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is the subject. H. 615; LM. 971; A. 272, R.; B. 327; G. 535; (H. 538), minores, etc. : 'that their descendants have called the country Italy.'

533. gentem: metonymy for terram. ducis: this leader was Italus, a king of the Oenotri, or, according to Thucydides, of the Siculi,

534. hic: not the adverb. This verse, like many others (fifty-four in all in the twelve books of the Aeneid), was left unfinished, though the sense is complete; in fact, the only example of such a hemistich that is incomplete in sense occurs III, 340.

535. adsurgens fluctu : ‘rising from the wave.' See note on Italiam, I. 2. subito: may be joined to tulit, or connected, as an adjective, with fluctu, thus, 'with a sudden wave' or 'sea.' The setting of the constellation Orion in November was proverbial in the ancient writers as portending stormy weather. In consequence, Orion was supposed to exert a direct influence upon the weather, even though represented as rising, as in the present passage. The first 0 in Orion here is short; in III, 517, it is long.

536. penitus : as in I.

538.. pauci: 'few in number'; i.e. as compared with the whole fleet, a large part of which is missing. oris : cf. I. 377.

539. Quod genus, etc.: refers to the Carthaginian subjects of Dido. 540. hospitio : H. 464; LM. 600; A. 243; B. 214, 2; G. 390, 2; (H. 414). ·

541. Bella cient: refers to the same Carthaginians, stationed to guard the shore. Dido has commanded her people to oppose the landing of strangers. prima terra : 'the very shore'; lit. the first part of the land.' H. 497, 4; LM. 565; A. 193; B. 241, 1; G. 291, R. 2; (H. 440, 2, N. 1).

543. sperate, etc.: 'expect the gods to be mindful.'

544. quo iustior, etc.: sc. neque before alter. Trans, : •Aeneas was our king, than whom there neither was any more righteous, nor more renowned in piety, or in war and in arms.'

547. Aetheria : the poets sometimes use aether and aetherius for aer and aerius. Cf. below, I. 587, and VI, 762; VII, 557. umbris: for in umbris.

548. Non metus : sc, est nobis, we have no sear'; i.e. as to our ultimate safety. priorem, etc.: nor would you regret having tried to anticipate him in kind offices.'

549. et: = praeterea. The thought is : Besides the consideration that there is a hope of recovering our chief, and that he will return your favors, we have also Trojan friends and cities in Sicily ready to receive us; so that you need not fear any attempt on our part to settle here in your country.

552. silvis: see note on Italium, 1. 2. stringere remos: “to trim oars ’; for facere remos. 553. Si datur : protasis of ut petamus.

rege, sociis : ablative absolute of attendant circumstance. recepto: agrees with the nearest noun, and is

understood with sociis. H. 395, 1; LM. 485; A. 187, 1; B. 235, 1; G. 290; (H. 439, 1).

554. ut petamus : here, and in l. 558, is the purpose of subducere, aptare, and stringere.

556. nec spes — Iuli: "our hopes in Iulus no longer exist.' Cr. VI, 364.

557. At — saltem : 'yet at least (even though Aeneas be lost) that we may seek the waters of Sicily.' freta : as in l. 607. sedes paratas: the settlement already established in Sicily under King Acestes. See note on l. 195.

558. Unde — advecti: they have just left Sicily. See l. 34.

561. vultum : see note on sinus, l. 320. demissa : “downcast,' not only through modesty, but also on account of the outrages charged upon her subjects, ll. 525, 539-541.

562. corde : see H. 462; LM. 600; A. 243; B. 214; G. 390, 2; (H. 414).

563. Res dura : 'haru necessity '; my hard condition’; for she is in cun. stant danger of invasion from the warlike Libyans (see l. 339) and from her hostile brother. See 11. 347 sqq. talia Moliri: 'to take such precautions '; to devise such things; namely, as patrols (custode). For the mood, see note on III, 134.

565. Aeneadum :- = Aeneadarum. quis nesciat: see 11. 557; LM. 723; · A. 268; B. 277; G. 265; (II. 486, II). How Dido has heard of the Trojans is explained below, 11. 619 sqq.

566. Virtutes : 'the prowess.'

568. aversus : ‘remote'; i.e. we are not so far from the world that our minds are stupid or uninformed (obtunsa).

569. Saturnia arva: an appellation of Latium, because it had been the retreat of Saturn, when driven by Jupiter from his throne in Olympus. (f. VIII, 319. It has here the same restrictive relation to Hesperiam as, in l. 2, Lavina litora to Italiam.

571. Auxilio: join with tutos as an ablative of means. 572. Vultis et: ‘or would you.' mecum pariter : ‘on equal terms with me.' 573. Urbem quam : for urbs quam. See note on quae litora, l. 157.

574. mihi: see note on ulli, l. 440. agetur : shall be governed' or "treated.' Note the singular instead of the plural.

575. Noto: for vento; as austris, 1. 536.

576. Adforet: H. 558, 1; LM. 712; A. 267; B. 279; G. 260; (H. 483, 2). certos: 'trusty.'

577. lustrare: “to explore. For the mood, see H. 614; LM. 968; A. 271, b; B. 331, 2; G. 423, 2, N. 2; (H. 535, II).

578. Si: “if perchance,' 'in case,' not to see if,' which would require the subjunctive. silvis, urbibus: should be joined with errat, as ablatives of place. Urbibus is taken in an indefinite sense for inhabited places.

579. animum: see note on l. 228.

581. Ardebant: 'had been desiring.' H. 535, 1; LM. 738; A. 277, b; B. 200, 4; G. 234; (H. 462, II, 2).

582. Nate dea: “O goddess born'; a frequent appellation of Aeneas, as the son of Venus.

584. Unus abest: i.e. Orontes, who was lost in the storm, ipsius ante oculos, as described in 11. 113-117.

585. dictis matris : see 11. 390, 391.
588. Restitit: 'stood revealed.'
589. Os umerosque : see note on oculos, I. 228.

590, 591. lumen Purpureum : 'the ruddy glow'; the brilliant complexion supposed to belong to the gods.

591. laetos honores : ‘sparkling beauty'; a beauty full of the joy of youth; expressing and giving joy; honores is for the singular honorem, in the sense of decus. adflarat: ‘had imparted.'

592. Quale decus : see note on I. 430. manus : “the hands (of artists).' Cf. 1. 455. aut ubi: ‘or (such beauty as appears, quale decus est) when. In works of art ivory was sometimes combined with gold or with wood (see X, 136); marble and silver also are made to appear more beautiful by contrast with a setting of gold. 594. cunctis; dative, with improvisus. 595. quaeritis : is addressed to the assembly, and not to Dido alone.

597. miserata : a participle, equivalent to a relative clause, quae miserata es; as passi, 1. 199.

598. que — que: for et- el. See note on l. 18.

599. omnium: H. 451, 2; LM. 573; A. 218, a; B. 204, 1; G. 374; (II. 399, I, 3).

600. Urbe domo socias: biddest us share thy city and thy home.' The ablative denotes that in respect to which they are made associates.

601. Non opis est nostrae : = non possumus. H. 447; LM. 557; A. 214, d; B. 198, 3; G. 366; (H. 402). nec quicquid, etc. : ‘nor (is it in the power of the Trojan race) whatever of the Trojan race exists anywhere.'

603. pios : Dido is pius in fulilling the duty of kindness and hospitality towards strangers. “If the conscientious fulfillment of duty is properly appreciated by any divinities in the universe.'

604. iustitia, mens conscia recti: refer to her scrupulous performance of such duties. For sibi and recli, see H. 451, 2, N. 2.

607. montibus : dative of reference with lustrabunt used for montium limiting convexa. See note on cui, l. 448. Trans., While the shadows move along the sides of the mountains,' i.e. as long as the sun shall pursue his diurnal course.

608. pascet: the sky or aether was supposed to feed’ the stars, or to furnish the subtle fiery element which nourished and kept them burning."

60g. tuum: see note on l. 553.

610. Quae me cumque : “whatsoever lands summon me'; whether I accept your invitation to dwell in Carthage, or go to other lands. For the tmesis, see note on l. 412.

611. Ilionea : the Greek form of the accusative in -ea is usually taken from the Ionic form -éa, but here and in III, 122, from the other Ionic form -ña.

612. Post: for posten.

613-694. Dido, having recovered from her first surprise, addresses Aeneas courteously, and immediately prepares to entertain her new guests with royal hospitality. Aeneas sends Achates to the ships, to summon Ascanius and to bring suitable presents for the queen. Venus causes Cupid to assume the form of Ascanius, while she conveys the latter to Idalium.

613. primo: 'at first '; not an adjective here. Cf. IV, 176. 614. Casu — tanto: ‘at the wonderful destiny of the man.'

616. immanibus : savage,' because inhabited by the savage Libyans. oris : see note on l. 377.

617. Dardanio : the o is retained here in scanning, and the verse is spondaic. See H. 735, 3; LM. 1131; A. 362, a ;. B. 368, 2; G. 784; (H. 610, 3).

619. Teucrum: Teucer, who was banished by his father from Salamis on his return from the Trojan war because he had not hindered or revenged the death of his brother Ajax, settled in Cyprus, which was conquered and bestowed upon him by Belus, the king of Sidon. venire : H. 618, 2; A. 336 A, N. I; G. 281, 2, N.; (H.-537, 1).

620. nova regna: he called his new city Salamis. 622. dicione : cf. 1. 236.

623. cognitus (est): H. 392; LM. 471; A. 205, d; B. 255, 2; G. 285, EXC. I; (H. 463, 1). mihi: see note on uili, l. 440.

624. Pelasgi: here for Graeci.

625. Ipse hostis : 'even he (Teucer), though an enemy'; though he had svught against the Trojans. Teucros : so called from their ancestor Teucer of Crete.

626. ortum volebat: 'gave it out,''wished it to be understood that he was descended.' Volo is sometimes used, as here, equivalent to habere volo. . 627. iuvenes: as in l. 321. tectis : dative with sucedite.

632. templis : for in templis. In the Homeric age, however, a thanks. giving sacrifice in honor of guests and strangers was offered at the famly altar, not in temples. honorem : 'sacrifice'; as in l. 49.

635. Terga : ‘bodies,' as often for corpora.

636. Munera, laetitiam: are in apposition with the foregoing accusatives. She sends these things “as presents and the enjoyment of the day'; le.

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means of enjoying the day; a hendiadys (see note on 1. 61), equivalent to “gifts for a day of enjoyment,' or 'festal-day.' Dei, 'the god of joy,' i.e. Bacchus (see IX, 337), is the better authorized Ms. reading, but A. Gellius (1X, 14, 8, see Introd., p. 25) ascribed it to the ignorance of the copyists. For the form dii, see H. 134, 2; LM. 236; A. 74, a ; B. 52, 2; G. 63, N. I. (H. 121, 1).

637. domus interior : see note on II, 483 and 487.

637, 638. domus splendida Instruitur : Servius (see Introd., p. 26) interprets as an example of prolepsis or anticipation, joining splendida in sense with instruitur rather than with the subject domus, as if it were domus instruitur ut regali luxu splendida sit. Trans., 'The house is adorned with royal wealth and splendor. For other examples of prolepsis, see l. 659, III, 236; IV, 22.

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Fig. 9. — Necklaces from Troy (1.654)
(Reprinted, by permission, from Schliemann's Ilios. Copyright, 1880, by Harper & Brothers.)

639. Arte — superbo : 'Coverlets there are, skillfully wrought and of royal purple.' Supply sunt.

640. Ingens argentum : ‘massive plate.' mensis : for in mensis. caelata
in auro: "carved on gold. The deeds of her Phoenician ancestors were
chased on the vessels of gold and silver.

642. ducta : 'transmitted' or 'derived.'
645. ferat, ducat : express the purpose of praemittit, and would require

haec: refers to all the incidents just narrated in regard to
Aeneas and his friends. ipsum: relates to Ascanius.

646. cari: carus is both subjective and objective; "that loves,' or 'that is loved.' Here it is used in the former sense, 'fond.' in Ascanio stat: ‘is fixed on Ascanius.'

648. pallam: an ample robe covering the entire person, and worn over the stola. See figure of Juno, facing p. 33. signis auroque : 'with figures of gold'; hendiadys (see note on l. 61) for signis aureis.

ut in prose.

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