Page images

while the pitch is not fixed but free, and is a subordinate and variable quantity. In the Latin the element of pitch certainly seems to approach in importance the element of stress, even though it is not here claimed to be the most important element, as is implied in our ancient authorities. In the Romance languages pitch is a more marked element of accent than in the Teutonic languages. This may be attributed in part to their inheritance from the Latin and in part to climatic influences (Hempl, German Orthography and Phonology, § 248, 168). Some of the characteristics of the Latin accent may be illustrated by the French accent. We draw the inference from the relation of the accent to the second syllable in pause-elision in Latin that the important words in a sentence, such as nouns, have a higher pitch than unimportant and dependent words, and that long syllables have a higher pitch than short syllables. Distinct traces of these characteristics of the Latin pronunciation may be seen in the French. Viëtor (Elemente der Phonetik5, § 148, 305) says in reference to the French, “Im Satz trifft der höchste Ton gern die stärksten und längsten Silben."

The principle that the long accented syllable should be avoided in pause-elision appears to be more fundamental in the Greek and Latin than in the Italian and English, in which the element of pitch is less prominent. Tasso shows great freedom in the use of the accented syllable in pause-elision, and Milton in his earlier period did not recognize as essential the principle which prevailed in the Latin and which he afterward followed.

I have shown that a prominent accent is avoided in the second syllable of pause-elision in the more formal kinds of Latin verse.

I have shown too that this principle is one of broad application and that it is carefully observed by Dante in his Divina Commedia and by Milton in his epics, and that Greek verse, although characterized by greater freedom of construction, does not disregard it. The difference between the treatment of pause-elision, and elision in which the elided words are closely connected in thought, clearly shows that there was a difference in the method of reading the two kinds of elision. As the principle which underlies the two types of elision in Vergil, Dante, and Milton is precisely the same, it naturally follows that the same method of reading applies in the case of the three authors. There is entire agreement in regard to the way in which the pause-elisions should be read in Dante and Milton, and consequently the method of reading Vergil is thereby clearly indicated.

1 Additional light is thrown on the exceptional cases of pause-elision by a study of the drama. I shall consider elsewhere in the near future pause-elision in the drama and other phenomena of elision.

The suggestion has been made to me, while this was passing through the press, that the Vergil passage (Aen. v, 681) discussed on p. 93 ff. may be explained by assuming that udó sub robore may have been the common accentuation in prose in these stereotyped phrases, adjective, preposition (unaccented), noun; and that there would be a tendency to assimilate the accent of these expressions to that of pronominal phrases, such as quibúscum hominibus, and that accordingly the difference in accent of the two types would be but slight. However, the following considerations seem to me to militate against this view: (1) The use of cum as an enclitic proper seems to be limited to pronouns, and we are hardly justified in assuming that it may stand in the same relation to an attributive adjective. (2) If sub stands in the relation of enclitic to udo, it cannot be assumed that the accent of the penult of udo would be affected (cf. allws Ws). It is a question how far even the inseparable enclitic affects the accent of the word to which it is attached. (3) Prepositions show a tendency to coalesce with the noun which follows rather than with a preceding modifier of the noun. Prepositions in Greek are as a rule proclitic. This tendency may be illustrated in Latin by the caesura of such lines as the following: Aen. x, 212 spumea semifero sub pectore murmurat unda; cf. v, 525; Ecl. i, 8 (cf. A. J. P. XXV, p. 415). (4) Elision often occurs in similar phrases, as Aen, v, 129 frondenti ex ilice, and it does not seem in harmony with Vergil's method in the use of elision, even when the elided words are closely connected in thought, to elide a strongly accented syllable before an unaccented syllable. Such accentuation tends to produce hiatus (cf. A. J. P. l. c. p. 273). (5) The relation of the word-accent to the short syllables of the dactyls occurring in the second and third feet is also an important consideration. I hope to show elsewhere that the rule of the accent in the case of these short syllables is very definite. For my present purpose I desire to point out that, when the first of two short syllables is a final syllable of a word of two or more syllables, the second short syllable of the dactyl has an accent and is usually the penult of a dissyllabic word (cf., for the corresponding usage in comedy, Klotz, Grundzüge, p. 255). Aen. vi, 460 ff. invitus, regină, tủ'o de litore cessi.

sed me iussă dě'um, quae nunc has ire per umbras,
per loca sentă si tu cogunt noctemque profundam,

imperiis egerě sú'is; nec credere quivi. The accent udd de would be most exceptional in this part of the verse and would seem to me to mar the rhythmical flow of the passage.

VI. — Notes on the Bucolic Diaeresis.



The object of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss the appropriateness of the name 'bucolic' as given to the diaeresis at the end of the fourth foot in dactylic hexameter, and (2) to examine the use of this pause by the Homeric poet from the standpoint of the connection of thought.

Marius Victorinus tells us (p. 114 K.) that this pause received the epithet 'bucolic' because of its frequent use by the bucolic poets. This statement is somewhat misleading. The Alexandrian poets generally (Aratus, however, uses it less than Homer) showed a fondness for it, and if all the genuine extant idylls of Theocritus be compared with the Hymns of Callimachus and the Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius, it will be found that the diaeresis in question, at least when regarded as a pause in the sense, was used more frequently by both the latter poets. It is rather in the bucolic poems that its use abounds. A word ends with the fourth foot in 74 per cent of the verses of these poems, and there is a pause in the sense sufficient to warrant the use of at least a comma in 22 per cent (Kunst, de Theocriti versu heroico, Leipzig, 1887, p. 54), as compared with 19 per cent for the Hymns and 20 per cent for the Argonautica. But even in the bucolic idylls we do not find the most frequent occurrence of the bucolic diaeresis. In the 134 hexameter verses of the Epigrams of Callimachus (ed. Wilamowitz-Möllendorf, Berlin, 1882) there are but ten in which a word does not end with the fourth foot, and 60 per cent of the verses have a pause in the sense here. Furthermore, at times the Homeric poet uses the diaeresis quite as frequently as Theocritus does. In K 149-154, N 161-166, and v 209–214 there is at least a slight pause in sense at the end of the fourth foot for six consecutive verses. In 12 81-101 a word ends here in every verse. In N 682-697 half of the verses have a mark of punctuation at the same place. The lament of Andromache for Hector, 12 725-745, a literary unit comparable in length with the ninth idyll of Theocritus, shows a word-ending at the bucolic diaeresis in 95 per cent of the verses, and a pause in sense in 33 per cent. It is clear, therefore, that this diaeresis is not used most frequently in the bucolic poems, and hence the epithet' bucolic'is not justified on this ground.

But the fondness of Theocritus for this pause is indicated also, as Fritzsche has shown (Theocrits Eidyllen, Leipzig, 1857, pp. 12, 41, 44), by the way in which he used it. Anaphora is often found after the bucolic diaeresis, the last two feet of the verse echoing the thought of the first four, e.g. :

Ιd. i. 66-67: πα ποκ' άρ' ήσθ' ότε Δάφνις έτάκετο, πα ποκα, Νύμφαι ;

η κατά Πηνειώ καλά τέμπεα, ή κατά Πίνδω;

Other passages which show the poet's use of the pause to produce this and other kinds of rhetorical balance are:

i. 64 (cf. 127), 80, 100-101, 105-106; ii. 15-16; iv. 31 ; v. 14, 104, 112-114, 122-124; vii. 3-4, 24, 57, 71–72, 78, 84, 105; ix. 7-8, 33–34. Cf. Verg. Ecl. viii. 7-8.

These verses make it clear that the bucolic poet intended to emphasize the importance of this pause in his bụcolic idylls. But this use of the diaeresis cannot be regarded as an innovation on his part. Theocritus did only what Homer had done before him. A careful reading of the Iliad and Odyssey with this subject in mind will reveal scores, if not hundreds, of verses in which the bucolic diaeresis is employed to produce a rhetorical effect. The following will serve as examples :

Β 90 αι μέν τ' ένθα άλις πεποτήαται, αι δε τε ένθα:
1 381 ουδ' όσ' ές Ορχομενον ποτινίσσεται, ουδ' όσα Θήβας
γ του ένθα μεν Αίας κείται άρήιος, ένθα δ' Αχιλλεύς,
θ 488 ή σέ γε μούσ' εδίδαξε, Διός πάις, ή σε γ' 'Απόλλων:

αυτάρ Όδυσσεύς
ώλεσε τηλού νόστον Αχαιίδος, ώλετο δ' αυτός.

I have noted the following verses in which anaphora occurs after the pause at the end of the fourth foot :

A 142, Β 90, 363, 507, Ι 381, K 170, Λ 776, N 131 (Π 215), 308, 738, E 234 (P 635, 713), O 714, II 12, P 85, 431, § 472, 536 (Ω 530, δ 102, λ 303, Σ 159, Ω το), Ω 408 (λ 175, ρ 577), α 24, γ 109, δ 821, θ 488, με το5, ν 203 (cf. Theoc. 1, 8o quoted above), χ47, ψ 68, ω 291, θ 322 (cf. Theoc. 1, 66), τ 563, Α 395, Κ 84, 174, 445, Ω 47, 221, ο 84, 168, π Ιοο, υ 297, φ 197, ζ 103 (cf. Theoc. 1, 67 quoted above), E 751 (Θ 395,5 25), Κ το9, Α 93, 548, Β 202, E 521, 817 (Ν 224), Ν 513, P 20, 367, T 262, β 26, Ω 157 (186), γ 127, δ 69ο, ε 104 (138), ζ 192, θ 563, ιιο8, 122, π 203, φ 108, E 827, Θ 7, π 302, σ. 416 ( 324), Σ 102, 185, θ 298, μ 77 (434), γ 96 (δ 326), Κ 422, T 306, ξ 82, 94, π 27, β 273.

A striking use of anaphora after the bucolic diaeresis is found in y 429-435. Nestor is preparing to sacrifice to Athena on the morning after the arrival of Telemachus, and sends one of his sons for the heifer, another for the smith, and another to summon the companions of Telemachus from the ship. The narrative continues :

ως έφαθ, οι δ' άρα πάντες επoίπνυον. ήλθε μεν άρ βούς
εκ πεδίου, ήλθον δε θοής παρά νηος είσης
Τηλεμάχου έταροι μεγαλήτορος, ήλθε δε χαλκευς
όπλ' εν χερσίν έχων χαλκήϊα, πείρατα τέχνης,
(άκμονά τε σφυράν τ' ευποίητόν τε πυράγρην,)

οισίν τε χρυσόν ειργάζετο' ήλθε δ' 'Αθήνη κτλ. The repetition of hade three times after the bucolic diaeresis is certainly more than accidental. Perhaps Theocritus was influenced by these verses when he wrote (Id. i, 80-81): –

ήνθον τοι βώται, τοι πομένες, οπόλοι ήνθον,

πάντες ανηρώτων, τι πάθα κακόν. ήνθ' ο Πρίαπος κτλ. Similar is the anaphora in 7 172-177:

Κρήτη τις γαϊέστι μέσω ενί οινοπι πόντω
καλή και πίειρα, περίρρυτος: έν δ' άνθρωποι
πολλοί, άπειρέσιοι, και εννήκοντα πόληες.
άλλη δ' άλλων γλώσσα, μεμιγμένη" εν μέν 'Αχαιοί, ,
ένδ' Έτεόκρητες μεγαλήτορες, εν δε Κύδωνες κτλ.

« PreviousContinue »