Page images

gold, were secreted in the tent of Palamedes; and these being produced against him, he was stoned to death by the Greeks, on the charge of corre. spondence with the enemy.

85. Demisere neci : "they condemned to death ’; so morti demittere, V, 692. lumine: “life.' H. 465; LM. 604; A. 243, d; B. 214, 1, d; G. 390, 3; (H. 414, 1).

lugent: now mourn him because they need his wise counsels. It was his reputation for wisdom which had excited the jealousy of Ulysses. Supply et or quem before nunc - luget.

86. Illi — annis : conclusion of the condition introduced by si (l. 81). et: connects comitem and consanguinitate propinquum as two considerations on account of which Sinon was sent.

87. Pauper: the term is calculated to excite compassion in the hearers. in arma : for in bellum.

88. stabat regno: “stood safe in his royal dignity.' regum vigebat Conciliis : had weight in the assemblies of the princes.' The Grecian chiefs held frequent councils in their camp below Troy.

89. et nos: 'I also '; the plural, as in l. 139. que — que: cf. I, 18.

91. Haud ignota : 'things by no means unknown.' The cunning of Sinon shows itself in connecting his pretended misfortunes with the real ones of Palamedes, the account of which has doubtless already reached the Trojans. superis - ab oris : ‘from the upper world ’; from this region of the living to the lower world, sub umbras. Cf. IV, 660. For the tense after postquam, see note on I, 216.

92. in tenebris : 'in gloomy solitude.'

94. me: subject of fore understood. tulisset : should bring it about.' The pluperfect bjunctive represents a future per ect indicative of the direct discourse. H. 644, 2; LM. 804; A. 286, R.; B. 269, 1, ); G. 657, 4; (H. 525, 2).

95. Argos: for Graeciam. Cf. I, 285. Palamedes was from Euboea. 96. odia: the hatred, namely, of Ulysses.

97. Hinc: ‘from this cause '; others regard it as temporal, ófrom this time.' prima labes: the first ruinous step,''the beginning of misfortune.'

98, 99. The infinitives are historical. H. 610; LM. 708, 709; A. 275; B. 335; G. 647; (II. 536, I). Cf. the language of Milton (Par. Lost, 5, 703): –

'Tells the suggested cause and casts between
Ambiguous words and jealousies.'

conscius : conscious (of wrong)'; i.e. conscius sibi sceleris; knowing his own guilt, and the danger of being exposed by me. arma: “weapons '; means for my destruction.

100. Calchante ministro: with Calchas for his tool.' Sinon artfully breaks off here, in order to excite the Trojans to further inquiries.

101. Sed autem: but indeed. The phrase is colloquial, intended to give naturalness to the narration. ingrata : 'unwelcome. Sinon pretends to think that the narrative possesses no interest for the Trojans.

102. si: nearly equivalent to quoniam. Omnes : all the Greeks, whether such as Palamedes and Sinon or such as Ulysses.

103. Id: i.e. me Achivum esse. Iamdudum : now at once. It implies that the act has already been long delayed.

104. magno: for the case, see H. 478; LM.652, 653; A. 252, d ; B. 225; G. 404; (H. 422). With velit and mercentur the protasis, si possint, is to be supplied.

107. Prosequitur: ‘proceeds.' This verb in this sense, and without an object, seems to occur only here.

109. Moliri: the term implies effort to overcome difficulties. bello: join

with fessi.

110. Fecissent: “would that they had so done.' See note on I, 576. If they had gone away at that time, Sinon would not have been condemned as the victim for sacrifice.

1. euntes: “when departing’; not actually on their way, but when on the point of going.

114. Suspensi : “uncertain'; not knowing what to do. scitantem : 'to consult'; a present participle denoting purpose. See note on I, 519.

115. adytis : ‘from the sanctuary.'

116. placastis : for placavistis. See note on I, 201. virgine caesa : 'by the sacrifice of a maiden.' For the construction, see note on l. 413. The Grecian chiefs had assembled at Aulis before sailing for Troy, and being detained by contrary winds, were instructed to sacrifice Iphigenia, the daughter of Agamemnon, as a propitiatory offering to Diana.

118. quaerendi: sc. sunt. litandum : 'heaven must be appeased.'

119. Argolica : “Grecian.' A Greek must now be slain, just as the victim at the beginning of the war was a Greek. Vulgi: 'of the multitude'; i.e. the common soldiery. vox: 'response.' ut: “when.' See note on I, 216.

120, 121. ima Ossa : 'our inmost marrow.' Cf. III, 308; VI, 54.

121. cui fata parent : ‘for whom the fates are preparing (death). This and the following question depend on tremor, which implies some such word as incertorum. quem poscat Apollo: i.e. who it is that the oracle of Apollo means,

122. Hic: "here'; as an adverb of time.

123. Protrahit: Calchas pretends to be reluctant. ea numina divum : these commands of the gods.' Ulysses demands of Calchas what person is meant by this revelation of Apollo.

124. iam canebant: 'were already foretelling.' 125. Artificis : 'of the plotter.' The cunning of Ulysses, as Sinon wished the Trojans to understand, was exercised in turning the oracle to his private purpose by causing his tool, Calchas, to single out Sinon as the victim. ven. tura: 'what was to come.'

126. Bis quinos: cf. I, 71, 381, and notes. tectus : 'concealing his thoughts’; possibly also in its literal sense, 'shut up in his tent.' 129. Composito: for ex composito, ' by agreement '; i.e. with Ulysses.

131. conversa (ea): equivalent to earum rerum conversionem. See note on 1. 413. “They (readily) suffered the turning of those ills, which each feared for himself, to the destruction of one unhappy wretch'; i.e. when once I had been declared the victim, they were all relieved from farther apprehensions for them. selves.

132. parari: historical infinitive.

133. salsae fruges: for mola salsa, 'the salted

meal. Cf. IV, 517. Grain, parched, crushed, and Fig. 13. – Head of Bull adorned with Vittae

mixed with salt, was thrown upon the victim. vittae : (1. 133)

'fillets,' or twisted bands of white and red wool.

134. fateor : the term implies that it might be considered culpable to have shrunk from a sacrifice demanded by religion. vincula : the cords with which he was bound when being led to the altar.

135, 136. obscurus Delitui: 'I lay hid and unseen.' si — dedissent: if perchance they should set sail.' See note on l. 94. dedissent is put by the law of sequence of tenses (after delitui) for the fut. perf. dederint. The clause is virtually in indirect discourse, depending upon the idea of thinking in Sinon's mind. There was the uncertainty whether the Greeks would, after all, set sail without having made the appointed sacrifice of one of their own countrymen.

139. Quos: accusative of the person; poenas: of the thing; “from whom, perchance, they will also exact punishment.' H. 411; LM. 522; A. 239, (; B. 178, 1, a; G. 339; (H. 374).

141. Quod : 'wherefore, lit. 'as to which.' H. 416, 2; LM. 507; A. 240, b; B. 176, 3; G. 334; (H. 378, 2). te: addressed to Priam.

142. Per: the following clause suggests the object : 'if there still be any inviolable pledge anywhere among men, by this I adjure thee.' For the sepa. ration of per from its case in adjurations, see note on IV, 314. quae restet: clause of characteristic.

143. laborum : for the case, see H. 457; LM. 586; A. 221, 6; B. 209, 2; G. 377; (H. 406, 1).

144. animi: “a spirit'; put for the person. non digna: “undeserved.'

145. lacrimis: ablative of cause; "by reason of these tears.' ultro: be sides,' “moreover.' This word is capable of a variety of significations, arising from the fact that it means that 'beyond what is expected or required.



148. amissos: “whom you have given up.' hinc: ‘henceforth.'
149. haec edissere vera: declare these things truthfully.'
150. Quo: whereto,' to what end.'

151. quae religio, etc.: 'what sacred token is it, or (if none) what engine of war?'

154. aeterni ignes : sun, moon, and stars. (f. III, 599; IX, 429.

155. enses: the sacrificial knives. All the holy objects Sinon appeals to are witnesses of the outrage he has suffered, and of his being bound by no tie of loyalty to his countrymen.

157. Fas: sc. est.

158. ferre sub auras : “to bring to the light.'

159. tegunt: sc. illi ; i.e. the Greeks.

160. promissis: the prose construction is in promissis maneas. Cf. VIII, 643. 163. auxiliis : ablative of means.

OHAIE ENOIEN ex quo: 'from what time'; antece

Fig. 14. — Diomedes and Clysses carrying dent is in ex illo, below, l. 169.

off the Palladium (11. 165 sqq.) 164. sed enim: as in 1, 19.

165. Fatale: 'fateful'; the Palladium was so termed because the fate of Troy depended on its preservation. It was a small, rude image of Pallas, which was believed to have fallen from heaven, and was guarded by the Trojans with great care.

168. vittas: the fillets round the head of the image.

169. fluere, referri: historical infinitives. This metaphor seems to be drawn from the movement of a ship which the rowers have ccased to propel against the current, so that it again falls down the stream.

171. ea signa : "tokens of this,' i.e. of her displeasure. Cf. III, 505.

172. simulacrum : the Palladium. arsere : would be regularly connected with the foregoing vix positum by -que, et, or cum.

Cf. 1. 6992. 173. Luminibus arrectis : ‘from her starting eyeballs.'

174. ipsa: the image itself, per se. ter: see note on 1, 94. solo: H. 464; LM. 600; A. 243, ); B. 214; G. 300; (H. 434, N. I). dictu : see note on 1, ul.

176. That an image should show such miraculous signs of anger is a sufficient reason to the minds of the Trojans, as Sinon is well aware, for the advice of Calchas and the hasty departure of the Greeks. There is, therefore, no difficulty now in believing that the Greeks have actually gone, and that what Sinon adds about the destination of the wooden horse is reasonable and true.

178. Omina ni repetant Argis : ‘unless they seek the omens again in Greece. They had before sailing for Troy taken the omens at Aulis. Virgil may have in mind the practice of Roman generals, who, under certain cir. cumstances, went back to Rome to renew the auspices. numen : 'the favor of heaven.'

179. quod -- avexere : 'which (says Sinon) they brought away (of old) upon the sea. The indicative mood shows this statement to be the language of Sinon, not of Calchas, which would have been quoted indirectly, and be put therefore in the subjunctive mood.

180. quod petiere -- parant: “as to the fact that they have sought — (it is because) they are preparing. H. 588, 3, N.; LM. 847; A. 333, a; B. 299, 2; G. 525, 2; (H. 540, IV, N).

181. Arma, deos: i.e. reënforcements for war and the favor of the gods.

183. moniti: ‘being instructed'; namely, by Calchas. pro: 'in place of.' Here Sinon comes to the most delicate part of his story; he must give a plausible reason both for the building of the horse and for its vast size, and he must make such suggestions as shall induce the Trojans to take it into the city.

184. quae piaret: 'to atone for.' See note on I, 20.

185, 186. The emphasis is on immensam, which should be joined to attollere. They were not only advised to build this in place of the Palladium, but to build it of vast dimensions, so that the Trojans might not get it into the city to serve as a new Palladium, and that they might be tempted through suspicion to lay violent hands upon it, and thus incur the anger of Minerva.

186. Roboribus : ablative expressing the means of attollere. caelo : dative for ad caelum. See note on Latio, I, 6.

187. portis : the instrumental ablative of way by which. H. 476; LM. 644; A. 258, g; B. 218, 9; G. 389; (H. 420, 1, 3'). moenia : for urbem.

188. Neu: 'or lest'; = et ne. antiqua sub religione: under the same religious security as that which they had enjoyed under the Palladium.

189. Nam -- violasset : this is the continuation, in the oblique form, of what Calchas had stated. An idea of saying is implied in the foregoing verb, iussit (1. 186). For the subjunctive, see note on l. 94.

190. omen: i.e. the fate or destruction indicated by the omen. ipsum : refers to Calchas.

193. Ultro: beyond' what you would expect; i.e. “actually,' “even.' See note on 1. 145.

194. nostros : refers to the Greeks. ea fata : "such fates,' namely, as the exitium in l. 190. This calamity would await the posterity of the Greeks if the horse should be received into the city by the Trojans.

198. mille: a round number. In the Iliad, II, 924 sqq., the number of the Grecian ships is stated as 1186.

« PreviousContinue »