virtue '? I believe it does. Merguet in his lexicon to the philosophical works of Cicero seems so to take it. Zumpt and Baiter conjecture e virtute.
2. VERBS OF ENTANGLING AND INVOLVING. alligo : Cic. pro Flacco, 41, ne se scelere alliget; pro Rab. Post. 14, ne qua nova quaestione alligaretur.
astringo : Cic. pro Sest. 108, scelere astringi ; id. de Of. iii. 19, num se astrinxit scelere? id. pro Sulla, 82, tanto scelere astrictis hominibus ; id. Phil. iv. 9, magno scelere se astringeret; Sall. Iug. 60. 6, studio suorum astrictis ; ibid. 70. 2, maioribus (rebus) astricto; Val. Max. iv. 7. 4, vitam suam consilii crimine astrinxit; Fronto, 227, 11, N., cottidiano te mendacio astringi.
devincio : Ter. Haut. 208, ubi animus semel se cupiditate devinxerit mala; Cic. de Domo Sua, 131, si templum religione Concordiae devinxisset (“should connect the temple with the worship of the goddess Concord '); id. de Har. Resp. 5, quo scelere se devinxerit; pro Cael. 52, eodem se scelere devinxit.
illigo : Cic. Tusc. Disp. ii. 20, ipse illigatus peste interimor textili, Cicero's own poetical translation of Soph. Trach. 1046 ff. ; Hor. Odes, i. 27. 23, illigatum Chimaera; Val. Max. vi. 8. 4, dextram torpore illigavit ; Tac. Ann. iii. 21. 16, illigatus praeda ; xv. 51. 6, conscientia illigare. The dative is nowhere authenticated, and cum occurs in Pliny, N.H. xxviii. 14. 58. 203. Hence I should also regard as ablatives the following: Cic. Ac. ii. 6, sermonibus illigari; id. de Domo Sua, 40, Caesaris actis illigatus teneretur ; Hor. Epodes, i. 25, iuvencis illigata aratra ; Livy, xxxii. 21. 11, illigari bello; Val. Max. ix. 13. 4, duarum matrimonio illigatus; Tac. Hist. iii. 46. 17, bello illigari ; id. Ann. ii. 27. 11, quo pluribus indiciis illigaret (sc. Libonem); ibid. vi. 32. 7, veneno illigaret ; ibid. xii. 25. 3, stupro illigatus; ibid. xiii. 40. 2, locis se illigaret; ibid. xv. i. 7, bellis illigatus ; Min. Fel. Oct. 16. 5, facultatibus illigatos.
impedio: Plaut. Amph. p. 53 of Götz and Schöll, Frag. x, qui domi uxorem meam impudicitia impedivit (" has involved her in shame'); Ter. Phorm. 442, me et se hisce nuptiis impedivit.
implecto : Tac. Ann. xvi. 10. 13, vidua implexa continuo luctu ; Min. Fel. Oct. 20. 3, Centauros equos suis hominibus implexos. In view of the great frequency of the ablative with implicitus and implicatus (see the next rubric), it seems likely that the following examples also belong here: Virg. Georg. iv. 482, implexae crinibus angues Eumenides; Apul. de Mag. p. 457 (Hild.), hirudines dentibus (crocodili) implectuntur.