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every verse. In N 682–697 half of the verses have a mark of punctuation at the same place. The lament of Andromache for Hector, 12 725-745, a literary unit comparable in length with the ninth idyll of Theocritus, shows a word-ending at the bucolic diaeresis in 95 per cent of the verses, and a pause in sense in 33 per cent. It is clear, therefore, that this diaeresis is not used most frequently in the bucolic poems, and hence the epithet' bucolic' is not justified on this ground.
But the fondness of Theocritus for this pause is indicated also, as Fritzsche has shown (Theocrits Eidyllen, Leipzig, 1857, pp. 12, 41, 44), by the way in which he used it. Anaphora is often found after the bucolic diaeresis, the last two feet of the verse echoing the thought of the first four, e.g.:
Ιd. i. 66-67: πα ποκ' άρ' ήσθ' ότε Δάφνις έτάκετο, πα ποκα, Νύμφαι ;
η κατά Πηνειώ καλά τέμπεα, ή κατά Πίνδω ;
Other passages which show the poet's use of the pause to produce this and other kinds of rhetorical balance are:
i. 64 (cf. 127), 80, 100-101, 105-106; ii. 15-16; iv. 31; V. 14, 104, 112-114, 122-124; vii. 3-4, 24, 57, 71–72, 78, 84, 105; ix. 7-8, 33-34. Cf. Verg. Ecl. viii. 7-8.
These verses make it clear that the bucolic poet intended to emphasize the importance of this pause in his bụcolic idylls. But this use of the diaeresis cannot be regarded as an innovation on his part. Theocritus did only what Homer had done before him. A careful reading of the Iliad and Odyssey with this subject in mind will reveal scores, if not hundreds, of verses in which the bucolic diaeresis is employed to produce a rhetorical effect. The following will serve as examples :
Β 90 αι μέν τ' ένθα άλις πεποτήαται, αι δε τε ένθα:
I have noted the following verses in which anaphora occurs after the pause at the end of the fourth foot : A 142, Β 90, 363, 507, Ι 381, K 170, Λ 776, N 131 (Π 215), 308,
I 738, E 234 (P 635, 713), O 714, II 12, P 85, 431, 3 472, 536 (Ω 530, δ 102, λ 303, Σ 159, Ω 1ο), Ω 408 (λ 175, ρ 577), α 24, γ το9, δ 821, θ 488, μτος, ν 203 (cf. Theoc. 1, 8o quoted above), χ 47, ψ 68, ω 291, θ 322 (cf. Theoc. 1, 66), τ 563, Α 395, Κ 84, 174, 445, Ω 47, 221, ο 84, 168, π Ιοο, υ 297, φ 197, ζ 103 (cf. Theoc. 1, 67 quoted above), E 751 (Θ 395,λ525), Κ το9, Α 93, 548, Β 202, E521, 817 (Ν 224), Ν 513, P 20, 367, T 262, β 26, Ω 157 (186), γ 127, δ 69ο, ε Ι04 (138), ζ 192, θ 563, ι1ο8, 122, π 203, φ 108, E 827, ® 7, 7 302, o 416 (v 324), E 102, 185, 0 298, p 77 (434), y 96 (δ 326), Κ 422, T 306, ξ 82, 94, π 27, β 273.
A striking use of anaphora after the bucolic diaeresis is found in y 429-435. Nestor is preparing to sacrifice to Athena on the morning after the arrival of Telemachus, and sends one of his sons for the heifer, another for the smith, and another to summon the companions of Telemachus from the ship.
The narrative continues :
' The repetition of de three times after the bucolic diaeresis is certainly more than accidental. Perhaps Theocritus was influenced by these verses when he wrote (Id. i, 80-81): –
ήνθον τοι βώται, τοι ποιμένες, οπόλοι ήνθον,
πάντες ανηρώτων, τι πάθαι κακόν. ήνθ' ο Πρίαπος κτλ. Similar is the anaphora in τ 172-177:
Κρήτη τις γαϊ” έστι μέσω ενί οίνοπι πόντο
Other kinds of rhetorical balance are illustrated by the following passages :
A 404-405, N 301-302, 742–743, T 365-366, 0 464-466, X 485486, V 321, 323, 326, 621-623, Y 11-12 (cf. Theoc. i, 100-101), d 4, 20.
These are some of the verses which may be cited to show that the bucolic poet has no claim to originality when he uses the pause at the end of the fourth foot to produce a rhetorical effect. Thus from this standpoint also, the epithet .bucolic' has no real justification.
Two facts already noticed have an important bearing on the theory of the origin of the hexameter. Metricians have stated that the hexameter of the bucolic poets is composed according to its origin, not like the heroic hexameter, of two tripodies, but of a tetrapody and a dipody (Rossbach, Theorie der musischen Künste, 3d ed. III, 2, p. 51; Gleditsch, in von Müller's Handbuch, II, 3, p. 121). The evidence from the poems themselves which is given in support of this theory is, first, the predominance of the pause at the end of the fourth foot in the bucolic poems (Rossbach, 1.c.), and, second, the frequent use of anaphora after the pause (Gleditsch, l.c.). But if the Homeric poet sometimes uses this diaeresis more frequently than does Theocritus, and employs anaphora after it in a similar way, the same argument applies to a considerable percentage of the verses of the Iliad and Odyssey. Either these Homeric verses are derived from the union of a tetrapody with a dipody, or else the bucolic hexameter in respect to origin is the same as Homer's verse.
It remains to examine the use, aside from that already considered, which the Homeric poet makes of this pause. We can do this most readily, perhaps, by comparing the bucolic diaeresis with the main pause of the verse. The similarity between the caesura of the third foot and the pause at the end of the verse scholars have pointed out from various standpoints. Hiatus and the syllaba anceps are allowed before this caesura in the same way as at the close of the verse, but not to the same extent. Monosyllables which cannot stand at the beginning of the verse are not found immediately after the pause, and, likewise, monosyllables which are not found at the end of the verse do not immediately precede the pause (La Roche, Wiener Studien, XVIII (1896), p. 3). Professor Seymour has shown (Harvard Studies, III (1892), pp. 91128) that there is a strong tendency in the Homeric poems to make the thought complete with the end of the verse, and that to a considerable degree this is true of the pause in the third foot. The poet treated the verse as a thought-unit as well as a metrical unit, and he regarded the half-verse as a thought-unit also, although to a less extent. The first halfverse states the essential facts of the narrative; the second half merely adds picturesque details and is often parenthetical. The second half-verse oftentimes may be omitted for successive verses without disturbing the narrative. Finally, there are a very large number of tags suited to follow the caesura of the third foot (Transactions Am. Phil. Assoc. XVI (1885), pp. 30–40).
Let us now test the pause at the end of the fourth foot by each of these six principles : (1) hiatus, (2) syllaba anceps, (3) position of certain word-forms, (4) tendency of the pause to separate the essential part of the narrative from the picturesque and often purely parenthetical, (5) possibility of omitting the feet which follow the pause for successive verses without disturbing the narrative, and (6) the existence of numerous verse-tags which are suited to follow the pause.
It has already been established that in regard to the first three the pause at the end of the fourth foot is, in kind, like that in the third foot, just as the latter caesura in the effect produced resembles the end of the verse, although less extensively. (For hiatus, see van Leeuwen, Enchiridion, p. 79; for syllaba anceps, Christ, Metrik, p. 195; for position of certain word-forms, La Roche, 1.c., and Zeitschrift für die öster. Gym. XLVI (1895), p. 588.) It is the purpose of this part of my paper to show that in respect to the last three principles, that is, in the influence of the pause on the connection of thought, the bucolic diaeresis has a force similar in kind to that of the caesura of the third foot.
I. The first four feet of the verse carry the burden of the narrative; the last two feet add unessential but picturesque details, or repeat in slightly different form an idea which has already been expressed, the clausula being often entirely parenthetical. The material at command is so abundant
. nearly 3000 verses that only the briefest indication can be given, together with a few examples, of the ways in which this principle is illustrated.
For convenience I have divided the material into five groups, basing the division on the form of the clausula.
GROUP A. The last two feet of the verse consist of a word or brief clause joined to the preceding four feet by a coördinate conjunction which is contained in the clausula. This is the largest group and consists of more than 1000 verses. The following are taken almost at random :
Δ 26 πώς έθέλεις άλιον θείναι πόνον | ήδ' ατέλεστον,
In these verses it is clear that the clausula is not essential to the narrative. It merely repeats a previously expressed thought in a different form. Take for example A 62-64:
αλλ' άγε δή τινα μάντιν έρείομεν η ιερήα
Here both the clausula of vs. 62 and the whole of vs. 63 are in a way parenthetical. As far as the burden of the narrative is concerned the clause beginning ός κ' είπoι (vs. 64) might as well have followed immediately after έρείομεν, ε...
αλλ' άγε δή τινα μάντιν έρείομεν, ός τε κε φαίη