Page images

Greek accusative, used with somewhat more boldness than usual, as it is ap. plied not to a part of the person, nor even to the dress. Cf. note on I, 22 The ordinary Greek accusative here would have been pedes, accompanied by loris in the ablative.

274. Ei mihi: H. 432; LM. 541; A. 236; B. 188, 2, 6; G. 351; (H. 389, N. 2). qualis: refers to the appearance of Hector's person.

275. redit: the present in vivid narration. H. 532, 3; LM. 733; A. 276, d; B. 259, 3; G. 229; (11.476, III). qui redit: may be rendered · returning.' exuvias: the spoils '; those, namely, which had been taken from the body of Patroclus, whom Hector had slain in battle, and who had worn the armor of his friend Achilles. Hence, they are called here the spoils of Achilles.' For the accusative, see H. 407; LM. 511; A. 240, c, N.; B. 175, 2, d'; G. 338, N. 2; (H. 377); and cf. note on I, 320.

276. iaculatus: “after he had hurled.' puppibus : ‘upon the ships.' The ships were drawn up from the water, with the sterns toward the land, and surrounded on the land side by fortifications.

278. quae plurima: see note on 1, 419. The wounds are those wantonly inflicted on the dead body of Hector by the Greeks, and the mutilations received when it was dragged by the chariot of Achilles. Ultro: ‘at once,' “first '; lit., 'of my own accord,' without waiting to be first addressed by the ghost; join with compellare. flens ipse : ‘myself also weeping’; as well as he.

282. morae: in his dream Aeneas does not realize that Hector is dead, but fancies that he has been long absent, and anxiously waited for.

283. Exspectate: vocative by attraction for the nominative. H. 402, 3; LM. 493; A. 241, 6; G. 325, R. I; (H. 369, 3). ut: 'how'; i.e. “how gladly ; join with aspicimus.

287. nihil : the object of respondit understood. moratur: 'nor heeds my useless inquiries.'

290. a culmine: “from the summit'; from top to bottom. Cf. below, I. 603.

291. Sat - datum: ‘enough has been done by thee for thy country and for Priam.' (Qua) dextra : by (any) right hand '; i.e. by human prowess.

292. hac: 'with this'; i.e. with mine. For the construction, see 11. 574; LM. 938; A. 308; B. 304; G. 597; (II. 510).

293. Sacra : sc. sua. A limiting word pertaining equally to two substan. tives is sometimes expressed only with the last. (f. surgentem, I, 366. The Penates of Troy are those which pertain to the whole state in common, 25 distinguished from those of individual families.

294. comites: “as companions'; in apposition with hos. his: dative. moenia: for urbem.

295. The order is : quae magna, ponto pererrato, denique statues. Alth ngh this city was Lavinium, the poet seems to have Rome in mind.


296, 297. The vision seems to bring the figure of Vesta with the fillets round her head, and other sacra which pertained to her worship, from the penetralia, or sanctuary of the house. Among the Penates of the city or state appear to have been included Jupiter, Juno, and Vesta; perhaps, also, Neptune, Apollo, and other great gods. These are also called Dei Magni. See III, 12, and VIII, 679.

298. Diverso luctu: ‘with manifold sounds of woe.' Cf. XII, 620.

299, 300. secreta -- recessit: the house of Anchises was remote from the Scaean gate, where the enemy were chiefly assembled, and it also stood by itself. Recessit, as refugit, III, 536, denotes situation rather than motion.

302. summi fastigia tecti : “the battlements on the top of the roof. Cf. below, l. 458, and note.

303. arrectis auribus : cf. I, 152; II, 206.

304. veluti cum, etc.: as the shepherd, ignorant (inscius) of the remote cause of the devastation around him, is amazed (stupet), so Aeneas, at first stupefied by what he hears and sees, does not comprehend the origin and nature of the uproar. Cf. X, 405; XII, 521. furentibus austris : ablative absolute, expressing time. Austris is used for winds in general, as in I, 536.

305. rapidus montano flumine: '(made) impetuous by the mountain flood.' With this and the following line cf. Spenser, Faërie Queene, II, 11, 18:

'Like a great water-flood, that, tombling low
From the high mountaines, threates to overflow
With suddein fury all the fertile playne.'

306. boum labores : by metonymy for segetes. 307. inscius: ‘ignorant (of the cause).'

309. fides: 'the truth,' or 'the fact '; namely, that the Greeks had got possession of the city. Est is to be supplied.

310. Deiphobi: his death is described in VI, 509 sqq.

311. Vulcano : i.e. igni. See note on I, 215. proximus : 'next' to the house of Desphobus.

312. Ucalegon : a bold metonymy for the “house of Ucalegon.' Cf. III, 275. Sigea freta : “the Sigean waters '; about four miles northwest from Troy.

314. nec sat rationis (est mihi): ‘nor have I sufficient deliberation’; 'I have not a clear purpose in seizing arms ’; do not consider what is to be done or gained in fighting.

315. bello: dative for ad bellum. arcem : 'the citadel.'

313. pulchrum: the predicate accusative with esse understood, of which mori is subject. H. 394, 4; 615, 2; LM. 972; A. 189, d; B. 327; G. 422; (H. 438, 3 and 538, 2). succurrit, etc. : 'the thought comes over me’; in the midst of the excitement I have one thought only: that it is glorious to die in arms.'

Cf. l. 457

318. Ecce: cf. 1. 203.

319. arcis Phoebique: priest of the citadel only so far as he was priest of Apollo, whose temple, like those of the other tutelary gods, was on the citadel.

320. Sacra, deos: cf. 1. 293. victos: as in I, 68. 321. trahit: 'leads.'

cursu tendit: 'hastens'; lit. 'holds (his way) with running.' limina: “(my) threshold '; the house of Anchises and Aeneas. The arrival of Panthus with the sacra is a fulfillment of the words of lector's ghost: Troy commits to thee her gods. See l. 293. The poet leaves us to understand that the child and the sacred objects are left by Panthus at the palace of Anchises. See l. 717.

322. res summa: 'the common weal. Quo loco: “in what condition.' Panthu: the Latin vocative, from the Greek Ilávdov. quam prendimus arcem ? what stronghold are we to seize?' The present is used for the future, as not infrequently in animated discourse. Cf. III, 88. H. 533, 2; A. 276, c; G. 228.

324. summa: 'final.'

325. Fuimus, fuit: an impressive way of saying, "we have ceased to be Trojans; Ilium no longer exists.' H. 538, 1; LM. 743; A. 279, a; G. 236, 1. (11. 467, III, 5). Dardaniae: dative.

329. Sinon: see note on l. 259. miscet: “scatters all around.'

330. Insultans: expresses the joy Sinon feels in the success of his stratagem, as well as his contempt for the victims of it. alii: “others,' as opposed to that portion of the Greeks who have descended from the horse. bipatentibus portis : ‘at the wide-open gates.' (f. 1. 266.

331. Milia quot: sc. the antecedent tot, the subject of adsunt understood. See note on I, 430. Mycenis: H. 491, II, 2; LM. 605; A. 258, a ; B. 229, 1; G. 391; (H. 428, II).

332. alii: another portion of the main body from the ships. angusta viarum : “the narrow passageways.' See note on 1, 422.

333. Oppositi: opposed '; i.e. to the Trojans who attempt to resist. stat Stricta: a lively substitute for est stricta ; suggesting the position of the blade firmly grasped, and raised for the blow. mucrone corusco: ablative of description.

334. primi: those who are foremost, or at the gate. 335. caeco Marte: “in the blind conflict.' (f. IX, 518.

336. numine divum: not by his own deliberate purpose, for he had nut sat rationis in armis.

337. tristis Erinys: "the grim Fury'; the gloomy spirit of conflict.
339. Addunt se socios: cf. VI, 778.
341. agglomerant: sc. se ; .gather around.' nostro: for meo, as in l. 139.
343. insano: “frantic.'

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

344. gener : ‘as a (future) son-in-law.'
345. furentis : ‘prophetic.'
346. Audierit: cf. the use of esset, l. 248.

347. Quos ubi vidi: see note on I, 72. audere : 'venturing upon.' H. 613, 1; LM. 961; A. 272; B. 331, 1; G. 527; (II. 535, I).

348. super: as in I, 29. •Besides' the enthusiasm they already manifest, I seek to enkindle more, and so begin with these words.' his : ablative of


349. Pectora: as animi, I. 144, put for persons.

audentem : sc. me. si vobis, etc.: sc. the indicative, est, since there is no uncertainty. extrema: 'a last hazard.' cupido Certa : “a fixed resolve.'

350. sequi: for the infinitive depending on cupido, see note on l. 10.

351. Excessere: the ancients believed that the capture of a city or country was preceded by the departure of its tutelary gods.

352. quibus : 'through whom'; ablative of means.

353. moriamur, ruamus : ‘let us die, and (to that end) rush into the midst of the enemy.' Also taken as an instance of hysteron proteron. See on l. 259. Cf. III, 662.

354. Una salus: predicate nominative: “to hope for no safety (is) the only safety of the conquered.' 357. caecos : 'blind,' or .furious' from hunger.

360. nox atra: the moon is at times obscured. See 11. 397, 420, and 621. But night in general, whether with or without a moon, may be understood as "dark,' contrasted with day.

361. fando: in speech.' 364, 365. -que -que : 'both — and.' See note on I, 18. inertia : ‘lifeless,' referring to the corpses of the slain; or helpless, with reference to the bodies of old men, women, and children, and persons unfit for war.

366. poenas dant sanguine : “suffer punishment with blood ’; i.e. suffer

death. Cf. 1. 72.

369. pavor: H. 733, 5; LM. 1114; A. 359, s; B. 367, 2; G. 721; (11. 608, V). plurima imago : ‘many a vision’; innumerable corpses, representations of death, everywhere scen.

371. Androgeos: a Grecian hero, not mentioned in Homer. credens: sc.

MOS esse.

372. ultro: 'at once,''first ’; as in l. 279; without being first addressed. 376. Responsa Fida : “reliable answers.'

377. sensit delapsus : lit. ‘having fallen, he perceived (it)”; a Greek idiom for sensit se delapsum esse.

378. retro repressit: 'checked.'
379. aspris: for asperis. sentibus : ablative of place where.
380. humi nitens : ‘with firm tread.' See note on I, 193.

381. Attollentem iras: "rears its angry crest.' Iras is equivalent to ira. tum caput. colla: Greek accusative.

383. densis, etc.: "and we surround them with our serried arms'; the verb is used in the middle sense; lit. 'we poured ourselves about them.' Cf. implentur, I, 215; and teguntur, l. 227.

384. -que: connects the verbs circumfundimur and sternimus. 385. Adspirat: ‘smiles upon.' labori : “conflict.'

386. successu, animisque: ablatives of cause; both success and boldness of spirit make the youth exult.

388. ostendit se dextra : for ostendit se dextram ; 'shows herself favorable.'

389. insignia: ‘martial ornaments’; the arms by which the Greeks were distinguished from the Trojans, especially their helmets and shields.

390. Dolus: sc. sil. requirat: see note on l. 8, 391. deinde: see note on I, 195.

392. clipei insigne decorum: 'the shield with its beautiful device'; insigne is a noun. Shields were often adorned with raised work in metal. For the accusative, see note on l. 275.

396. haud numine nostro: ablative of attendant circumstance; “under an unfavorable divinity'; lit. ‘under a divinity not our own. The possessive sometimes has the force of secundus.

400. Fida : "safe,' as affording a retreat to the ships. 401. conduntur: for se condunt. Cf. 1. 383.

402. nihil fas (est) fidere, etc.: ‘alas, men may not put their trust in unwilling gods'; i.e. the Trojans, in putting on Greek armor, placed themselves under the protection of the divinities who were unfavorable to them. The sentiment is intended to introduce the incident which immediately fol. lows, and which turns the tide of success against the Trojans.

403. Priameia: daughter of Priam.'

404. Crinibus : see note on I, 480. a templo Minervae: she had fled to the shrine of Minerva for refuge. adytis : ‘from the inner sanctuary.' This was the outrage referred to in 1, 41, which provoked the wrath of Minerva against Ajax Oileüs.

407. speciem : 'spectacle. Coroebus: see 11. 341 sqq. furiata mente: ablative absolute.

408. periturus: see note on l. 46.

409. densis armis : ablative of manner, as in l. 383. Eis, or hostibus, in the dative, is understood after incurrimus.

410. delubri culmine: a party of Trojans was hurling down missiles from the top of the temple of Minerva on the citadel.

411. obruimur: for the quantity of the last syllable, see note on pavor, 1. 369.

412. Armorum facie, etc. : 'on account of the appearance of our arms, and the mistake arising from our Grecian crests'; so facies is used in V, 708.

« PreviousContinue »