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619. Eripe fugam: ‘hasten your flight'; while flight is still possible. 620. limine: for the case, see note on l. 244.

622. dirae facies: 'fearful forms '; the gods now made visible to Aeneas, and exerting their powers against Troy.

624. Tum vero: 'then indeed '; when my eyes were thus opened. visum (est) : "was seen,'

625. Neptunia: Troy is thus called because Neptune constructed its walls. 626. Ac veluti Cum : 'even as when.'

627. ferro bipennibus: hendiadys for ferreis bipennibus. See note on I, 61. accisam : limits or num. instant: with infinitive, as I, 423.

628. minatur : 'threatens to fall.?

629. comam: ‘leaf-crown'; the foliage of trees is often so called. tice: join with nutat as an ablative of manner.

630. supremum: ‘for the last time'; adverbially. Cf. III, 68. 631. iugis : ‘from the hilltops '; join with avulsa.

632-746. Anchises at first refuses to join Aeneas in his flight, but yields at last to the signs and warnings sent by Jupiter. While they are making their way out of the city, Creüsa, the wife of Aeneas, is separated from her companions and lost; but she is not missed until they reach the place of ren. dezvous, outside of the gate. 632. Descendo: Aeneas descends from the Acropolis to his father's pal

ducente deo: under the guidance of the divine one (Venus).' Cf. 1. 620.

633. Expedior, recedunt: Aeneas, by the divine agency of his mother, is carried safely through the fire and the enemy, weapons and flames moving aside from him.

634. perventum (est a me): = perveni.

635. Antiquas: the necessity of forsaking his home is the more painful, as it has been the abode of a long line of ancestors.

636. primum: in both instances agrees with quem. Aeneas must carry his father;- for he had been formerly disabled by a stroke of lightning. See 11. 648, 649.

638. integer aevi: 'unimpaired in age.' H.452, 1; LM. 575; A. 218, «; B. 204, 4; G. 374, N. 6; (H. 399, III, 1).

639. Sanguis and vires are also thus connected in V, 396. stant robore, etc.: ‘whose strength remains firm in its own vigor’; needing the aid of

For the ablative, see note on regno, I, 268. 640. agitate: ‘urge forward'; implying both planning and executing.

642. Satis superque: there is an ellipsis of est quod; it is enough and more, that I have seen,' etc. The plural as in l. 89. una: H. 166, 1; LM. 1081; A. 94, a; B. 81, 4, 6; G. 97, 3; (H. 175, N. 1). Troy had been

ace.

none.

captured and sacked by Hercules during the reign of Laomedon. Anchises has survived that capture.

643. superavimus: for superfuimus; as in l. 597.

644. Sic — positum: 'thus lying, yea, thus.' He reclines on a couch, in the position of one dead, or dying. Cf. IV, 681. adfati: having bid farewell to my body.' It was the custom, immediately on the decease of a Roman, for the nearest relative at the bedside to call on the dead by name, and utter three times in a loud voice the word vale. See note on vocalos, I, 219.

645. manu: “by violence'; ‘in conflict ’; i.e. by provoking the enemy to attack me. miserebitur : "the enemy will show compassion '; i.e. they will put me out of my misery by slaying me, while seeking to plunder my house and person.

646. facilis iactura sepulcri: ‘the loss of burial is a light thing,' lit. easy (to bear). This sentiment is very unusual for a Greek or Roman, but not unnatural for an old man in despair. Cf. IV, 620; VI, 333.

648. Demoror: H. 533, 1; LM. 732; A. 276, a; B. 259, 4; G. 230; (H. 467, III, 2). ex quo: sc. tempore.

649. Fulminis adflavit ventis : breathed upon me with the blasts of lightning. See note on I, 45. Anchises was struck with lightning, and thus crippled, for divulging to mortals his amour with the goddess Venus.

650. perstabat: figuratively; ‘he persisted.' fixus : used literally; ‘fixed' in his position and place. Cf. I. 654.

651. Nos: cf. 1. 139; the plural for the singular. effusi lacrimis (sumus) : equivalent to effusi in lacrimas ; 'we were dissolved in tears.'

652, 653. ne — vellet: the purpose of the entreaty implied in the foregoing words.

653. fato urgenti incumbere: 'to add fresh weight to the fate (death) already impending.'

654. haeret: by a kind of zeugma is both figurative and literal in its use respectively with incepto and sedibus. in: prepositions belonging alike to two terms are sometimes joined by the poets to the second, instead of the first. See note on l. 293.

655. in arma feror: 'I rush to arms '; “to the combat.'

656. iam: after every plan has been tried in vain to save my father. fortuna: ‘resource.'

658. Sperasti = exspectavisti ; as in IV, 419. tantum nefas: ‘so impious a thought ’; as that a son should forsake his father in peril.

660. sedet hoc animo: sc. tibi ; "this is fixed in your desire.' For parallel expressions, cf. IV, 15; V, 418; VII, 368.

661. isti leto: “to that death (which you choose).' 664. Hoc erat (illud) quod : ‘was it this for which?' Cf. IV, 675. For

the accusative quod, see note on l. 141. quod Eripis: equivalent to a substantive idea, 'your saving me,' subject of erat, of which hoc is predicate. For the use of the present, cf. note on l. 275.

667. in alterius sanguine: “in the blood of each other.' mactatos: H. 395, 2; LM. 479; A. 187, 2, 6; B. 235, 2, 6), a; G. 286, 1; (H. 439, 2). cernam: the present subjunctive is used, since the time of the main thought is really present; 'this is, I now see, the purpose of, etc.

669. revisam: see note on memoret, l. 75.
670. Numquam: is an emphatic substitute for non.

671. clipeo: dative. The arm passes through the leather straps, the inser. toria, which are fastened across the middle of the shield, and the hand grasps the handle between the center and the circumference. Observe the imperfect tense in this passage, as in l. 588.

674. patri: for ad patrem. 675. et: also,

676. expertus : 'taught by experience. sumptis in armis: ‘in taking up arms. See note on l. 413.

678. quondam : 'once' called, but now not treated as your wife. 680. dictu: see note on I, III.

682. levis apex: 'a light, pointed flame.' It was the appearance of a flame, pointed like the peak of a priest's cap, and called 'light,' because it was unsubstantial. vertice — summo: “from the crown of his head'; his head being uncovered.

683. tactu innoxia : 'harmless with its touch.'

685. metu: join with pavidi. trepidare: the historical infinitive. See note on 1. 99.

686. sanctos : because sent by the gods. 688. caelo: for ad caelum ; as in 1. 186.

690. Aspice: 'look upon us '; i.e. with favor. hoc tantum: sc. peto a te; ‘this only I ask of thee'; one look of pity.

691. haec omina firma: Anchises thinks he sees in this prodigy a token of divine favor, but desires some additional sign to confirm his hope.

692. It is customary for the poets to treat as coördinate two clauses, of which the first is introduced by vix, the second by et, as in III, 8, V, 857, or by -que, as in the present passage, or by no conjunction at all, as in II, 172, III, 9o. In all these cases the second clause is logically dependent on the first in a temporal sense; i.e. the second clause may be translated as if it were introduced by cum. Cf. I, 586.

693. Intonuit is impersonal, and laevum is an adverb; "it thundered on the left,' — a good omen in Roman augury.

694. Join multa cum luce with facem ducens. 695. tecti: the palace of Anchises.

696. Idaea silva : in the pine forest on Mount Ida, south of Troy. The course of the meteor showed that the family of Anchises must flee to Mount Ida.

697. Signantem : ‘marking (its) path'; to be joined with claram. tum: at the same time.' longo limite: ablative of manner of dat lucem. sulcus : its track'; like a furrow in the air. Servius, the Virgilian commentator (see Introd., p. 26), interpreted the brightness of the star as indicating the future glory of the house of Aeneas, its track (sulcus), that there was to be a journey by sea, and the smoke, that they were to experience the horrors of war.

699. se tollit ad auras: lifts himself up'; from his couch. See 1. 644.

703. vestro in numine, etc.: «Troy is in thy divine keeping. Cf. JX, 247. That which survives of the family of Anchises and of the Trojan race represeñts Troy, and is destined to found a new Troy in another land.

704. tibi; H. 425, 4, N.; LM. 538; A. 235, a; B. 188, I, N.; G. 350; (H. 384, 4, N. 2).

705. clarior: refers to the roaring of the conflagration.
706. aestus, etc. : 'the flames roll nearer their burning floods.'

707. cervici: H. 429; LM. 532; A. 228; B. 187, III; G. 347; (H. 386). Imponere: passive voice, but with middle sense, equivalent to impone te. Cf. 1. 383.

708. subibo: sc. te. umeris: the ablative of means. iste: see note on

1. 521.

711. longe: 'at some distance.' Cf. 1. 725. The parties must not go in one body, as that would be more likely to attract the attention of the enemy.

712. advertite: with the ablative of animus instead of the accusative is very rare.

Trans. as if animos advertite vestros ad ea quae dicam. 713. egressis : 'as you go out of the city,' etc.; lit. 'to those having gone

forth.' H. 425, 4; LM. 546; A. 235, b; B. 188, 2, 2; G. 353; (H. 384, 4, N. 3).

713, 714. templum - Cereris: for templum Cereris desertum.

717. sacra: see Hector's admonition, I. 293. The sacred objects had been conveyed to the house of Anchises by Panthus. See 1. 320.

720. Abluero: to engage in religious rites, or to Fig. 22. — Aeneas flee- touch the sacred things, without first washing the ing with Anchises

hands in living,' i.e. running, water, was deemed and Ascanius

impious. 721. latos umeros subiecta : “stooping (to receive the burden). See Figs. 18 and 22.

722. super: adverbial. insternor: middle force. Cf. 1. 707. 725. Pone: cf. X, 226. opaca locorum : obscure places.' See note on

[graphic]

I, 422.

727. adverso glomerati ex agmine : crowded together in an opposing phalanx.' The ablative with ex expresses the composition of the crowd, the material of which it is composed.

729. Suspensum : 'anxious.' comiti: see l. 711.

731. Evasisse: “to have passed through in safety.' Aeneas now relates the sudden panic which the near approach of a party of Greeks occasioned, and which led, in the confusion of the moment, to the separation of Creusa from the rest of the party.

735. mihi: H. 427; LM. 539; A. 229; B. 188, 2, d; G. 347, R. 5; (H. 385, II, 2). nescio quod = aliquod; some.' H. 651, 2; LM. 818; A. 334, e; B. 253, 6; G. 467, R. I; (H. 529, II, 5, 3)). male amicum: cf. l. 23; IV, 8.

736. Confusam eripuit: equivalent to confudit et eripuit. Cf. I, 69. cursu: cf. I, 157.

737. nota regione : ‘from the familiar direction.'

738-740. The irregular construction and arrangement are occasioned by deep emotion. Below (l. 788), the ghost of Creusa reveals to Aeneas that she is in the service of the goddess Cybele, but leaves him uncertain how she was taken away; and this is still a mystery at the time when Aeneas is telling the story.

* Alas! did my wife Creusa, torn from me, unhappy wretch! by fate, remain behind ? did she wander from the path? did she sit down weary? (It is) uncertain. The questions are probably direct. The first interrogative, -ne, would come regularly after misero. For the case of misero, see note on l. 735. nec connects incertum (est) and est reddita.

741. Nec amissam respexi animumve reflexi: ‘but I did not look back for the lost one, or turn my thoughts (to her).' respexi: in its literal sense. 742. Cereris: the temple of Ceres.'

So Apollo, III, 275. For the omission of ad, see note on 1, 2.

744. Defuit — fefellit: “she alone was missing, and was lost by her companions,' etc.

745. amens : causal; 'in my madness.' -que: is joined, in scanning, with the following verse. See note on I, 332.

746. eversa : see note on l. 413.

747-804. Aeneas returns through the city, and wanders everywhere in search of Creusa, even venturing into the midst of the Greeks, who now hold complete possession. The shade of Creüsa appears to him, consoles his grief, assures him of her happiness, and predicts his final settlement in Italy. He returns to his friends, who have been joined in the meantime by a multitude of fugitives, and conducts them to Mount Ida.

748. recondo: cf. the use of occulit, I, 312.

749. cingor: with middle sense. Cf. 1. 383. Aeneas had given his weapons to his attendants, while carrying his father.

See l. 714.

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