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words at the close of a period or colon. Furthermore, writers who, like Seneca of the school of modernists under the early empire, developed a tendency to the use of short, pithy sentences may, as will appear in the course of this paper, show marked individual traits in the inner structure of such sentences and in their interrelations. The same is true conversely of writers like Velleius Paterculus (a notorious slave of rhetoric) and Pliny the Elder, who sometimes attempt elaborate periods. The student who approaches the study of sentence structure from the point of view of the mental processes involved in it ought therefore to find in the Roman literature a fruitful field.

The number of types described by Dr. Boucke is, of course, not final, and we may at the outset point out another distinctively marked type common in Roman authors which has not been recorded as current among the moderns. A good example is found in the third chapter of Tacitus' Dialog on Orators : adeo te tragoediae istae non satiant (ab), quominus omissis orationum et causarum studiis omne tempus modo circa Medeam, ecce nunc circa Thyestem consumas (cd), cum te tot amicorum causae, tot coloniarum et municipiorum clientelae in forum vocent (és), quibus vix suffeceris (ghi), etiam si non novum tibi ipse negotium importasses (ij), ut Domitium et Catonem, id est nostras quoque historias et Romana nomina (kl) Graeculorum fabulis adgregares (mn).

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In general character it resembles Dr. Boucke's analytic type (II, 4), and might perhaps be described as an analytic form with descending construction. Such a sentence may involve any number of successive bisections (analyses) of the unit of thought and its elements, from two or three up to the point at which the unit passes beyond the range of consciousness possible to the writer. Sentences involving three or four such analyses are not uncommon. The type differs from II, 4) in not involving a primary bisection of the unit of thought into two large sub-units. This fact carries with it two consequences of sufficient importance to justify us in setting up the form as a distinct type. On the emotional side sentences of this type lack the element of tension that necessarily accompanies the analysis of the first sub-unit of type II, 4), as also the feeling of relaxation that sets in at the beginning of the analysis of the second. This alternation of tension and relaxation is, of course, an important factor in style. On the ideational side the smooth and continuous forward movement that attends the organization of the sentence, together with the absence of a fixed terminus up to which the analysis must proceed before the relation of the elements to each other becomes clear, make it possible for the author to break off at various points without causing a violent or even noticeable anacoluthon. This gives to the type a certain looseness or freedom which lays it particularly open to the intrusion of associative additions. Such additions yield two sub-varieties of this type. (a) If after the completion of the associative addition or additions the analysis of the complete idea is again taken up, we obtain a type bearing the same relation to the interlocked (II, 3) that the type just described bears to the analytic (II, 4):


Eat éffi ij

gh kl

(6) If there is no return to the prior idea we obtain a frustum of a sentence plus a closely related associative addition. Three specific forms which such associative additions assume are the correcting quamquam and si clauses, and in many cases those loosely attached clauses introduced by a relative pronoun that may be rendered into English by a copulative conjunction plus a personal or demonstrative pronoun.

A number of such sentences occur in Tacitus, — chiefly, however, in the Dialog, - notwithstanding that author's strong tendency toward the isolating and synthetic types. Similar associative additions occur occasionally in the second half of ascending sentences of the analytic type (II, 4). The second chapter of the Dialog offers an illustration : nam postero die, etc., to the end of the chapter. The passage begins as an ascending sentence of the analytic type, but no sooner does the organization of the second sub-unit begin with the words venerunt, etc., than at the mention of Aper and Secundus the author passes off into a statement of his own friendly feelings toward them, which in turn suggests the hostile attitude of others, their criticism of the two orators, and the refutation of that criticism. Only after all this has been disposed of does Tacitus come back to the prior idea, and then in an entirely new sentence beginning with an igitur ("to resume”) ut intravimus, etc., a repetition of the thought of venerunt, etc., which clearly betrays the associative character of the intervening statements. One should not be surprised to find associative additions thus bearing the outward garb of apperceptive elements, because the apperceptive tendencies in the Indo-European languages as a class are so strong that their mechanical devices and schematic forms are forced even on associative additions.

Among the Roman authors Tacitus is distinguished as being one of the most spontaneous, most indifferent to the rules of rhetoric, and most individual. His uniquely organized mind, his strong individuality, his enthusiastic devotion to his work, and his serious purpose in writing, all combine to give his works a special value to the student of sentence structure.

Tacitus possessed an intensely emotional nature. This is clearly brought out in Nipperdey's masterly characterization of the style of Tacitus, to be found in the introduction to his edition of the Annals. Such natures naturally tend to ex

1 What is ordinarily printed as a separate sentence beginning nam et Secundus is really an associative addition to the preceding clause. One must not lay too much stress on punctuation.

press themselves either in exclamatory (emotional) sentences
or in an associative succession of vivid pictures. But when
the purpose of the utterance has its origin in certain intel-
lectual motives, there results a form of mental activity that is
a kind of compromise having two very marked characteristics:
first, the absence of associative additions overrunning or
breaking down the unit of thought, and, second, the absence
of any great amount of apperceptive organization. The
resulting literary form will be a series of short sentences
showing little complexity and following each other without
connecting particles; for the apperceptive tendencies are so
held in abeyance, as it were, by the emotions that the rela-
tions between the ideas do not come out clearly. This type
is not very frequently used by Tacitus in its extreme form,
such as it assumes on the lips of excited messengers and in
sensational newspaper headlines. Examples, however, do
occur now and then, especially, yet not exclusively, in descrip-
tions of battles. See Histories, 2, 15, nec Vitelliani quam-
quam victi quievere : accitis auxiliis securum hostem ac
successu rerum socordius agentem invadunt. caesi vigiles,
perrupta castra, trepidatum apud navis, donec sidente paula-
tim metu, occupato iuxta colle defensi, mox inrupere. atrox
ibi caedes...
Formula : 2

Even more striking is Agricola 38, 1-13, the formula of
which runs:
ablabl(a)b | (a)62, (a)66, | (a), lablablaðl


In dealing with Tacitus, one of the first questions to sug-
gest itself is naturally, whether the structure of his sentences
shows any shifting of type corresponding to the changes in
vocabulary, syntax, etc., which have already been made the

1 See Wundt, Völkerps. I, vol. ii, ch. 7, § V, 5 extr. ( =p. 354, 2d ed.).
2 The perpendicular stroke indicates the isolating character of the passage.

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subject of elaborate investigations. Such a difference does actually appear. Its nature and explanation, if I correctly interpret Tacitus, are as follows: The passages just cited, which are examples of the prevailing type of sentence found in Tacitus — a special form of the isolating type --- are characterized by an emotional tone peculiar to strong feeling under control (cf. supra). The intensity of the feeling involved and the extent of the apperceptive control may vary widely, and this variation will be reflected in the greater or less predominance at different times of the apperceptive and associative tendencies. Any increase in the emotional element without a corresponding increase in the apperceptive control will result in a tendency toward a looser connection between the psychical elements, and eventually the structure of the sentences will pass over into one of the associative types. Conversely, a relatively greater apperceptive control will give the sentences a tendency toward the more elaborate apperceptive types; and this tendency to organize the thought will be revealed in the presence of attributive elements in increasing number, or even, instead of them, more elaborate predicative members. An increase in the intensity of both emotions and apperceptive control will manifest itself in an increasing number of brief sentences and a tendency toward attributive rather than predicative forms.

The works of Tacitus, when examined from the point of view here taken, fall into three groups: 1. The Dialog. 2. The Germania, Agricola, and Histories. 3. The Annals. The kinship between the last two groups is, as would be expected, closer than that between the first and either one of the others. The sentences in the Dialog show the most elaborate organization. This is no doubt due not only to the lower emotional tone, but also in a certain degree to a conscious effort to imitate the Ciceronian style. In the Dialog only one-fourth of the sentences are simple sentences (i.e. sentences with a single primary analysis), four-tenths show two such analyses, and the remaining thirty-five per cent show still higher organization. In the Histories the converse of these conditions is found, nearly seven-tenths of the sentences

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