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Trojans. It was customary to hang such spoils on the door posts of houses, as well as of temples. Cf. V, 393; VII, 183. The same use of .barbaric' occurs in Milton, Par. Lost, II, 3:

'Or where the gorgeous East, with richest hand,
Showers on her kings barbaric pearl and gold.'

506. fuerint: see note on videat, I, 181. The fate of Priam has just been indicated in general terms, but it is natural to ask the particulars of his death. requiras: H. 552; LM. 717, 718; A. 311, a; B. 280, 1; G. 257; (H. 486, 1).

507. uti: temporal, as ut, in l. 67. 508. medium : cf. I, 348.

509. Arma: especially the lorica. diu: join with desueta. senior : 'the aged king.'

510. umeris: dative. See note on 1, 412. ferrum : accusative with cingi. tur, which has a middle force. See note on exuvias, l. 275.

511. fertur : is hurrying '; but he is interrupted by Hecuba. See l. 515. moriturus: cf. periturus, l. 408.

512. Aedibus in mediis : ‘in the midst of the palace'; in the inner court. See note on l. 487. nudo sub axe: “under the open vault.'

515. nequiquam: 'in vain’; for, in the end, its sacredness failed to save them. circum: see note on I, 32. 516. Praecipites:

: = se praecipitantes. 517. sedebant: it was the custom to flee for refuge, in time of peril, to the altars and images of the gods.

519. mens: ‘purpose.' 520. cingi: sc. te.

521. auxilio: for the ablative, see note on l. 44. defensoribus istis: “such defenses as those (weapons) of thine.?

522. non, si, etc. : not even if my Hector were now here.' For not even Hlector could now help us with arms; it is only the altar, and the gods, that

can save us.

525. sacra in sede: i.e. on the altar, or steps of the altar.

526. Polites has been defending the entrance to the palace, in company with those mentioned in l. 449. Pyrrhus, from whom he has already received a deadly wound, is on the point of dispatching him. Pyrrhi de caede: from the death-dealing hand of Pyrrhus.'

528. Porticibus: “along the porticoes '; the ablative of the way or route. His flight is through the colonnades which surround the courts, and also across the courts. vacua: either "empty,' referring to some of the courts not yet occupied by the Greeks, or open,'' spacious.' Cf. 1. 761. lustrat: *traverses.'

529. infesto vulnere: 'with deadly aim '; join with insequitur.

530. iam iam: ‘now, even now. -que: connects insequitur with the following verbs. premit: 'is close upon him.'

533. in media morte tenetur : i.e. death is all around him; his son lies before him dead, and his own death is imminent.

535. ausis : 'reckless deeds.'
536. si: as in 1, 603. curet: clause of characteristic.
538. coram : equivalent to oculis meis.

539. foedasti: ‘hast violated.' It implies both the outrage to his nature as a father, and the defiling of his person with the blood of the slain; for the touch, or even the presence, of a corpse rendered the individual religiously impure.

540. quo: H. 469, 2; LM. 609; A. 244, a and N. 1; B. 215; G. 395; (H. 415, II). mentiris : ‘you falsely pretend '; for you would dishonor such a father.

541. in hoste: 'in respect to (toward) his enemy.' iura fidemque supplicis erubuit: ‘he respected (lit. 'blushed at ') a suppliant's rights, a suppliant's trust.'

542. sepulcro: dative of the purpose; ‘for burial.'
543. Hectoreum: see note on I, 200.
544. senior: cf. I. 509. sine ictu : "without force' or 'effect.'
545. repulsum: sc. est.

547. ergo: 'so then. The particle expresses bitter irony. The future here is almost equivalent to an imperative.

549. Degenerem: a scornful allusion to the comparison between father and son, just made by Priam, Il. 540 sqq.

550. Hoc dicens : «while saying this.' trementem: not with fear, but with age. See l. 509.

552. Implicuit comam laeva : for comae laevam. Cf. 1. 723.

553. Extulit: 'raised on high.' lateri: dative for in latus. See note on 1. 18. capulo tenus : up to the hilt. For the position of tenus, see note

on 1, 13.

555. Sorte tulit: ‘befell by fate.'
556. populis, terris : ablative, denoting the cause of superbum.

558. sine nomine: 'without a name '; because deprived of the head, that by which the individual is distinguished.

559–631. Aeneas is reminded, by the fate of Priam and his house, of his own father and family, and is hastening homeward, when he discovers the Grecian Helen, the cause of all these misfortunes, hiding in the temple of Vesta. He stops, and is on the point of taking vengeance by putting her to death, but he is deterred by his mother, who appears to him in her own form, and reveals to him the gods at work in the destruction of Troy. He submits to fate, and, guarded by Venus, arrives at his home in safety.

559. tum primum: Aeneas is now for the first time awakened to all the horrors of his own situation, and that of his family.

562. subiit : came to my mind '; sc. mentem. Cf. I. 575. Creusa: wife of Aeneas, and daughter of Priam.

563. domus : has the last syllable long under the ictus. See note on paror, 1. 369. casus: 'the fortune '; as in I, 623.

564. Respicio : ‘I look about.' He has been absorbed in the scene in the court below, and the death of Priam. Now he withdraws his eyes to consider what is going on around him on the battlements. sit: subjunctive mood in indirect question. quae copia : “what force?'

566. Ad terram, etc. : 'they have cast themselves (from the battlements) to the ground. The perfect definite is used here with reference to the preceding historical present.

567. The passage, as far as l. 587, appears inconsistent with VI, 510-527, and is said to have been set aside by Tucca and Varius, the critics to whom the manuscript of Virgil was committed by Augustus. Hence, it is wanting in the best manuscripts; but it is regarded as Virgilian by recent commentators, and is retained in practically all texts. adeo: Virgil often joins this particle with iam. It may be translated, .so now.' super unus eram : for supereram. limina : *shrine.'

568. servantem : ‘keeping ’; i.e. holding, as a place of refuge, secure on account of its sacredness.

570. Erranti: he has left the battlements of the palace, but is still on the Acropolis, seeking to escape to his own house, without coming in contact with the enemy. Hence he pursues a devious course, looking about cautiously, oculos per cuncta ferenti.

571. eversa Pergama : 'the overthrow of Troy.' See note on l. 413.

572. poenas Danaum: “punishment inflicted by the Greeks.' What genitive? Cf. Ulixi, 1. 436. coniugis : Menelaus.

573. communis Erinys: because she had been the cause of the ten years' war, which had been attended with many disasters to the Greeks, and was now closing with the destruction of Troy.

574. aris sedebat: i.e. on the steps of the altar. invisa : 'odious,' .hateful.'

575. ignes : ‘fury'; the fires of passion. subit ira: ‘wrath enters (my soul).'

576. The infinitives as in l. 10. sceleratas poenas : = sceleris poenas. (f.

VI, 563.

577. Mycenas: put for Graeciam. Cf. I, 650.

means,

578. triumpho: ablative absolute, with parto.

579. Coniugium : = coniugem. Cf. XI, 270. patres : 'parents’; as soceros, l. 457580. comitata : cf. I, 312, and note. turba, ministris: ablative of

In the Odyssey, books IV and XV, Helen is reinstated as queen in the palace of Menelaus at Sparta. It should be remarked that the impression given by Virgil of Helen is widely different from that which we get from the Iliad and Odyssey, where she is represented rather as the victim of misfortune than as a deliberate evil-doer. See Fig. 18.

581, 582. The future perfects express the bitter indignation with which he conceives of her about to return in triumph after having occasioned all this

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583. Non ita : 'it shall not be thus.'
584. Feminea : possessive, as Hectoreum, 1. 543.

585. Exstinxisse : the infinitive depends upon an idea of saying, implied in laudabor, which is equivalent to cum laude dicar. nefas: metonymy for nefariam.

586. explesse : more intensive than implesse.

587. Ultricis flammae: with avenging fury.' See note on I, 215. satiasse: “to have appeased. The Manes of the slain cannot be quiet in the lower world until they are revenged.

590. pura luce: ‘in clear light'; not in a cloud, as gods often appear.

591. confessa : put for the present, as comitata, l. 580; her godhead mani. fest ’; not disguised, as in I, 314 sqq.

592. quanta : so great as '; .for the gods are conceived to be of lofty stature. dextra : she seized the hand with which he was about to slay Helen. prehensum Continuit: sc. me. See note on I, 69.

Cf. I, 250.

595. nostri: Venus is represented as including herself with the family of Aeneas.

596. prius : 'first '; i.e. before you think of slaying Helen. ubi: interrogative.

597. -ne: in prose would be joined to superet. 599. resistat: see note on I, 58.

600. tulerint, hauserit: the perfects suppose the completion of the action at the present time.

601. tibi: ethical. Not the hateful form of Helen, as you think, not the guilty Paris, but the stern will of the gods, is overthrowing this dominion for thee.

602. -ve: trans. 'nor.'
603. opes: "might,” • power.' a culmine: cf. 1. 290, and note.

604. Aspice: Venus now causes Aeneas to see all that the gods see. The great gods themselves are destroying the city.

605. tibi: dative of reference, equivalent to the genitive of possession. H. 425, 4, N.; LM. 538; A. 235, a ; B. 188, 1, N.; G. 350; (H. 384, II, 4, N. 2). umida caligat: 'gathers misty.'

606. ne qua parentis Iussa time: 'fear not to follow any commands of thy mother'; for now that your eyes are opened to things invisible, you may understand that her counsels are safe.

609. undantem: ‘rising in waves.' mixto pulvere : ‘mingled with dust.'

610. Neptunus : Neptune had built the walls of Troy for Laomedon, the father of Priam, and was defrauded by that king of his stipulated reward. Hence his hostility to Troy. tridenti: join with emota.

612. Scaeas: the Scaean gate was on the west side of Troy, looking toward the sea. By this the Grecians were still pouring into the city. Cf. 1. 330.

613. Prima : 'foremost '; as leader of the Greeks.

615. Iam: now at length even Pallas joins in the destruction. She usually aids in building, not destroying. respice: cf. 1. 564. His attention had been directed thus far by Venus to the walls and the gate, where Neptune

and Juno are acting; now he turns to behold Minerva, who sits upon the top of the citadel, probably on the pediment of her own temple.

616. nimbo effulgens et Gorgone saeva : bright with her storm-cloud and Gorgon grim.' The nimbus refers to the aegis of Zeus, which the goddess often

wore, and from which, if shaken, proceeded storm and Fig. 21. – Gorgon

lightning. The Gorgon's head was in the center of the (1. 616)

shield. 617. Ipse pater: even Jupiter, though not unfriendly to the Trojans, must execute the decree of destiny.

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